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  • 6,000.00 4,000.00

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    ABSTRACT

    This study investigated the bacteriological and fungal evaluation of three commonly used herbal drugs sold in Calabar metropolis. Using standard microbiological analytical protocols, the total bacterial counts ranged from 7.3×103 to 1.2×107cfu/ml while fungal counts ranged from 6.0×103 to 1.1×107cfu/ml. The bacteria isolated includes Bacillus species, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus species, Serratia marcescens and Klebsiella pneumoniae with percentage occurrence of 100%, 66.7%, 66.7%, 66.7% 33.3%, 33.3%, 33.3%, respectively, while the fungal isolates included Fusarium sp, candida albican and Aspergillus niger with prevalence occurrence of 100%, 33.3%, and 33.3%, respectively. The bacterial and fungal isolates showed susceptibility to all the antibiotics except Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus that exhibited moderate resistance to ampicillin and cefoxitin, respectively. There is, therefore, an urgent need for implementation of routine evaluation of herbal medicines and infection control policies in Cross River state and Nigeria in general.

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background of the study
    Traditional medicine (TM) is the sum total of knowledge, skills and practices based on the theories, beliefs and experiences indigenous to different cultures, whether explicable or not (WHO, 2000). TM could be use in the maintenance of health as well as in prevention, diagnosis, improvement or treatment of physical and mental illnesses (WHO, 2000). On the other hand, herbal medicines are plant-derived materials or preparations with therapeutic or other human health benefits, which contain either raw or processed ingredients from one or more plants. In some traditions, materials of inorganic or animal origin may also be present (WHO, 2000). Herbs include leaves, stems, flowers, fruits, seeds, roots, rhizomes and barks. The use of herbs for treating various diseases predates human history and forms the origin of most of the modern medicine. Long before the advent of modern medicine, herbs were the mainstream remedies for nearly all ailments (Barakat et al., 2013)
    In the last decade, there has been a global upsurge in the use of traditional medicine (TM) and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in both developed and developing countries. Today, therefore, certain forms of traditional, complementary and alternative medicines play an increasingly important role in health care and health sector reform globally. Hence, the safety and efficacy, as well as the quality control of traditional medicine and complementary and alternative medicines have become important concerns for both health authorities and the public. Man to cure diseases and heal injuries since time immemorial (Perumalsamy and Ignaglumuthu 2000) has used plants and herbs. In recent years, interest has been renewed in the use of medicinal plants, and scientific studies are designed to explain some of the curative phenomena associated with traditional herbal remedies. Most drugs utilized by people all over the world are of plant origin (Mboto, 2009).
    Due to its intrinsic qualities, unique and holistic approaches as well as its accessibility and affordability, herbal medicines continues to be the best alternative health care available for the majority of the global population, particularly for those in the rural areas of developing countries (Mwambazi, 1996).
    The bioactive principles and mechanism of action in most herbal preparations are usually not clearly defined, and there could be possibilities of interaction with each other in solution. According to Ogbonnia et al (2010), the quality as well as the safety criteria for herbal drugs may be based on a clear scientific definition of the raw materials used for such preparation. As related by the World health Organization (WHO), herbal medicines are medications prepared from one or more herbs or plant parts (roots, stem back, seeds and or fruits).
    These preparations are often used in different forms including chewing sticks, herbal pastes, powders, herbal mixtures and suspensions and may carry a large number of microbes originating from soil usually adhering to various parts of herbs. Most of these herbal materials are prepared and sold under unhygienic conditions
    (Oluyege et al., 2008).

    1.2 Justification for the study
    Several studies have reported the isolation of microbes especially in herbal materials that are prepared and sold under unhygienic conditions (Oluyege et al., 2008, Ngari et al., 2013). These microbes exist in these herbal preparations as either potential pathogens or contaminants. Commonly reported pathogens and contaminants that are associated with herbal medicine include; Salmonella, Escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus, shigella species, fungi, viruses, protozoa, insects and other gram positive and gram negative strains of bacteria (Ngari et al., 2013). These organisms have been reported to pose serious health hazards and risk to consumers of these medicines as well as affect the quality of the products (Banerjee and Saker, 2003). In Nigeria, herbal medicines is becoming so popular and there is dearth of information in evaluation of microbial quality of these medicines especially in Cross River state.

    1.3 Aims and objectives of the research.
    This study is aimed at evaluating the bacterial and fungal qualities of three herbal medicines sold in Calabar metropolis, Cross River state Nigeria.
    The specific objectives of this research were;
    1. To determine the bacterial and fungal load present in these herbal medicines.
    2. To identify and characterize bacteria and fungi associated with herbal medicines sold in Calabar metropolis, Cross River state Nigeria, and
    3. To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of isolated bacteria and fungi for the herbal drugs.

    ABSTRACT

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  • 15,000.00 10,000.00

    Aim of the Study for this software
    The aim of this project is to design and implement a system that will automate the court routine activities for efficient and effective management of the court’s daily routine.

    Objective of the Study
    The objectives of this project study are:

    To design and implement a system that will facilitate the delivery of judgment in Nigerian court.
    To design a model that will facilitate the filing of case in Nigerian court.
    To develop an application that will keep the case record in Nigerian courts to enable easy retrieval of case files.
    To implement a system that will enable easy case management information system in Nigerian courts.
    To save time and stress of moving documents from one place to the other.

    This software is develop using Visual basic 6.0 and Microsoft Access

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  • 3,000.00 2,000.00
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    CHAPTER ONE
    INTRODUCTION
    1.1 Background of Study
    The errors associated with the existing manual method of processing of students’ results in most universities in Nigeria and Benin, including the Houdegbe North American University, Benin, makes it not only desirable but imperative that computerized approach be used to the full in measuring students’ academic progress. The manual methods being employed suffer a number of set-back. They make the process to be time-consuming and prone to errors even as they lead to late publication of examination results. Worst still, sometimes wrong grades are being entered and students’ grade point averages are computed wrongly. Consequently, the cumulative errors being generated are ultimately linked to awarding of erroneous class of degree. Some students could end up with undeserved good classes of degree, while others could be unfairly victimized, bringing about frustration. In this case, the image of the department(s) concerned and the whole University alike could become tarnished. The problem, therefore, that arises is to find a method of processing examination results that would be sufficiently accurate and reasonably timely.
    Result processing is a routine activity. Every semester in the higher institution calls for assessment of the performances of the students. This assessment usually comes in the form of examinations, tests, practical, labs, and the like. Without an assessment of the students, there will not be the need to work hard.
    Assessment takes the form of a reward system. Students are interested in a competitive environment. Tracing this to the primary and secondary school systems where the students are graded in positions; each student works very hard to make the best results. The higher institution system is no difference. At the end of each academic semester, the results of the semester academic activities are computed. The issue here is in the conversion of the levels of involvement and expertise of the students into relative figures which ranks the students.
    There are over forty (10) departments in the Houdegbe North American University, Benin (HNAUB), each having an average of over four hundred students. A simple calculation here surfaces that there are over two thousand students in Hnaub. Each of the students in every level has results to be computed. The task of result processing and other academic activities mandates the assignment of course advisers to take care of such functions.
    Result, by way of definition is the consequence of an action; the conclusion of a problem, or experiment after a period of time. At the end of each academic semester, the results of the exams, tests, practicals and labs are calculated and the grades are correspondingly computed. This is done by the various course coordinators of the courses. The next phase of the result processing process is done by the level course adviser. Each level of every department has its own dedicated course adviser. The course adviser acts on the list of results of all the students in his/her level and those of other students who sat for courses in other levels; either as borrowed courses or as carry over courses. The task ahead of the course adviser is to convert the grades of the students submitted to him into grade equivalents.

    1.2 Statement of the Problem
    The problems posed by manual methods of result processing are enormous. The situation is the same in Houdegbe North American and Uninvesity, Benin correspondingly, Information Management Technology department. The issues here can only be addressed by employing upper hands. The effort expended in the process of registration of students and computation of their examination results is tedious. Quite worrisome is the fact that these processes are carried out every academic session, putting the operators in a continuous and ever demanding cycle.
    The computation of examination results and registration of students is obviously an object-centered activity, the student being the dominant object in this case. Hence, the need to evolve not just a computerized process, but an object-oriented software design and implementation that will effectively and efficiently capture all the important objects associated with the registration and examination result processing within the University and the interactions among the objects. This genuine and noble desire necessitated the design and implementation of a result processing application for a course program, with Information Management Technology as the organization in question.
    So many softwares have been developed and even sold worldwide to solve this problem but most of such softwares have been discovered to be inefficient. Another problem which these softwares have posed is non-user specific problems as they are rather general use softwares, than specific use softwares. Students as well has researched and developed their own software but they could not give or develop error free software that will assist in result generation, automated course registration to keep or build a database of results in the university that will facilitate students’ transcripts.
    This problem has been procrastinating the results of graduating or graduated students hence, delay in leaving for the National Youth Service when they ought to have gone. This problem has dominated the system especially in the department of case study, computer science Department.
    To arrest this problem, there is a need to develop software that is accurate, error free, and that can run on the web (using real time) in order to give students access to their results as at when needed. This will also help reduce the queue usually seen at the course advisers’ office during result’s check and in turn tackle the so much stress on both exams and record and the management in Universities.

    1.3 Aim Of The Study
    The aim of this study is to design and implement of mobile application result checker for the school of computer science mathematics, information and technology.

    1.4 Objectives of the Study
    The objective of this project is to design and develop system that can:
    1. Provide a reliable solution to result processing that is corruption free.
    2. Ensure that normal credit loads in line with the school is maintained.
    3. Provide a software that will generate result that is accurate, timely and error free.
    4. Maintain a reliable database for storage of students’ records and update as the need arises.
    5. Restrict unauthorized access to the students’ record.
    6. Provide an advice engine based on the current status of the student advices the student result which on the next course of action to take in his/her academic pursuit.
    7. Produce relevant report of students’ general performance at the end of every academic semester, presented in the form of tables, charts and graphs, etc.

    1.5 Significance of the Study
    The project work will help in a good number of ways to ease the delay in manual examination processing. The software developed will help schools management to achieve efficient Information Management System. There are many other advantages, and some of them are listed below.
    1. It saves time during examination processing result.
    2. Database for course registration and examination result is maintained.
    3. References are very fast and delays can be avoided.
    4. It allows easy access to stored information.
    5. It provides a medium for the students to interact and discuss their results and the way forward of their academics.
    6. It helps in reducing the costs such as labor, inventory and stationery.
    7. Generation of accurate results/information on transactions is ensured.
    8. It guarantees the students unshared access to their individual results.

    1.6 Scope of the Study
    This research work will concentrate on course registration and result processing and checking system, as well as course adviser functions provided in an automated format which enables the course adviser, the Head of Department, seen here as the enroller and the validator respectively, as well as the student to interact with the application effectively. This work will also use computer science department as the organization in question for its development. The system developed will only cover registration of students, result processing and statement of result, advising functions, course creation and mapping and security of students’ record functions.

    1.7 Limitations of Study
    In the course of this design, some factors led to constraints in the effective actualization of the project.
    1. The duration for this project was too small for the study to be carried out in a more complex scope. There were some other programmes like exams, to be attended to which curtailed the time spent on the project. The above constraint led to limiting the application functionalities.
    2. The limited resources available for carrying out this project posed a major constraint. There was much work to be done but, limited cash was available. The available related materials in this research topic were insufficient and some of the respondents were unwilling to supply useful information.
    3. There is not sufficient knowledge in the programming languages chosen for this work which led to involving upper hands at an expense.

    1.7 Definition of Technical Terms
    Information System: It is a collection of procedures, people, instructions and equipment to produce information in a useful form.

    Technology: It is study of techniques or process of mobilizing Resource (such as information) for accomplishing objectives that benefits man and his environment.

    Information: Information can be defined as the process of gathering, transmitting, receiving, storing and retrieving data or several items put together to convey a desired message.

    Computer Network: Computer Network is a system that connects two or more computers together using a communication link.

    Databases: A systematically arranged collection of computer data, structured so that it can be automatically retrieved or manipulated. It is also called databank.

    File Transfer: Any kind of computer file can be sent via the Internet from one Internet user to another. Table of accounts on spreadsheets, design by a graphic artists, music sound files etc, can all be exchanged in this way.
    Database Table(s): It is a collection rows and columns where in the database which are used for logical data storage and retrieval in the database.

    Database Management System (DBMS): This is the software that performs the task of database management.

    Transaction: This is a group of operation (database operations) that must be executed as one.

    Encapsulation: This is the concept of hiding specific behavior and attributes from a user.

    Programming Language: This is the language used to give instructions to the computer.

    Structure Query Language (SQL): This is a very high level programming language that is used to query the database

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  • 8,000.00 6,000.00

    Price: 6000 Naira (MSC)

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.0 Synopsis
    The operation of any company is based on the contribution of staff either from executive level or operational level. For example, in a factory, the shop floor operation required full attendance of engineer, technical staff, and operation level staff before they start the operation. Therefore, the attendance system provides the information of the student existing to a particular lecture. Their information will help them to plan the operation and do any changes for any absent.
    Attendance can be defined as the action of being present at one place or event
    [1] For example present to somebody party or present to work in office. Attendance is one of the important factors in many institutions and organization that need to be followed by people
    [2]. Staff attendance tracking is a common practice in almost all organizations or institution. It is highly important for one organization in order to maintain their performance standards.
    [3]. In the previous implementation, there are various types of attendance systems that have been developed. For example: attendance systems by using pen and paper, using database, and also biometrics. These implementations still can cause lots of problems such as providing incorrect information to the users.
    The purpose of this integrated attendance system is to computerized the traditional way of record attendance. Besides that it is used to create a combination of various types of attendance where users can either choose to use smart card or fingerprint technologies. For example, by using combination of both smart card and fingerprint technologies to record workers attendance, the attendance system can be strongly protected and the inappropriate manner of behaviors can be eliminated. If one of the devices is malfunction, the others can acts as backup.

    1.1 Problem statement
    For organization that use pen and paper to record their attendance, with the large number of staff in the organization, this will be a problem to the record keeper to keep track on staff attendance because by using pen and paper, one staff can help other staff to sign his/her attendance even though they do not go to work or either the staff are late to work.
    With the existing approach, there is only a single input device use to record the student attendance either using smart card or fingerprint. If one university would like to have 2 different input of attendance system to provide interchangeable function, they will need to purchase both systems which will be costly. In addition, if one day the single input device suddenly breakdown, the attendance cannot be recorded.
    Therefore, there is a need to develop an integrated attendance system with various type of input to fulfill student needs and requirements because it is flexible and it can bring convenient to the organization to summarize and manipulate staff information. Lack of effectiveness in their methods of record keeping, further compounds the problem.

    1.2 Aims and objectives of the study
    The aim of the study is to design and implementation of staff attendance system using finger print.
    The objectives of this project are:
    i. To develop an Integrated Staff Attendance System (ISAS) by using fingerprint technologies.
    ii. To provide the potential users with the customize option of using both input device.
    iii. To develop an algorithm for the student processing towards attendance system

    1.3 Justification for the study
    The use of staff attendance system is very important because of human being proneness to error, leaving the staff to write down their names might not be accurate as staff can even write attendance for their fellow staff and their handwriting legibility can be a case when compiling the attendance record at the end of the semester.
    The official in charge of attendance collation is highly favored by this system because use of pen and paper as a means of collating staff attendance will leave the official in charge with numerous sheets of paper, which will be hectic as he/she has to start comparing several sheets to record the average attendance for just a staff. The official is going to waste a lot of time compiling the attendance percentage at the end of the semester, mistake can creep in due to the large volumes of papers.
    Successful implementation of this project mean the student attendance credibility can be queried or put to test anytime, and result are produce fast and accuracy, without stress.

    1.4 Methodology
    An embedded system is a combination of softwareandhardwareto performadedicatedtask.Someof the maindevicesusedinembeddedproductsaremicroprocessorsand microcontrollers.In thisproject,afingerprint based attendance systemusingmicrocontrollerisimplemented.Microcontroller forms thecontrolling module and it istheheartofthedevice.Initiallythefingerprintofusers andthatwillbeverifiedwiththefingerprintthatwasgivingatthetime of registration.
    Iftheboth fingerprints arematchedthen, it will be confirmed that the person should be mark present.Thetaskrelated instructions areloadedintothe microcontrollerwhichisprogrammedusingembeddedlanguage.The systemconsistsofMicrocontrollerUnit,Fingerprintmodule,LCD,aUSBsystem module to interact with the pc for reading and writing of dataand microcontrollerthatcollectdatafromthefingerprintmodule.Asitisbasedonthefingerprintauthentication thereisnochanceone student writing the name of is friend.
    AfingerprintreadershowninFigure.3.1isthe inputdevice.Theflashmemorycomprisesoffingerprint templateandotherdetailsofthe person.
    This is the design phase of the Biometric based Staff Attendance Register Software. It involved decomposing thewhole system into modules and defining the relationship among the constituent modules. Top down design approachwas employed which involved dividing the system into subsystems or modules and each subsystem being furtherdivided into even smaller subs. This process of division is repeated until each module is sufficiently small enough tobe conveniently coded (implemented) as an independent entity that performs a clearly defined operation.

    Figure 1.1 Fingerprint Reader

    1.4.1 Model Formulation
    _ Fingerprint Acquisition
    At the enrolment phase, the fingerprints would be acquired such that the print of the texture of the first finger (that isthe pointing finger) is obtained twice and analyzed for processing. The fingerprint samples would be stored in aMicrosoft SQL Server database with the aid of an interfaced fingerprint reader/scanner. The fingerprints are then tobe saved inside a database to cater for subsequent need for the various fingerprint analysis during matching.

    _ Fingerprint Feature Extraction
    In any fingerprint image, there are dark lines which are called ridges, whereas the spaces in between those darklines are called valleys. Ridges and valleys often run in parallel but there are two things that happen to any print. It iseither, the ridges and the valleys terminate or they bifurcate. Termination of a fingerprint is simply the situation inwhich a particular ridge ends abruptly while bifurcation is the situation by which the line splits into two. In the analysisof the fingerprint images during matching (authentication), the pattern of the fingerprint exhibits one or more regionswhere the ridge lines assume distinctive shapes; which are: loop, delta and whorl. If the fingerprint scan matches anyone stored in the database at the enrolment phase, the staff with the fingerprint will be updated as present for the
    lecture.
    _ Minutiae Extraction
    Each fingerprint images in the database after enrolment will be processed in order to extract a unique feature calledminutiae. It is this unique feature that will be compared at the (authentication) matching phase. This requires thefingerprint grey-scale image to be converted into a binary image. The binary images obtained by the process aresubmitted to a thinning stage which allows for the ridge line thickness to be reduced to one pixel. Finally, a simpleimage scans allows the detection of pixels that correspond to minutiae through the pixel-wise computation ofcrossing number.

    1.4.2 Workflow Development
    1.4.3 Model Evaluation
    The system consists of two main modules (phases); the enrolment module and the authentication (the attendance taking) module. The enrolment module can be referred to as the registration module. It starts with the taking offingerprint using the scanner, the fingerprint key features are extracted and the template gotten is then checked toverify if it has been taken before or not. If the fingerprint template is identified, the execution process will go back tothe line of code where fingerprint is being extracted, informing the user that ‘fingerprint template has been collectedbefore’. If the fingerprint template is not found, then it will be saved. This ensures that no single user can be enrolled(registered) more than once. Every successful fingerprint template is enrolled, and user’s details are saved alongsidewith the template. Figure ii depicts the enrollment flow process.
    The authentication module verifies a registered (enrolled) user and allows the attendance to be taken. Itstarts with the taking of the finger print; the template of the finger print taken is extracted. The system goes ahead toverify the template to check if it has been pre stored (registered), so that it can match it with an existing templatetaken. If no finger print template has been pre-stored (matching unsuccessful), the system displays “PleaseRegister”. But if the matching is successful, the attendance status for the day is checked. If the fingerprint hasalready been matched for the lecture period, it displays. “Attendance Already Taken for period” and if not it goesahead to take the Staff’s Attendance. This ensures that the attendance cannot be taken more than once by the samestaff for the same lecture. The Admin views and generates reports of the staff using the attendance register of everyuser according to the time table. Figure iii depicts the authentication flow process.

    1.5 Scope and limitation of the study
    The scope of this study is to design and implement staff attendance system using finger print reader a case study of organization in Nigeria. The limitations of this study are:
    1. Unavailability of academic materials
    2. Transport problem
    3. Lack of financial support
    4. Lack of Time
    5. Unavailability of programming software such as vb.Net, and Crystal report

    1.6 Glossary of Operational Terms
    Management: It is the co-ordination of all the resources of an organization through the process of planning organization, directing and controlling.
    System: Physical component of a computer that is used to perform certain task.
    Data: Numbers, Text or image which is in the form suitable for Storage in or processing by a computer, or incomplete Information.
    Information: A meaning full material derived from computer data by organizing it and interpreting it in a specified way.
    Input: Data entered into a computer for storage or processing.
    Output: Information produced from a computer after processing.
    Information System: A set of interrelated components that collect (or retrieve), process, store and distribute information to support decision making and control in an organization.
    Computer: Computer is an electronic device that accepts data as Input, processes data and gives out information as output to the user
    Software:-Software is set of related programs that are designed by the manufacturer to control the hardware and to enable the computer perform a given task.
    Hardware: -Hardware is a physical part of a computer that can be touched, seen, feel which are been control by the software to perform a given task.
    Database: -Database is the collection of related data in an organized form.
    Programming:- programming is a set of coded instruction which the computers understands and obey.
    Technology: -Technology is the branch of knowledge that deals with the creation and use technical and their interrelation with life, society and the environment, drawing upon such as industrial art, engineering, applied science and pure science.
    Algorithm: A set of logic rules determined during the design phase of a data matching application. The ‘blueprint’ used to turn logic rules into computer instructions that detail what step to perform in what order.
    Application: The final combination of software and hardware which performs the data matching.
    Data matching database: A structured collection of records or data that is stored in a computer system.
    Data cleansing: The proactive identification and correction of data quality issues which affect an agency’s ability to effectively use its data
    Data integrity: The quality of correctness, completeness and complain with the intention of the creators of the data i.e. ‘fit for purpose’.
    Enrollment: The process of an individual to enroll in an agency. Involves the initial collection of identifying details

    1.8 projects Organization
    This project consists of five (5) chapters. Chapter 1 discusses on the introduction of the system. The purpose of this chapter is to briefly explain about the overview system that is developed. This chapter also supply with the problem statements, objectives and the scope of the study.
    Chapter 2 is literature review. As the name given the purpose of this chapter is to reviews the previous research works which was conducted by other researches. All the relevant journal, thesis and books taken from those researches will be discussed in detail.
    Chapter 3 is research methodology;this chapter reveals the techniques, algorithms and related software that will be used for the project development. Besides that, it will also discuss about the process flow in detail of this research. Chapter 4 is implementation and testing. This chapter documenting all the process that involved in developing this system and the testing made to the system. Lastly, chapter 5, the conclusion concludes and come out with a summary about the developed project.

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    Estate Agent/property management system is a complete end to end solution to cover all aspects of Estate day to day activity and property buying and selling procedure for large and small organization. The objective of this work is to develop and design an e-property management system that will automate all processes of property management with the aim of making information concerning properties available on demand. I was motivated by the problems associated with  the manual property management such as: loss of property documents, sales of property with fake property documents, conspiracy of fraudsters with staff of ministry of lands as well as the numerous litigations and other violent acts associated with manual property management. The software engineering methodology adopted is structured system analysis and design methodology. The expected result is to develop a property management software that will guarantee the effective and efficient management of properties that can reduce illegal practices associated with property management.

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    ABSTRACT

    This Thesis explores human resources development and utilization, in Enugu State civil service,
    an activity that has been neglected in the public sector. It presents answers to the following
    questions. The intent is to provide a useful basis for change in the human resource management
    culture in the civil service of Nigeria. The theoretical framework used in the study is Human
    Relations Theory that are in line with human research development and utilization. Most
    importantly, its objectives to the government agencies and organizations.
    In pursue of the above goals of this study, the researcher distributed and administered
    questionnaires to the employees of Enugu State Civil Service. The responses from the
    questionnaires were analyzed using simple percentage and frequency tables for proper
    clarification. From the analysis and interpretation of hypotheses, the researcher found out that
    many problems/factors affected the human resources development and utilization in Enugu State
    Civil Service such as: poor coordination among the agencies charged with the responsibility of
    human resources development, incompetent professionals and corruption. Based on these
    findings, the researcher has made the following recommendations.
    1) The agencies charged with the responsibility of human resources planning must
    continuously monitor and; evaluate outcomes from the services of workers in order
    to know their level of performance/productivity, where changes should be made and
    then plan better strategy for improving future performance. These are important
    corrective measures. The purpose of evaluating a training programme is to
    determine its effectiveness. A training programme is effective only if it has gathered
    in the evaluation process will enable the civil service to improve on programme for
    future trainees and also enable the trainers appraise themselves in terms of method
    and content.
    2) Another strategy for improving human resource development and utilization is by
    providing the agencies involved in human resources development with sufficient fund
    to make the process productive. This is because, every aspect of human resource
    development requires fund. For example, the training and development of human
    resources require money. Therefore, government should allocate sufficient fund to
    Enugu State Civil Service to enable them plan effectively for their human resources
    development, which in turn will improve the economy of the state.
    3) Adequately equipped training centres and facilities should be provided across the
    length and breadth of the country, so that different ministries should have easy
    access to obtaining training when the need arises. To properly plan and utilize
    human resources in Enugu State Civil Service, there should be provision for
    adequate training facilities, which will be used in developing human resources for
    productive services. There is no doubt that any training programmes is meaningful
    only if it enables man to be of great service to his organization. Training has its
    cardinal goals of creation of “behavioural change” in a desire direction as
    organizational needs dictates. Knowledge and skills should be designed and
    imparted on relevant employee(s) so as to affect a significant change in their job
    behaviour. According to Chandan (2007), employee training should assume the
    following specific form:
    (a) Induction and orientation course
    (b) On-the-job training
    (c) Off-the-job training
    (d) Vestibule training
    (e) Regular refreshers course in form of seminars, workshops etc.

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background to the Study
    The Human resources of an organization comprise of men and women, young and old who
    engage in the production of goods and services and who are the greatest assets of the organization
    (Ndiomu, cited in Ezeani, 2002:2). The people, in the words of Gant (1979, are the human
    resources for the supply of physical labour, technical and professional skills which are germane
    for effective and efficient planning and implementation of development policies, programmes,
    projects, and daily activities. There is no doubt that the ability of any organization or society to achieve its goals depends to a large extent on the caliber, organization and motivation of its
    human resources. As succinctly captured by Likert in Ezeani (2002:1).
    All the activities of any enterprise are initiated and determined by the persons who make up
    that institution. Plant, offices, computers, automated equipment, and all else that a modern firm
    use are unproductive except for human effort and direction.
    Similarly, Harbison cited in Ezeani (2002:1) opined that “human resources and not any other
    constitute the ultimate basis for the wealth of nations.” And according to Drucker (1978:273) “…
    good organizational structure does not by itself guarantee good performance. Human resources is as
    a fact of life of the existence, survival and development of an organization as food is to man”.
    However, these and such other statements by human resources management experts and
    practitioners alike are pointers to the importance and critical role of the human element in
    organization. Indeed, the human resources is a critical factor in the attainment of the goals of any
    organization. The ability of the human resources to contribute to the attainment of the goals of an
    organization such as the Local government depends to a great extent on how well they are
    managed.
    On the other hand, given the increasing volatile and complex socio-economic structure of our
    business organization in Nigeria, two basic factors are crucial for business success: Capital and
    Human Resources. According to Nwankwo (cited in Onah, 2007), every organization needs three
    main resources to survive. They are: financial, material and human resources. An organization needs
    money to pay it staff and to buy the essential materials or equipment for operations. Maximum
    production of services offered cannot be achieved unless the essential material resources are
    available. Of course, there is no organization without human resources. Capital, whether acquired
    through loans or from private sources, can be easier to manage and control, only when there is qualified and quality human resources. Even if an organization has got all the money and materials it
    needs, it must still find capable people to put them into effective use. Organizations, whether public
    or private, are prone to jeopardy when there is no adequate human resource and manpower planning.
    However, it is from the foregoing premise that the compelling need arises for manpower
    planning and development as a sine-qua-non for enhanced productivity. Despite available
    human/manpower, organizations in Nigeria have not been properly managed nor the available
    human resources managed adequately. This calls for strategic ways of improving human
    resource/manpower planning and its utilization to improve our economy. When organizations are not
    proper managed and are not productive, the economy of the country will be badly affected.
    Furthermore, according to the 1974 Udoji report (as quoted by Oshionebo, 2001), the public
    service must be changed and strengthened to respond effectively to the demand of development.
    They need qualified, skilled and motivated people at the right place and at the right time to achieve
    objectives, to transfer paper plan into actual achievement of all aspect of personnel management.
    It is pertinent to note that the civil service has continued to accord appreciable attention to
    proper strategies for improving manpower planning and staff development. In the wake of the
    professionalism introduced or reinforced by the 1988 Civil Service Reform, it was imperative for
    very job incumbent (holder) to possess requisite knowledge, skill and attitudinal tendencies in
    specific job activity in government service. Accordingly, we are told that in order to improve the
    economy and efficiency and raise the performance standard of employers to the minimum possible
    level of proficiency, ministries are to establish, operate and maintain programmes or plans for the
    training of employees in or under their ministry (FRN 1988).
    Government is also experiencing serious revenue shortfalls to meet its development
    objectives. Staff rationalization and other downsizing and rightsizing measures have been the consequence of revenue shortfall in both public and private sector as well as across economic subsectors.
    According to Banjiko (1996), Human resource/manpower planning, can therefore, be seen as
    the overall organization planning process by which the organization tries to ensure that it has the
    right number of persons and the right kind of people, at the right time and at the right place
    performing functions which are economically useful and which satisfy the needs of the organization
    and provide satisfaction for the individual involved.
    Well, to have the right number and quality of people requires effective strategies for human
    resource planning and sources managerial commitment. It is important for the following reasons:
    First, for any organization to achieve a reasonable degree of success, it is
    important neither to plan with excess or inadequate manpower. Human resources are
    always costly to acquire and retain, thereby making it economically difficult to justify
    keeping excess manpower. When we have excess employees, it can cause serious problem
    and even redundancy for the organization. Also, the organization cannot keep or afford to
    keep too few employees, as over-work by the available employees may retard work
    progress and lead a lot of dysfunctional behaviour on the part of employees. Effective
    strategic manpower planning and its utilization that takes into account the whole
    arrangement of potential planning factor can help to determine the right quality and kind
    of employees to keep.
    Secondly effective strategies for improving manpower planning can be useful for stabilizing
    employment level.
    Third, the need to cope with possible future changes and competitive forces in both product
    and labour market, in technology and government regulatory requirement, call for a realistic and
    effective manpower planning.
    It is pertinent to note that the Nigerian public service is the highest employer of labour in
    Nigeria. The civil service commission, both at the federal and state level, has the responsibility of
    manpower recruitment, selection and employment. Government programme and projects are
    becoming more complex and difficult, thus the necessity to plan manpower in order to meet
    challenges. In order to undertake good strategy for improving manpower planning and utilization in
    Enugu state civil service, government should, through its personnel managers, analyze from time to
    time, the various positions available, anticipate expansion of service and take cognizance of some
    factors that influence employment in the public sector. Such factors as quota system, political and
    fiscal policies of government.
    However, in the face of decreasing productivity in the public sector, the Obasanjo’s
    administration in 2006, set up a body to reform the public sector/service, especially in the
    employment of only qualified graduates. The Bureau for Public Service, head by Malam El-Rufai,
    was empowered to revive the public service to ensure effectiveness. The reform led to the
    retrenchment of about thirty thousand workers (unqualified, incompetent and dead wood) and the
    employment, training and development of about one thousand, five hundred fresh graduates with
    first class and second-class university degree.
    In fact, the central focus of this study is to interrogate how manpower training and utilization
    affects the Enugu State Civil Service.

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    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background Of Study
    The development of any nation depends to a very large extent on the calibre, organization and motivation of its human resources. In the specific case of Nigeria where diversity exerts tremendous influence on politics and administration, the capacity to increase the benefits and reduce the costs of this diversity constitutes a human resource management challenge of epic proportion in its public sector organizations. Human Resource Management (HRM) is the function within an organization that focuses on recruitment of, management of, and providing direction for the people who work in the organization. Human Resource Management can also be performed by line managers.
    Human Resource Management is the organizational function that deals with issues related to people such as compensation, hiring, performance management, organization development, safety, wellness, benefits, employee motivation, communication, administration, and training.
    Human Resource Management is also a strategic and comprehensive approach to managing people and the workplace culture and environment. Effective HRM enables employees to contribute effectively and productively to the overall company direction and the accomplishment of the organization’s goals and objectives. Human Resource Management is moving away from traditional personnel, administration, and transactional roles, which are increasingly outsourced. HRM is now expected to add value to the strategic utilization of
    employees and that employee programs impact the business in measurable ways. The new role of HRM involves strategic direction and HRM metrics and measurements to demonstrate.
    HRM covers a wide range of activities. The main area of study we will focus on will be incentives and work organization. Incentives include remuneration systems (e.g. individuals or group incentive/contingent pay) and also the system of appraisal, promotion and career advancement. By work organization we mean the distribution of decision rights (autonomy/decentralization) between managers and workers, job design (e.g. flexibility of working, job rotation), team-working (e.g. who works with whom) and information provision.
    Human resource management encompasses the traditional personnel functions of recruitment, selection, training, motivation, compensation, evaluation, discipline, and termination of employees. Each of those tasks demands particular skills. Increasingly, human resource management is being recognized for its strategic importance to organizations and jurisdictions, and is moving beyond its traditional position as a monitor of compliance. This course is designed to provide you with an understanding of the evolution of human resource management policies and practices, and how changes over time reflect shifting societal values and environmental circumstances. Our emphasis is on improving understanding of the
    historical context and current conditions of public sector HRM and developing basic skills necessary to be an effectively manage human resources.
    According to Likert (1996:112) the term human resource refers to the talents.” Thus the term connets man in relationship to the world of works. Such work involves producing things and providing services of all kinds in the social political, cultural and economic development of a nation.
    “Human resources management is simply described as the management of the human resources in an organization for optimal utilization and attainment of organizational objectives” Banjoko (1996:69) AS opined by Harbinson (1998 :213) man power refers to human beings i.e. human
    resources of an organization or nation regardless of their skill. They make
    organizations functions”. Karen (1999:89) looks at manpower as a unique
    resource. It is an indispensable means of converting all other resources to
    mankind use and benefits” How well it is used determines how well an organization performs. Human resources management takes place within
    the frame work of an organization in a purpose constrict, deliberately
    designed to achieve certain goals. The efficiency with which that organization is operated will depend to a large extent on how utilized. For a manager to be effective, the manager has to design a programme which ensures the selection and training of employees for the jobs that best suit their abilities and motivating them to exert that maximum effort for the attainment of the corporate objective.
    In the last ten years, organisations especially in Africa have been hit with the undisputable fact that the creation of competitive advantage lies in people. Organisations have increasingly recognised the potential for their people to be a source of competitive advantage. Not too long ago, so called HR functions was the preserve of „Personnel Managers‟ whose duties were to recruit and select, appraise, promote and demote. These superficial duties could be performed by any manager, it therefore never seemed necessary to employ an expert in the form of a human resource manager let alone create a whole department dedicated to HRM. Little attention was paid to human resource management issues and its impact on organisational performance. The emphasis on traditions and socio-cultural issues injected an element of subjectivity in „personnel manager‟ functions such as recruitment and selection, performance appraisal, promotion, demotion, and compensation.
    In today‟s competitive and rapidly changing business world, organisations especially in the service industry need to ensure maximum utilisation of their resources to their own advantage; a necessity for organisational survival. Studies have shown that organisations can create and sustain competitive position through management of non-substitutable, rare, valuable, and inimitable internal resources (Barney, 1991). HRM has transcended from policies that gather dust to practices that produce results. Human resource management practices has the ability to create organisations that are more intelligent, flexible and competent than their rivals through the application of policies and practices that concentrate on recruiting, selecting, training skilled employees and directing their best efforts to cooperate within the resource bundle of the organisation. This can potentially consolidate organisation performance and create competitive advantage as a result of the historical sensitivity of human resources and the social complex of policies and practices that rivals may not be able to imitate or replicate their diversity and depth.
    Lately, organisations are focused on achieving superior performance through the best use of talented human resources as a strategic asset. HRM policies or strategies must now be aligned to business strategies for organisational success. No matter the amount of technology and mechanisation developed, human resource remains the singular most important resource of any success-oriented organisation. After all, successful businesses are built on the strengths of exceptional people. HRM has now gained significance academically and business wise and can therefore not be relegated to the background or left in the hands of non-experts. Attention must be paid to the human resources organisations spent considerable time and resources to select.
    Armstrong (2009) defines Human Resource Management (HRM) as a strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organisation‟s most valued assets; that is, the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of its objectives. Moreover, Human resource management practices can be defined as a set of organisational activities that aims at managing a pool of human capital and ensuring that this capital is employed towards the achievement of organisational objectives (Wright and Boswell, 2002). The adoption of certain bundles of human resource management practices has the ability to positively influence organisation performance by creating powerful connections or to detract from performance when certain combinations of practices are inadvertently placed in the mix (Wagar and Rondeau, 2006). So if we think human resource management as just the services any manager may provide in recruiting and selecting, appraising, training and compensating employees, then we rather would have to take the backseat for those who understand the influence HRM has on corporate performance to take the centre stage. Research has recorded a positive relationship between human resource management practices and corporate performance. Thus in order to stimulate corporate performance, management is required to develop skilled and talented employees who are capable of performing their jobs successfully (Klein, 2004).
    Achieving better corporate performance requires successful, effective and efficient exploit of organisation resources and competencies in order to create and sustain competitive position locally and globally. HRM policies on selection, training and development, performance appraisal, compensation, promotion, incentives, work design, participation, involvement, communication, employment security, etc must be formulated and implemented by HRM specialist with the help of line managers to achieve the following outcomes: competence, cooperation with management, cooperation among employees, motivation, commitment, satisfaction, retention, presence, etc
    In fact, Ahmad and Schroeder (2003) found a positive influence of human resource management practices (information sharing, extensive training, selective hiring, compensation and incentives, status differences, employment security, and decentralization and use of teams) on organisational performance as operational performance (quality, cost reduction, flexibility, deliverability and commitment). In furtherance of this assertion, Sang (2005) also found a positive influence of human resource management practices (namely, human resource planning, staffing, incentives, appraisal, training, team work, employee participation, status difference, employment security) on organisation performance.
    For businesses to survive, HRM should be given its rightful place of relevance in any organisation and not left in the hands of line managers who neither have the expertise nor the time and space to carry out the enormous functions of a human resource manager.
    1.2 Statement Of Problem
    The management of any organization be it profit or non profit oriented institution or organization is often faced with one common problem. This problem normally has to do with the efficient and effective utilization of resources for the attainment and of organization goals and objectives. The set goals and objectives clearly justify the existence of any organization and therefore its realization or non-realization determines the survival or untimely death of such organization. The need to realize organizational objectives imposed on management a variety of problems which management needs to tackle from time to time. It has often been
    discovered that improper and poor management of human resources in organizations usually leads to problems such as.
    1. High labour turnover
    2. Low employee morale
    3. Lack of job satisfaction
    4. Reduced creativity and sturned growth on the part of the employee
    5. Lack of employee motivation which often result in low employee productivity and
    6. Reduce corporate profitability and threatened growth and survival
    of the organization.
    The effects of these problems on employee productivity and how it
    could be reduced or eliminated completely to enhance productivity via
    effective human resources management is what the research is set to
    achieve.
    HRM has made significant inroads into the Nigerian corporate world. It is common to see large organisations in Nigeria set up a whole department for the sole purpose of managing human resources and hire experts in the field to be in charge of HRM. The enormous benefits of properly managing human resource cannot be over emphasised. However, the majority of the local government in Nigeria are yet to catch the “HRM cold”. Inappropriate HRM policies and practices of some of these banks can be attributed to the non-existence of HRM specialists or HRM departments. Research has established significantly a positive relationship between an organisation‟s HRM practices and performance. Most of these organization do not realise the impact of properly managing its human resource and therefore leave policies in the hands of line managers and board of directors who are non-HRM experts to implement or enforce strategies, policies, processes, programmes and practices. The value of properly managing human resources is lost to such rural banks.
    Human Resource Management is extremely important for banks especially because banking is a service industry. Management of people and management of risk are two key challenges facing banks. How you manage the people and how you manage the risks determines your success in the banking business. Efficient risk management may not be possible without efficient and skilled manpower.
    Organization has been and will always be a “People Business”. Though pricing is important, there may be other valid reasons why people select and stay with a particular bank. Organization must try to distinguish themselves by creating their own niches or images, especially in transparent situations with a high level of competitiveness. In coming times, the very survival of the Organization would depend on customer satisfaction. Those who do not meet the customer expectations will find survival difficult. Organization must articulate and emphasize the core values to attract and retain certain customer segments. Values such as “sound”, “reliable”, “innovative”, “close”, “socially responsible”, “Nigerian”, etc. need to be emphasized through concrete actions on the ground and it would be the Organization human resource that would deliver this.

    1.3 Aim and Objective Of The Study
    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the perceptions of employees towards HRM practices in Beyelsa local government system and to establish the impact of such practices on organizational performance.
    The main objectives of the study are to critically assess the productivity and human resource development in Nigeria Organization with a view to:
    1) Identifying the importance of HRM to an organization in Nigeria
    2) Identifying the need for HRM in an organization
    3) Identifying problems associated with HRM in organizations.
    4) Examine the trend and techniques of HRM in organizations
    5) Reviewing the process of HRM and its impact on organization
    productivity
    6) Identifying the relationship between effective HRM and
    organizational profitability.
    7) Identifying the problems associated with HRM and prefer solutions
    to them.
    1.4 Research Questions
    1. What is the evidence to prove that work motivation and compensation contributes to the productivity of an organization?
    2. What is the evidence to prove that Ethics and Values contribute to poor productivity of an organization?
    3. What is the significant relationship to show that work attitude of workers by workers affects the productivity of an organization?
    4. What is the evidence to show recruitment and selection process of workers affects the productivity of public sector organization?
    1.5 Research Hypotheses
    The following research hypotheses are tested.
    The researcher uses hypotheses HO which is a test of no difference
    HO1: There is evidence to prove that work motivation and compensation contributes to the productivity of an organization.
    HO2: There is evidence to prove that Ethics and Values contribute to poor productivity of an organization.
    HO3: There is a significant relationship to show that work attitude of workers by workers affects the productivity of an organization.
    HO4: There is evidence to show recruitment and selection process of workers affects the productivity of public sector organization

    1.6 Significance Of Study
    Human Resource Management is the backbone of any economy production of any nation.
    HRM plays a vital role in the productivity of the Nigeria public sector organizations. It is therefore important to identify the significances of the research work which are subdivided as:
    1. The findings of this research will serve as a guide in the productivity of other public sector through their human resource.
    2. The findings of this study will enable for proper management of human resource
    which will lead to effective customer value and productivity in public sector
    organization management.
    3. It will also enhance government, private sector and general public participation
    contribution in addressing these human resource management in public sector
    organization.
    4. The study will enable me to contribute my own views and ideas on managing human resource and productivity in the civil servant of Nigeria.
    5. The study will be of immense help to other people and students who might wish to carry out other researches in the field.

    1.7 Scope Of The Study
    The work is on Productivity and human resource development in Nigeria, with Civil servant as a case. It will cover the concept of productivity; examine Human Resource Management in Public Sector, the impact of HRM on Productivity in civil servant and also the challenges of Human Resource Management in Public Sector.
    1.8 Limitations Of The Study
    In carrying out this research many factors served as constraints:
    1. The limitation of the research title as just HRM and Productivity in the Nigeria civil servant.
    2. Financial Limitation.
    3. Inadequate Time: time factor constitutes the major limitation of this research study. It relates to the fact that the time for research work was short because it was combined with lectures, studies and examination.
    4. Negative attitude of respondent: the problem facing the researcher with regards to the respondents relates to the non-cooperation and uncompromising attitude some respondents in giving

    1.9 Definition Of Terms
    (a) Document study: Ikeagwu (1998:89), a document study refers to
    the study of any written material that contains information about
    the happenings that are being studied.
    (b) Manpower: Harbinso (1998:106) refers manpower as human
    being i.e. human resources of an organization for optional
    utilization and attainment of organizational objectives.
    (c) Manpower development: According to Kennedy (1961:57) this is
    a process of acquiring and increasing the number of persons who
    have educational skills and experience, and motivation which are
    critical for economic and social development of an organization. It
    includes investment by society in education, investment by
    employer’s in training and investment by individual in time and
    money in their own development.
    (d) Productivity by (Mail, 1978:42) is seen as reaching the highest
    level of performance with the least expenditure of resources. It
    represents the output of goods and services which can be obtained
    from a given input indices as manpower const/unit of output,
    manpower cost as a ratio of sales, per employee and contribution
    per employee. Internal and external either through reduction in number of mechanization by Bedium (1987:80).
    (e) Training: Is defined as discipline and instruction which improve
    character through exercises to achieve objectives or goals
    efficiently. Rom Herzog (1977:102).
    (f) Staff appraisal: Refers to critical performance appraisal it
    plays important role in determine who has potential for
    development (Banjoko, 1996:46). Each manager or head of
    department filling a form over viewing certain areas of
    performance of the subordinates normally carries it out. The form
    which each manager is expected to complete in respect of the staff
    has various columns for recording salient aspects of an employee’s
    contribution over a period of twelve months.
    (g) Compensation what the employees receive in exchange for their
    contribution to the organization Kertk, (1996:8).
    (h) Manpower Plan: Is action steps to meet manpower need. It is
    specific action plan or blue prints for bridging the gap between the
    forecast and the inventory to be met as a result of changes in the
    existing workforce. Specific plans will have to be developed for the
    recruitment training and transfer of the necessary personnel. Karek,
    (1999:102).

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    ABSTRACT

    Globally, it is expected that banks should play vital roles in financing economic
    activities as their contribution at ensuring sustainable economic growth and
    development. The intermediary role of banks can foster economic growth through
    raising of savings, improving efficiency of loan-able funds and promoting capital
    accumulation. In Nigeria, the banking industry as well as the entire economy assumed
    a new dimension in September 1986 when the then Military government introduced
    the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP). Expectedly, this restructuring brought
    certain changes not only to the banking system but also the entire economy of
    Nigeria. However, whether continuation of policies allied to the programme has
    increased access to loan-able funds through the intermediation functions of banks is
    still contentious. It is against this background that this study examined the impact of
    bank credit on economic growth in Nigeria from 1987 to 2012, and specifically
    sought to evaluate the impact of bank credits advanced to the private sector on
    Nigerian economic growth, ascertain the effect of bank credits extended to the public
    sector on Nigerian economic growth and ascertain the impact of the aggregate bank
    credits to the private and the public sectors on the Nigerian economy. The study
    adopted the ex-post facto research design and times series data were collated from the
    Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin and Annual Reports. The OLS regression
    statistic was used to test the hypotheses stated. The estimated regression results
    indicate that private sector credits, public sector credits and the aggregate bank credits
    to the private and the public sectors impact positively and significantly on economic
    growth over the period of the study. The study concludes that for the Nigerian
    economy to grow, policy frameworks that favour more credits to the private sector of
    the Nigerian economy with minimal interest rate to stimulate economic growth should
    be pursued by government. This will assist in making more loan-able funds available
    for investment into the real sectors of the economy. The study, therefore, recommends
    among others that policies on public sector borrowing and spending should be
    reviewed in order to discourage gross unproductive “white elephant” investments and
    more credits channeled into subsectors with more linkage effects such as agriculture,
    manufacturing, energy and infrastructural development.

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
    Globally, banks in developing countries are expected to play vital and
    effective roles in financing their economic projects and activities as their contribution
    in ensuring sustainable economic growth.
    Theoretical discussions about the importance of credit development and the
    role that the banking industry plays in economic growth have occupied a key position
    in the literature of development finance.
    According to Osada and Saito (2010), financial or credit development can
    foster economic growth by raising savings, improving efficiency of loan-able funds
    and promoting capital accumulation. Banking industry credit in Nigeria assumed a
    new dimension and was transformed by the recapitalization and consolidation of
    banks which restructured them for better performance. Access to bank credit or
    financing can be said to improve commensurately in response to competition and the
    healthy sate of soundness the banks attained. Availability of credit allows firms to
    increase production, output and efficiency and in turn increases the profitability of
    banks through interest earned (Agada, 2010).
    The role of credit in economic growth has been recognized as credits are
    obtained by various economic agents to enable them meet operating expenses
    (Nwanyanwu, 2008). Furthermore, according to Ademu (2006), the provision of
    credit with sufficient consideration for the sector’s volume and price system is a way
    of achieving economic growth through self–employment opportunities. While
    highlighting the role of credit to the growth of any economy, he further explained that
    credit can be used to prevent an economic activity from total collapse in the event of
    unforeseen circumstances.
    The debate on the intermediary role of banks in the economic development has
    dominated many discussions in literature. However, there seem to be general
    consensus that the role of intermediary role of banks helps in boosting economic
    growth and development. Akintola (2004) identifies banks’ traditional roles to include
    financing of agriculture, manufacturing and syndicating of credit to productive sectors
    of the economy. When the banking industry discharges these important functions satisfactorily the outcome would be that the economic growth, as proxied by the
    Gross Domestic Product (GDP), will improve commensurately.
    Akpansung and Babalola (2008) have stated that the central Bank of Nigeria
    has been seen to be playing a leading and catalytic role by using direct control not
    only to control overall credit expansion but also to determine the proportion of bank
    loans and advances to “high priority sector” and “other”. According to them, this
    sectoral distribution of bank credits is often meant to stimulate the productive sectors
    and consequently lead to increased economic growth in the country. Citing Driscoll
    (2004), they opine that financial development can foster economic growth by raising
    savings, improving allocative efficiency of loanable funds and promoting capital
    accumulation. Arguing along this path, Jayaratne and Strahan (1996) maintain that
    well-developed financial markets are necessary for overall economic advancement of
    less developed and emerging economies.
    1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
    There still remains a gap in understanding the causal relationship between
    banking industry credit and economic growth in developing economies. And
    particularly, little studies have been done to find out the impact the various types of
    deposit money bank credits have on the growth of national economies. The influence
    of such types of credit (like those advanced to the public sector and the private sector)
    on economic growth has received little interest from researchers. Tuuli (2002) posits
    that although there have been numerous empirical studies on the determinants of
    growth in transition economies the relationship between bank credits and economic
    growth, however, has largely been ignored. Thus, studying the impact of the deposit
    money bank credits on the growth of the Nigeria economy has become very
    necessary. And until this vacuum is filled, the unavoidable questions on the study will
    remain unanswered.
    Generally, economic growth has long been considered an important goal of
    economic policy with substantial body of research dedicated to explaining how this
    goal can be achieved. But unfortunately, such concerted efforts in both researchers
    and policies have yielded no meaningful result. The questions, therefore, remain why
    is it so? And what practical measures should be taken to plug the situation?
    Central Bank of Nigeria (2009) notes that flow of credit to the priority sectors
    fell short of prescribed targets and failed to impact positively on investment, output and domestic price level. Certainly, these comments have triggered questions on the
    effectiveness and productivity of bank credits on the Nigerian economy. In similar
    perspective, Taiwo and Abayomi (2011) note that the justification of public sector
    credits is for the provision of infrastructural facilities, which will consequently drive
    economic growth. However, they further posit that the effects of such government
    spending on economic growth are still an unresolved issue theoretically as well as
    empirically.
    1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
    The general objective of this study is to ascertain the impact of deposit money
    bank credits on Nigeria’s economic growth. In line with this, the specific objectives of
    the study include the following:
    1. To evaluate the impact of bank credits advanced to the private sector on the
    Nigerian economic growth.
    2. To ascertain the effect of bank credits extended to the public sector on
    Nigerian economic growth.
    3. To ascertain the impact of the aggregate bank credits to the private and public
    sectors on the Nigerian economy.
    1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
    This study is based on the following research questions:
    (1) How far has bank credit to the private Sector influenced Nigeria’s economic
    growth?
    (2) To what extent has bank credit to the public sector affected economic growth
    in Nigeria?
    (3) To what extent have aggregate bank credits to the private and public sectors
    influenced Nigeria’s economic growth?
    1.5 HYPOTHESES OF THE STUDY
    The hypotheses of this study are as follows:
    Hypotheses One
    HO: Bank credits to the private sector do not have a significant positive effect on
    Nigeria’s economic growth.
    Hypotheses Two
    HO: Bank credits to the public sector negatively and significantly affect Nigeria’s
    economic growth.
    Hypotheses Three
    HO: Aggregate bank credits to the private and public sectors do not have a
    significant positive effect on Nigeria’s economic growth.
    1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
    The study will focus on the impact of banking industry credit on economic
    growth in Nigeria over the period 1987-2012. Bank credits as shall be used in this
    study are credits advanced by the deposit money banks in Nigeria.
    Types of bank credits to be captured will include private and public sector
    credits, while economic growth shall be proxied by the real Gross Domestic product
    (RGDP).
    In justification for the choice of the base year, it is worthy to note that in
    Nigeria, the Nigerian economy assumed a new dimension in September 1986 when
    the military government introduce the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP). The
    emphasis of the programme was deregulation of the economy, which was aimed at
    curtailing government participation in the economy. As a result, this restructuring
    brought radical changes not only to the banking system but also the entire economy of
    Nigeria. Therefore, it becomes necessary for our purpose to use 1987 as our base year
    bearing in mind the overwhelming expectations with respect to the anticipated result
    the programme would bring.
    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
    The study will be of immense benefit to the following:
    • Bankers: The study will enhance their understanding of the relationships
    existing between bank credits and economic growth. This will go a long way
    in enabling them carry out efficient financial intermediation function bearing
    in mind how it will impact on economic growth.
    • Regulators of the Financial Industry: When economic growth is of the essence,
    they will find this research relevant in their policy strategies, and regulatory
    prerogatives aimed at fostering sustainable economic growth and building
    efficient financial sector development.
    • Investors: Both foreign and indigenous investors in the Nigerian economy will
    stand to take advantage of the gift of this study to already existing body of
    knowledge. The study will sharpen their understanding of causal relationships
    between financial development and economic growth. When they understand
    the relevance of bank credits to increase in productivity, it will enable them
    make rational decisions in obtaining funds at a price and amount that will
    serve their needs.
    • The Government: different levels of government will find this study useful
    especially policy implementation, enactment of laws and making
    pronouncement that will promote economic growth.
    • Researchers: other researchers will find this study very useful since it will add
    to the existing knowledge. Such researchers and students who wish to carry
    out a related study will have to use it as a research material.

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    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background of the Study
    The process of creating and disseminating information via electronic means including email and via the Web is electronic publishing. Electronically published materials may originate as traditional paper publishing or may be created specifically for electronic publishing. It is also known as: e-publishing, web publishing and internet publishing Kist (1989) defined electronic publishing as “the application by publishers of a computer aided process, by which they find, capture, shape, store and update information content in order to disseminate it to a chosen audience” From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, electronic publishing includes the digital publication of e-books and electronic articles, and the development of digital libraries and catalogues. A popular electronic encyclopedia, Grolier Electronic Publishing, 1995.
    The information technology has changed the way that information is stored and disseminated and has threatened the traditional approaches to the library and its services. The digital revolution has taken on the world of publishing also. Now paperless publishing or electronic publishing is gaining more prominence.
    In the changing scenario, libraries and librarians will have to play a crucial role in handling conventional and electronic resources. Thus the era of electronic publishing has begun affecting library and information professionals. The ultimate goal of electronic publishing is to provide fast and easy access to the information contained in the objective publications with simple, powerful search and retrieval capabilities.
    Thus, e-publishing can be used effectively in the context of Dr. S.R. Ranganathan’s fourth law “Save the time of user” for many purposes. The U.G.C Infonet E-Jounrnal Consortium is a unique ICT programme for facilitating free electronic access to scholarly academic databases and journals to 100 universities
    is the largest academic network in the world.
    Electronic Publishing
    It is basically a form of publishing in which books, journals and magazines are being produced and stored electronically rather than in print. These publications have all qualities of the normal publishing like the use of colours, graphics and images and they are much convenient also. It is the process for production of typeset quality documents containing text, graphics, pictures, tables, equations etc. it is used to define the production of any that is digitized form.
    Electronic Publishing = Electronic Technology + Computer Technology + Communication Technology + Publishing
    Kist (1989) defined electronic publishing as “the application by publishers of a computer aided process, by which they find, capture, shape, store and update information content in order to disseminate it to a chosen audience” From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, electronic publishing includes the digital publication of e-books and electronic articles, and the development of digital libraries and catalogues.
    A popular electronic encyclopedia,Grolier Electronic Publishing, 1995 defines electronic publishing as:
    l The term E-publishing refers more precisely to the storage and retrieval of information through electronic communications media. It can employ a variety of formats and technologies, some already in widespread use by businesses and
    general consumers and others still being developed. E-publishing technology can be classified into two general categories:
    l. one in which information is stored in a centralized computer source and delivered to the users by a telecommunications system, including online database services and videotext represents the most active area in E publishing today, and,
    2. another in which the data is digitally stored on a disk or other physically deliverable medium.
    1.2 Statement of the Study
    The invention of printing technology in mid- 15th century revolutionized the production of books in printed form. Publication of books and journals on magnetic media microfilms and microfiche- followed suit in the 1930s. In fact, space problems, which the libraries were facing, led to the use of magnetic media publication of books. But this media could not find acceptance of their users due to various factors such as strain on eyes, cumbersome retrieval of information, etc. Meanwhile computing technology was developed in 1960s, and with it, some time later towards the end of 20th century, were invented other media such as optical discs, digital versatile discs for recording of information.
    The 21st Century Electronic Publishing is basically a form of publishing in which books, journals and magazines are being produced and rendering journals a less than ideal format for disseminating current research. In some fields such as astronomy and some parts of physics, the role of the journal in disseminating the latest research has largely been replaced by preprint repositories. However, scholarly journals still play an important role in quality control and establishing scientific credit. In many instances, the electronic materials uploaded to preprint repositories are still intended for eventual publication in a peer-reviewed Journal. There is statistical evidence that electronic publishing provides wider dissemination. A number of journals have, while retaining their peer review process, established electronic versions or even moved entirely to electronic Publication. Electronic publishing is increasingly popular in works of fiction as well as with scientific articles. Electronic publishers are able to provide quick gratification for late-night readers, books that customers might not be able to find in standard book retailers E-Book format and books by new authors that would be unlikely to be profitable for traditional publishers. While the term “electronic publishing” is primarily used today to refer to the current offerings of online and web-based publishers, the term has a history of being used to describe the development of new forms of production, distribution, and user interaction in regard to computer-based production of text and other interactive media. The impact of electronic publishing on library collections, services and administration is complex. There are, however, many good usable solutions that libraries can learn from each other. No one needs to recreate the wheel to cope with e-publications. How the advent and increasing presence of electronic publishing will impact the people who will read them may ultimately be of more importance than what we will do with the machines, the storage media or the delivery mechanism.
    The most recent trend in the book industry is the development of electronic books (or E-Books), which has the potential to be the most for-reaching change since Guntenberg’s invention.
    1.3 Aim and Objective of the Study
    The aim and objective of this study is to analyse the impact of E-publishing in digital era in our society and also examining and investigate how E-publishing improve the publishing of article, journal and other written content by scholar.
    1.4 Significance of the Study
    Projects provide a flexible framework for engaging students in exploring curricular topics and developing important 21st century skills, such as communication, teamwork, and technology skills. In addition, students are motivated by the fun and creative format and the opportunity to make new friends around the world. For this project will help in adding new content to body of knowledge and help others for further study.

    1.5 Research Question
    1. what is the impact of E-publishing in this digital era.
    2. How did E-publishing improve the publishing of journal and other written content.
    1.6 Research Methodology
    This study shall majorly be constituted of articles culled from newspapers, journals, write-ups, opinions of authors and jurists and internet materials. This is due to the newness of this topic. However, some textbooks from some notable authors will also be considered.
    1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study
    The scope of this study is centred on the impact of E-publishing in digital era. In pursing this investigation and study, lots of impediments and obstruction were encountered as the research progressed. All these impediments brought about a conspicuous clause with the research work. They include, time constraint and financial conditions. Time was also limited to the researcher in carrying out the study effectively and efficiently. Financial condition prevailing within the economic system was a serious impediment. This includes transportation fare to and from school to get material. Also that of extracting the essential information either through printing or photocopying of relevant materials. Finance, thus contributed immensely to limit the entire scope of the research.
    Although all these obstructions were envisaged and experienced, efforts were made to carry on with the research to achieve the expected and desired result.

    1.8 Definition of Terms
    Electronic Books (E-Books): The book is quiet popular document to meet the academic needs of user community. Publishing a book electronically is to achieve quick publishing and dissemination of information. A book may not have contemporary value that a journal has but it certainly has an archival and reference value.

    Electronic Periodicals: Electronic Periodicals are accessible to all users regardless of geographic location. Anyone in the world with services and the proper computer software and browser services can access online journals.

    Electronic Database: With the emergence of computers and communication technologies the strength of academic information system in the development of modern database has taken new shape. The holding of the academic library database consisting of books, periodicals, reports and theses can be converted to electronic form that allows access for public use through digital networks. The online electronic library card catalog (OPAC) shows how information could be published and that enable user to search the document with various access points like author, title, subjects.

    Electronic Publishing on CD-ROM: CD-ROM has provided new dimension for information storage and retrieval. Publishing information mainly abstracting sources are quiet common in CD-ROM. Although much of the work on e-journals has concentrated on distribution via the Internet, there has been some work on CD-ROM as well.

    Print-on-Demand (POD): Print-on-Demand is a new method for printing books. It is a mix of electronic and print publishing. The book is held by the publisher in electronic form and is printed out in the hard copy form only on order. This method helps free publishers from the process of doing a traditional print run of several thousand books at a time.

    Digital Content: Digital Content Generally refers to the electronic delivery of fiction that is shorter than book-length, nonfiction, and other written works of shorter length.

    Email Publishing: Email publishing is designed specifically for delivering regular content-based email messages. Email publishing, or newsletter publishing, is a popular choice among readers who enjoy the ease of receiving news items, articles and short newsletters in their email box.

    Web Publishing: Web publishing is not a novel practice any longer, but it continues to change and develop with the introduction of new programming languages. HTML is still the most widely used web programming language, but XML is also making headway. XML is valuable because it allows publishers to create content and data that is portable to other devices. Nearly every company in the world has some type of website, and most media companies provide a large amount of web- based content.

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    ABSTRACT

    This research was aimed at evaluating the potentials of soil bacteria to elaborate L-asparaginase; an important therapeutic enzyme involved in the treatment of lymphoblastic leukemia. Fourteen soil samples were collected but pooled into seven composite samples to represent their various locations. The samples were analyzed using standard microbiological protocols. A total of 125 bacterial species were isolated by pour plate technique. Marian market dump-site soil (MMDS) sample harboured 26 (20.8%) of the isolated bacteria while Satellite Town dump-site soil (STDS) sample harboured 6 (4.8%) of the total bacteria. Results of the primary screening tests revealed that only 35 (28%) of total bacteria could elaborate L-asparaginase production potential by the rapid plate technique. However, only 6 (17.1%) of the positive bacteria could demonstrate such potentials in liquid medium. The six bacteria were preliminarily identified as species of the genera Pseudomonas, Corynebacterium, Bacillus, Erwinia and Escherichia. These results demonstrate the potentials of dumpsite bacteria to produce value-added biopharmaceutical products for applications in health care.

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    L-asparaginase (EC 3.5.1.1) belongs to a group of homologues amidohydrolases family, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of amino acid L-asparagine to L-aspartate and ammonia. They are naturally occurring enzymes expressed and produced by animal tissues, bacteria, plants and in the serum of certain rodents, but not in mankind (Muthusivaramapandian et al., 2008). Large number of microorganisms that include Erwinia carotovora, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Abdel-Fatteh et al., 2002) and Escherichia coli (Qin et al., 2003) has been known to produce L-asparaginase. Different types of asparaginase can be used for different industrial and pharmaceutical purposes.
    Asparaginases are used to reduce the formation of acrylamide, a suspected carcinogen in starchy food products such as snacks and biscuit (Bansal et al., 2010). By adding asparaginase before baking or frying the food, asparagine is converted into another common amino acid, aspartic acid and ammonia (Lalitha and Ramanjaneyulu, 2016). L-asparagine is an essential amino acid used for nutritional requirement of both normal cells and cancer cells. Since several type of tumor cell requires l-asparagine for protein synthesis, they are deprived of an essential factor in the presence of L-asparaginase. This enzyme is widely used in the treatment of acute lymphatic leukemia. Lymphatic tumor cells require huge amount of L-asparaginase for malignant growth.
    L-asparaginase + H2O L-asparaginase Aspartic acid + Ammonia (NH3).
    L-asparaginase was produced by wide range of bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, algae and plants (Prasad et al., 2013). Microbes are better source for the production of L-asparaginase, because they can easily be cultured, extracted and purified.
    1.1 Justification
    L-asparaginase has lots of medical and industrial applications. Ever since, L-asparaginase anti-tumor activity was first demonstrated, its production using microbial systems has attracted considerable attention owing to their cost effective and eco-friendly nature.
    1.2 Objectives of study
    The overall aim of the proposed study is the production of L-asparaginase (anti-cancerous) enzyme from bacteria.
     Isolation of pure cultures of bacteria from .soil samples
     Primary screening of purified isolates for L-asparaginase production
     Secondary screening of positive bacteria for L-asparaginase production in liquid medium.

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    ABSTRACT

    Industrial and labour relations occupy an important and  enviable place in the socio-economic development of any nation in particular and the world at large. The conditions under which an employee works as well as the security of his employment has great bearing on his output which in turn affects the socio-economic development of the nation wherein the employee performs his work. The desire to ensure maximum performance and protection of the employees in their mostly ‘begger has no choice’ situation has constantly motivated and enhanced the efforts of the International Labour Organization, an agency of the United Nations towards setting acceptable standards for the protection of  interest of employees. Issues bordering on determination of contract of employment take dominant position in industrial and labour relations. Unfair dismissal is one of the problems plaguing employees in developing countries like Nigeria. The International Labour Organisation set a standard which an employer wishing to terminate employment of his employee must comply with. The attribute of international law under which the standards of the International labour organisation falls   make the  application of these standards dependent on the state of the municipal laws of member states of the International Labour Organisation. The provision of the Constitution of  the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999 as amended, subjects these standards to the Legislative Acts of the federal law makers. However, the Third Alteration Act and the National Industrial Court Act have brought what seems to be a statutory intervention on the application of these standards. The researchers undertake the study of the International Labour Organisation’s standards on unfair dismissal of an employee vis-a-viz the practice in Nigeria, the attitude of Nigerian Laws to these standards as well as the applicability of these standards in Nigeria and selected countries. The researchers employ analytical comparison of Nigeria laws and practice on determination of contract of employment as well as laws of the selected countries as they relate to the International Labour Organisation standards on unfair dismissal. Also, the researchers adopt construction of statutes and case law as part of their methodology. At the end, the researchers found that dismissal and termination situations in Nigeria amount to unfair dismissal when tested against ILO standards on unfair dismissal. The researchers then recommend that Nigeria needs to adopt ILO standards on unfair dismissal with modifications where necessary. Also, that every legal and institutional impediments that hinder the application of ILO Convention on unfair dismissal should be removed by the concerted efforts of the three arms of Government of Nigeria  for purposes of achieving the policy of fair dismissal in Nigeria.

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    ABSTRACT

    In most agrarian economies like the type that exists in Nigeria, agricultural production
    provides the needed fulcrum upon which a sustainable development would blossom. Being
    the main source of food for most of the population, till date, agricultural production remains
    the mainstay of the Nigerian economy. It provides the means of livelihood for most of the
    population, a major source of raw materials for the agro-allied industries and a potent source
    of the much needed foreign exchange. However, inadequate credit (among other factors) to
    the agricultural sector led to the downward trend observed in agricultural productivity in
    Nigeria. To avert such trend, the Federal Government of Nigeria established the Agricultural
    Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund (ACGSF) in 1977 to assist farmers have access to credit as to
    improve agricultural productivity. The setting up of the ACGSF was predicated on the
    unwillingness of commercial banks to give loans to smallholder farmers for reasons of high
    default rate on loan repayment and, therefore high risk, of repayment. In the course of the
    fund’s operations, a number of problems have been identified as militating against its smooth
    performance; some of which affected the amount of credit granted to the various agricultural
    subsectors. Therefore, this study sought to examine (i) the impact of Agricultural Credit
    Guarantee Scheme Fund on crop output in Nigeria; (ii) the impact of Agricultural Credit
    Guarantee Scheme Fund on livestock output in Nigeria; (iii) the impact of Agricultural Credit
    Guarantee Scheme Fund on fisheries output in Nigeria; and (iv) the impact of Agricultural
    Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund total fund granted on Agricultural output and productivity in
    Nigeria. The ex-post facto research design was adopted to enable the researcher make use of
    secondary data and determine cause-effect relationship during the period, 1978-2008. The
    Ordinary Least Square (OLS) estimation technique was adopted, using SPSS statistical
    software to test the hypotheses, where Total Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund
    (TACGSF), Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund to crop production (ACGSFCP),
    Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund to livestock (ACGSFLSP) and Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund to fisheries (ACGSFP) were used as the independent
    variables while Agricultural Production (AP), Gross Domestic Product Agricultural Crop
    Production (GDPACP), Gross Domestic Product Agricultural Livestock Production
    (GDPALS) and Gross Domestic Product Agricultural Fisheries Production (GDPAFP) were
    used as the dependent variable. The study found that Agricultural Credit guarantee scheme
    fund for crop production, livestock production and fisheries had significant positive impact
    on crop, livestock and fisheries productivity in Nigeria for the period of the study and also,
    the total agricultural credit guarantee scheme fund had significant positive impact on
    agricultural output in Nigeria. The study therefore recommends that stakeholders in the
    scheme viz: the farmers, lending institutions and government must show greater commitment
    and dedication for the scheme to achieve its laudable objectives.

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background of the Study
    Agricultural Production in Nigeria is progressively on the decline in terms of its contribution
    to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as well as satisfying the country’s food requirement,
    despite the fact that about 70 per cent of the population engage in agriculture, thus Nigeria
    agricultural sector is unable to fulfill its most basic and traditional role of being the source of
    food for the nation, therefore the food import has continued to rise (Odigbo, 2000). There is a
    growing recognition by the Nigerian farmers of the effect of improved inputs and new
    technologies on agricultural yield. The use of these inputs and the adoption of high yielding
    techniques have given rise to an increased need for agricultural credit since majority of
    Nigerian farmers are small-scale farmers and are often limited by unfavorable economic,
    social, cultural and institutional conditions (Olubiyo and Hill, 2000). Insufficiency of capital
    has been a major constraint to agricultural development (Agu, 1998) in order to improve
    agricultural production modern farm inputs such as fertilizers, improved seed, feeds and plant
    protection chemicals and agricultural machineries are needed over the hoe and machete
    technology. Most of these technologies have to be purchased, yet very few farmers have the
    financial resources to finance such purchases (Adeniji and Joshua, 2008).
    Agriculture contributes immensely to the Nigerian economy in various ways, namely, in the
    provision of food for the increasing population; supply of adequate raw materials (and labour
    input) to a growing industrial sector; a major source of employment; generation of foreign
    exchange earnings; and, provision of a market for the products of the industrial sector
    (Okumadewa, 1997; World Bank, 1998; Winters et al., 1998; FAO, 2006). The agrarian
    sector has a strong rural base; hence, concern for agriculture and rural development become
    synonymous, with a common root (Eze et. al., 2010).
    Eze et. al. (2010) posit that support for agriculture is widely driven by the public sector,
    which has established institutional support in form of agricultural research, extension,
    commodity marketing, input supply, and land use legislation, to fast-track development of
    agriculture. These are aside the Private sector participation is not limited to local or foreign
    direct and portfolio investment financing, but also to sponsorship of research and
    breakthrough on agricultural issues in universities, capacity building for farmers and, most
    importantly, the provision of financing to farm businesses. International governmental and non-governmental agencies including the World Bank, Food and Agricultural Organization
    of the United Nations, etc., also contribute through on-farm and off-farm support in form of
    finance, input supply, strengthening of technical capacity of other support institutions, etc
    (see, Eze et. al., 2010).
    At independence in 1960, Nigeria’s agriculture was characterized by high production
    achieved by mobilizing small scale farmers, provision of infrastructure (roads, railways)
    geared towards developing crops required for export, and foundation laid for research and
    export. After independence, government interventions in agriculture were realized within the
    framework of development plans and annual budgets. Food was abundant and demand met
    without resort to import (Okoro and Ujah, 2009).
    Using a broad classification, the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) and National Bureau of
    Statistics (NBS) document the import and export agricultural products in the following
    categories – live animals and animal products; vegetable products; animal and vegetable fats
    and oil; foodstuff, beverages, spirit and vinegar, tobacco; and raw hides and skins leather,
    furskins, and saddler. The agricultural exports of significance include cocoa beans and
    products, rubber, fish/shrimp, cotton, processed skin, etc (Okoro and Ujah, 2009). These
    agricultural products account for about 39.7% of the total nonoil exports in 2007 (CBN,
    2007). According to Soludo (2006), agriculture has been growing at about 7% per annum in
    the last three years and has been driving the nonoil growth, and will continue to hold the key
    to growth, employment and poverty reduction.
    In terms of value of import visàvis export, Nigeria is a huge netimporter of agricultural
    products. The importexport gap has been widening since 1999 and this puts the agricultural
    policy of the nation to question. This situation, however, provides a unique opportunity for
    closing up or eliminating this ‘agricultural deficit’ through functional policies and budgets
    (Okoro and Ujah, 2009).
    Agriculture also is a significant sector in the Nigerian economy. Although Nigeria depends
    heavily on the oil industry for her revenues, Nigeria is predominantly an agrarian society with
    the sector contributing about 42%1 of real GDP in 2008 (CBN, 2008). In 2007, the
    contribution of agriculture to economy totaled some $132.2 billion (Economist, Sept. 2008).
    Eboh, Ujah and Nzeh (2009) show that the contemporary economic significance of the agricultural sector is even more remarkable as in the past half a decade, the impressive
    growth rate of the nation’s economy has been driven by the nonoil sector, particularly
    agricultural sector. There are, however, doubts about the sustainability of the current growth
    rate. The recent upsurge in agricultural growth rate could have been driven mainly by
    production of staple crops, while productivity has remained low and internationally
    uncompetitive, and yields of most crops have actually declined over the past two decades
    (Mogues et al., 2008; Eboh et al., 2006).
    Approximately 70% of the Nigeria’s population engages in agricultural production at
    subsistence level, while agricultural holdings are generally small and scattered (FGN, 2008).
    Smallholder farmers constitute 81% of all farm holdings and their production system is
    inefficient. Smallscale (0.15.9 ha), medium scale (6.09.9 ha) and large scale (>10 ha) are
    the three broad categories of farm holdings in Nigeria, with the smallscale farm holdings
    predominating the country’s agriculture and accounting for about 81% of the total farm area
    and 95% agricultural output (see, Shaib et al., 1997; FMAWR, 2009). The estimated average
    operational holding is 2 ha per farm family.
    Further analysis of the working population data indicates that growth rate of agriculture
    working population seems to be the driver of the growth rate in total working population. For
    instance the growth rate of agriculture working population dropped from 3.73% in 2003 to
    1.94% in 2007, while that of the total working population dropped from 4.46% in 2003 to
    3.25% in 2007 (see, Ujah and Okoro, 2009). The high correlation between growth rates of
    total working population and agriculture working population seems to suggest that agriculture
    holds the potential for tackling unemployment in the country at least in the shortrun. Despite
    the significance of agriculture in the nation’s economy, the sector is clearly the least
    productive when compared to other sectors (Ujah and Okoro, 2009).
    The Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund (ACGSF) was formed under the military
    government in 1977 with an initial capital base of N100 million distributed between the
    federal government (60% equity) and the Central Bank of Nigeria –CBN (40%). The ACGSF
    is exclusively managed by a board set up under the supervision of the CBN (management
    agent). The fund is set up with the sole purpose of providing guarantee in respect of loans
    granted by any bank for agricultural purposes (Central Bank of Nigeria, 1990). Nwosu et al (2010) noted that the ACGSF was formed solely with the objective of encouraging financial
    institutions to lend funds to those engaged in agricultural production as well as agroprocessing
    activities with the aim of enhancing export capacity of the nation as well as for
    local consumption. This is solely exclusive for large scale farming (Somayina, 1981).
    The question that comes to mind is whether the declining share of agricultural loan from
    commercial banks can be traceable to the challenges that encumbered ACGSF. For example,
    Nwosu et al (2010) identified three major problems associated with the ACGSF scheme,
    which include increasing incidence of loan defaulters, bank related problems and the
    inclusion of the term “personal guarantee”. Nwosu et al reiterates that the term is subjective
    in interpretation especially as the decree forming ACGSF was not able to explain this.
    Therefore, banks utilize personal judgment and circumstantial framework to interpret this.
    This will hinder the achievement of the objective of the scheme (see, Nwosu, 2010).
    One of the sole objectives for the establishment of the ACGSF is to enhance the export
    capacity of agricultural produce (Somayina, 1981). The ACGSF is aimed at guaranteeing
    agricultural outfit that specializes in the following; agricultural outfit engaged in the
    establishment and management of plantation for cash crop produce like rubber production, oil
    palm extracting, cocoa plantation etc; agricultural outfit engaged in the cultivation and
    production of food crops like fruit of all kinds, tubers of yam, cereals and all other food crops
    and agricultural activities involved in the large scale production of animal husbandries. The
    vast employment opportunity and the quest towards diversification of the revenue source by
    the federal government and development agencies have shifted attention towards the informal
    and the agricultural sector. For example, to sustain the agricultural production in Nigeria, the
    World Bank developed a project called Agricultural Development Projects (ADPs) which
    was designed to enhance the production of agricultural outputs in Nigeria.
    There are four subsectors of agriculture in Nigeria. These are arable crops (including food
    crops), livestock, fishery and forestry (including tree crops). Most of the researches
    conducted in this area have dealt on the overall impact of the Agricultural Credit Guarantee
    Scheme fund on non-oil export output (Somayina, 1981; Efobi, 2011 etc) and contribution to
    Nigeria’S GDP (Nwosu, et al., 2010; Shaib, et al., 1997).
    1.2 Statement of the Problem
    Agricultural credit is expected to play a critical role in agricultural development (Duong and
    Izumida, 2002). Agricultural credit has for long been identified as a major input in the
    development of the agricultural sector in Nigeria. The decline in the contribution of the sector
    to the Nigeria economy has been attributed to the lack of a formal national credit policy and
    paucity of credit institutions, which can assist farmers among other things. The provision of
    this input is important because credit or loan-able fund (capital) is viewed as more than just
    another resource such as labour, land, equipment and raw materials. It determines access to
    all of the resources on which farmers depend (Shephard, 1979). However, agricultural
    productions have not improved and this lead to the establishment of the Agricultural Credit
    Guarantee Scheme. The problems which inadequate credit through the scheme may have as
    pertained agricultural productivity are;
    1. Low agricultural cash crop productivity in Nigeria
    2. Low agricultural livestock productivity in Nigeria
    3. Low agricultural fisheries productivity in Nigeria and
    4. Poor Agricultural productivity in Nigeria
    In the course of the fund’s operations, a number of problems have been identified as
    militating against its smooth performance, which have limited the funds contribution the cash
    crop, livestock and fisheries agricultural subsectors which have lead to low agricultural
    productivity in Nigeria. According to Akinleye et al (2005), some of the problems are:
    increasing incidence of loan defaults, high rate of loan repayment by ACGS beneficiaries,
    others are: natural disasters, poor farm management, low product prices, loan diversion,
    deliberate refusal to pay and the inability of farmers to assess loan requirements properly
    leading to farmers receipt of inadequate or excessive loans; Participatory banks in the ACGS
    do not cooperate fully in lending to farmers. Because of the high cost of processing loans
    relative to the actual loans and the high default, rate of the farmers, many banks prefer to pay
    penalty to risk lending their funds to agriculture.
    Also banks fault the farmers for submitting incomplete application forms. In some cases
    where loans are approved, it arrives too late for it to fulfill the purpose for which it was
    intended. This delay seems more of administrative than any other. Another problem that
    militates against the smooth operation of the scheme is on “Personal guarantee” as a security
     
    
    that may be offered to a bank for the purpose of a loan. “Personal guarantee” as a condition
    was not explained in the decree. This therefore makes it almost nothing as its interpretation
    rests on the bank officials. Also, the other securities recognized by the decree that could be
    offered to the bank for the purpose of any loan under the scheme pose problems in the
    smooth operation of the scheme. The securities are legal title to land, and a life assurance
    policy. It is a common knowledge that most people especially in the rural areas do not have
    clear titles to their land which could serve as collateral for loan under the scheme (Okorie,
    1998). Finally, the ACGSF has the problem of publicity. Oguoma (2002) noted that there is a
    low turnout of farmers in most states of the federation in patronizing the scheme because of
    lack of awareness.
    1.3 Objectives of the Study
    The general objective of this study is to examine the impact of Agricultural Credit Guarantee
    Scheme Fund on the agricultural production in Nigeria. The specific objectives therefore
    include:
    1. To examine the impact of Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund on crop output
    in Nigeria.
    2. To examine the impact of Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund on livestock
    output in Nigeria
    3. To examine the impact of Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund on fisheries
    output in Nigeria and
    4. To examine the impact of Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund total fund
    granted on agricultural output and productivity in Nigeria.
    1.4 Research Questions
    Having considered the problems inherent in the grant of credit to the agricultural sector and
    specifically the impact of Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund towards agricultural
    production, the following research questions were asked. These are;
    1. To what extent does Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund credit to the
    agricultural cash crop sub sector have a significant impact on crop output in Nigeria?
     

    
    2. To what extent does Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund credit to the
    agricultural livestock crop sub sector have a significant impact on livestock output in
    Nigeria?
    3. How far does Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund credit to the agricultural
    fisheries sub sector have a significant impact on fisheries output in Nigeria?
    4. To what extent does Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund credit to the
    agricultural sub sector have a significant impact on agricultural output in Nigeria?
    1.5 Research Hypotheses
    As a result of the of the research questions raised above, the hypotheses for this study are:
    1. Agricultural Credit guarantee scheme fund does not have a significant positive impact
    on cash crop output in Nigeria.
    2. Agricultural Credit guarantee scheme fund does not have a significant positive impact
    on livestock output in Nigeria.
    3. Agricultural Credit guarantee scheme fund does not have a significant positive impact
    on fishery output in Nigeria and
    4. Agricultural Credit guarantee schemes fund does not have a significant positive
    impact on agricultural output in Nigeria.
    
    1.6 Scope of the Study
    The research covers the period 1978 to 2008. The Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme
    Fund (ACGSF) was established by Act 20 of 1977 but started operation in 1978. The
    principal objective of the Scheme was to facilitate the provision of credit to farmers by
    providing guarantees to participating banks known as deposit money banks (DMBs) for loans
    granted to farmers in accordance with the scheme enabling act. Therefore, this research will
    examine the impact of the scheme since it was established to 2008.
    1.7 Significance of the Study
    This study is bent on contributing to the literatures available in finance. It will go further in
    establishing reasons why subsequent research in this area will contribute to the growth and
    development of emerging markets like Nigeria. The following users will find this study
    useful and pertinent;
     
    
    i) Government
    The government is keen on exploring ways by enacting policies that are in consonance with
    the establishment and promotion of improved Agricultural productivity and output. Hence,
    the government stands the better position of making sure that the growth of the economy is
    taken into consideration to better the standard of living of its citizenry.
    ii) Academic Purpose
    An advancement of knowledge is achieved when series of research are being carried out in
    the academic environment. Thereby the scope and horizon of the readers or researchers are
    widened in order to achieve academic excellence through series of research, development of
    the intellectual faculty and planning. This also led to the gathering and update in the volume
    of literature for various field of study that are applicable majorly to finance students.
    1.8 Definition of Terms
    The following terms as they relate to this study is defined; these are:
    Agricultural development: is a process that involves adoption by farmers of new and
    better practices (Garba, 1987; Orebiyi, 1999).
    Agricultural Credit: Credit that facilitates the acquisition and application of
    state of the art technology and enables such enterprise to
    be in the driving seat in technology application (World
    Bank, 2000).
    Agricultural Productivity: Increased in agricultural sector contribution to the Gross
    domestic Product of the nation (Idachaba, 1995)

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    PROPOSAL ON THE IMPACT OF CBN CASHLESS POLICY ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE BANKING SECTOR IN NIGERIA
    Introduction
    The Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) has in recent times engaged in series of reformations aimed at both making the Nigerian financial system formidable and enhancing the overall economic performance of Nigeria so as to place it on the right path in tune with global trends. There was the capitalization (to the tune of minimum of N25billion) agenda (Ajayi, 2006). There was also the aborted move at redenomination of the Naira. Recently, the CBN came out with two purportedly laudable agenda – the Islamic banking (non-interest banking) and the cashless economy (e-payment system). (Babalola, 2008).
    Some of these policy measures came with tremendous success despite the initial skepticisms of Nigerians. For instance, when the CBN in July 2004 set December 31st ,2005 deadline for N25billion minimum capitalization, it was greeted with considerable cry and criticism, when the programme was completed, the banking landscape was transformed out of a system dominated mainly by “fringe banks to one made up of largely “mega banks” (Adeyemi, 2006). The product of the exercise was to “ensure a diversified, strong and reliable banking industry where there is safety of depositors’ money, and reposition the banks to play active developmental roles in the Nigerian economy” (Adegbaju and Olokoyo, 2008). This remark sums up the assessment of analysts about the outcome of the reform agenda.
    In recent years, Nigeria has been experiencing a growth turnaround and conditions seem right for launching onto a path of sustained and rapid growth, justifying its ranking amongst the N11 countries as identified by Goldman Sachs to have the potential for attaining global competitiveness based on their economic and demographic settings and the foundation for reform’s already laid. Constraints to the achievement of Nigeria’s ambition to be amongst the top 20 economies of the world by year 2020 is the fact that the Nigerian economy is too heavily cash oriented in transactions of goods and services which is not in line with global trends (http://www.nv2020bsg.org/aboutus.php).
    In its efforts to rescue the Nigerian economy from the brinks of total collapse, the CBN in collaboration with the Bankers Committee the cashless economy policy designed to provide mobile payment services, breakdown the traditional barriers hindering the financial inclusion of millions of Nigerians and bring low-cost, secure and convenient financial services to urban, semi-urban and rural areas across the country (www.cenbank.org/out/speeches/2012/g…).
    The cashless economy policy initiated by the CBN led by its Governor; Sanusi Lamido Sanusi was introduced first in Lagos state, the country’s economic hub with the aim of achieving an environment where a higher and increasing proportion of transactions are carried out through cheques and electronic payments in line with the global trend (Obodo, 2012).
    Upon this background, this study is poised to investigate and appraise to the best of the researchers ability the impact of the cashless economy policy on Nigerian citizens and the economy at large.
    Some other policy agenda did not enjoy as much acceptance as did the recapitalization agenda. For instance, the redenomination proposal was snubbed and judged to be counter-productive. In the same vein, the non-interest, Islamic banking concept has been greeted with a lot of skepticism, and the initiators are accused of masking under some hidden agenda.
    The same may be said of the proposal on the introduction of “cashless economy”. The reaction of one Gibson sums up the skepticism in certain quarters about the “cashless economy”, he remarks that “I am foreseeing the ANTI-CHRIST stepping in and the fulfillment of Biblical prophecy that a time for cashless society will come and nobody will buy or sell except you have a number, be wise” (magill, 2010). This may mean that not enough has been done to address the genuine concerns of the citizenry about the cashless economy.
    So much may have been said about the anticipated gains attendant to the adoption of e-payment and cashless economy (or cashless banking), but in concrete terms, people have not been convinced that the agenda is for the good of all.
    While we may point to such economies as the Japanese or U.S, we must be very ready to accept the fact that these are economies with functional institutional basis which cannot also be said about Nigeria with much conviction. Apart from the institutions, one fear that has been expressed is the state of Nigerian infrastructural decay. Have we witnessed the impact of infrastructure on the implementation of ‘cashless economy’ or is it an assumption that the infrastructural platform needed for the cashless economy to perform will simply come with the cashless economy?
    All things being equal, there are still a few downsides to a cashless economy. Money by its nature is abstract. The less cash that flows through our hands, the more intangible it becomes and the more we lose our sense of its real value. Our banked assets are now on an electronic apparition, and the fear of not having cash at hand is a downturn (www.reinventrebuild.com/nigerione.php.).
    Furthermore, the drive towards a cashless economy; a recent key policy of the CBN which has imposed on the financial sector calls for a leaner staff roll in many of the banks which has led to the mass retrenchment of workers, leaving many Nigerians without a source of income Considering also that the sustainability of the policy will be a function of endorsement and compliance by the end users, the researcher deemed it fit to effectively gauge the level of the policy’s endorsement by means of this research with respect to the end users.
    Finally, anxiety still persists amongst Nigerians from every sector about how the introduction of the cashless economy policy in Nigeria will affect businesses, prices and economic stabilization.
    These among other reasons led the researcher to carry out this study not only to examine and appraise the impact and effects of the cashless economy policy on the Nigerian economy, but to determine whether it will serve as a viable alternative cash transaction method in our society.
    With respect to the above, one way of proffering solution to the problem would be to find out as well as determine among other things the extent to which the adoption of the cashless economy policy will enhance the growth of financial stability in the country. The extent to which Nigerians will significantly benefits from the cashless economy initiative, how the policy will ease business for them and its level of acceptance.

    Statement of the Problem
    As more payment systems have been introduced, pundits have been predicting the emergence of a ‘cash less society’. Today, we still pay with cash and checks, but several other payment instruments, such as credit and debit cards, are widely used. The use of paper money is more declining, but at a rather slow pace. As it were, Nigeria is a country heavily dominated by cash and there are some factors that negatively affect the choice of cash over non-cash instruments, some of these include time spent in counting and verifying cash, susceptibility to loss, time spent in the banking halls, amongst others (Nnanwobu et al, 2011).
    A cash-based economy is one which is characterized by the psychology to physically hold and touch cash a culture informed by ignorance, illiteracy, and lack of security consciousness and appreciation of the merit of digital payment (Ovia, 2002). Cash, as a payment system, attracts lots of negative consequences such as high cost of handling cash, risks of using cash and keeping them in houses which eventually lead to high rate robbery, financial loss in the case of fire and flooding incidents. High cash usage results in lots of money outside the formal economy, thus limiting the effectiveness of monetary policy in managing inflation and encouraging economic growth. Also high cash usage enables corruption, leakages, money laundering, counterfeiting, mis-management, mutilation and depreciation in value if not invested. Some or most of these factors are one which exists in the Nigerian economy today thus creating gap for this current study.
    In Nigeria today, infrastructure is a major problem that hinders the money deposit banks from attaining full potential in terms of certain policy implementations and its impact on financial transactions in the banking industry. The infrastructure in Nigeria over the years hasnt been reputable and thus has given way to ineffectiveness to the sincerity in financial transactions in the banks. The level of technology in the nation is rather poor and increasing at a slow pace and as such hasn’t given room for major development and policy implementations that may have risen. The technology available for carrying out banking transactions are not as effective as they ought to be therefore leaving people with no other choice than to keep cash in their houses in order to avoid having to spend lots of time in the banking halls due to low servers, interrupted power supply, bad internet services. Illiteracy and the low level of education of people does nothing else than leave people in the dark and therefore results into the inability of the people to understand when developments are being put into place. Many people do not see the need to keep their money in the banks or invest them due to the lack of understanding they have and also insufficient publicity and awareness measures are what have being in existence which if dealt with would at least reduce the lack of understanding of many and make them see viable reasons why they should keep their money in the banks and invest them other than keep them in their houses as a route to the safety of many lives and better growth of the economy and as such increase the standard of living. This of course, is the motivation behind this study.
    As a matter of fact, the demand for money is being taken in terms of demand deposits in banks and liquid assets outside the banks that is the average willingness of people to either hold money in cash or keep it as demand deposits in the banks effects the activities of commercial banks in controlling the amount of money in circulation, which in turn determines the hold of the CBN on the economy in terms of monetary policy implementations. The analysis of banking innovations and the response of the public towards them would help determine the hold of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) on the extent to which they have been able to foster financial transactions in money deposit banks across the nation.
    The introduction of E-commerce has made room for various tools in transacting business, although not all of these tools have been fully utilised. The new policy adopted is such that has been made to affect the whole economy and to put in full use all of these tools which include the monetary and fiscal policies, and in turn will maximise the effort of the e-commerce innovation.

    Research Questions
    1. What is Cashless economy initiative will be of significant benefits to Nigerians.
    2. How can cashless economy policy can enhance the growth of financial stability in the country
    3. What is the relationship between Cashless policy and accessibility to customers’ accounts?
    4. To what extent does the Cashless policy affect queue-ups in banking halls?
    5. What relationship exists between Cashless policy and cash-related robbery in money deposit banks?
    6. What is the relationship between Cashless policy and the promptness of bank-related transactions?
    Objectives of the Study
    The broad objective of this study is to establish the relationship between CBN’s Cashless policy and the development of the financial sector and the Nigerian economy. This broad objective is broken down to the following specific objectives which are;
    1. To analyse the adoption of the cashless economy policy can enhance the growth of financial stability in the country
    2. To ascertain cashless economy initiative will be of significant benefits to Nigerians.
    3. To ascertain the relationship between Cashless policy and accessibility to customers’ accounts.
    4. To investigate the relationship between Cashless policy and queue-ups in banking halls.
    5. Ascertain the relationship between Cashless policy and the promptness of bank-related transactions.
    Hypotheses of the Study
    H0: Cashless economy initiative will not be of significant benefits to banking sector.
    Hi: Cashless economy initiative will be of significant benefits to banking sector.
    H0: The adoption of the cashless economy policy cannot enhance the growth of financial stability in the country.
    Hi: The adoption of the cashless economy policy can enhance the growth of financial stability in the country.

    Justification for the Study
    Nigeria can be regarded as a cash-based economy because majority of retail and commercial payments are made in cash. According to a recent CBN survey, cash-related transactions account for 99 percent of customer activity in Nigerian banks today. In addition, it discovered that cash transactions above N150,000 was largest in terms of value (N1469billion) and second smallest in terms of number or volume (10 percent). However, some other policy agenda did not enjoy as much acceptance as did the recapitalization agenda; for instance, the redenomination proposal was snubbed and judged to be counterproductive. In the same vein, the non-interest, Islamic banking concept has been greeted with a lot of skepticism, and the initiators are accused of masking under some hidden agenda. The same may be said of the proposal on the introduction of “cashless economy”. The reaction of one Gibson sums up the skepticism in certain quarters about the “cashless economy,” he remarks that “I am foreseeing the ANTI-CHRIST stepping in and the fulfillment of Biblical prophecy that a time for cashless society will come and nobody will buy or sell except you have a number, be wise”. This may mean that not enough has been done to address the genuine concerns of the citizenry about the cashless economy. So much may have been said about the anticipated gains attendant to the adoption of e-payment and cashless economy (or cashless banking), but in concrete terms people have not been convinced that the agenda is for the good of all. While we may point to such economies as the Japanese or U.S, we must be very ready to accept the fact that these are economies with functional institutional basis which cannot also be said about Nigeria with much conviction. Apart from the institutions, one fear that has been expressed is the state of Nigerian infrastructural decay. Have we assessed the impact of infrastructure on the implementation of ‘cashless economy’ or is it an assumption that the infrastructural platform needed for the cashless economy to perform will simply come with the cashless economy? From the foregoing problems, The significance of this study can in no form be overemphasized as it aims to aid in improvement of the policy which would raise it chances of being implemented successfully. This study would therefore aid in pin-pointing the problems in the policy, the benefits of the policy and its application and how it affects money deposit bank transactions in Nigeria respectively. Therefore, exploring intense understanding of the whole cashless policy process and its implementation is that of grave importance to this study at the moment.
    Existing studies on the topic was examined and thus more light was thrown to the topic in question by this study following this regard. This study is one of the recent works addressing the effectiveness and impact of the cashless policy on money deposit bank trasactions in Nigeria although previous studies have shown that works have been done on it in other countries and this anticipated will help bridge the gap between current perceptions about the cashless economy and the actual operations of the system.

    Scope of the Study
    This study examined CBN cashless policy by exploring its impact on the Nigerian economy. Since cashless policy is a recent economic policy with no previous data and more so, the study seek the opinion of the people by examining the impact analysis of the policy. Basically, for this study, both primary and secondary sources of data was used in carrying out this research. For the primary data, a survey would be carried out within the Lagos State metropolis as it is the only state where the policy is being implemented for now, while the secondary data focuses on every available from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) within reach and various paper publications.
    Study Plan
    This study would be presented in five (5) chapters. The first chapter is the introduction which includes the background to the study, statement of the problem, research questions, research hypothesis, objectives of the study, justification of the study, scope of the study, and the study plan.
    Chapter two focuses on the conceptual and theoretical review, the analytical review and review of related literature on the cashless policy. It will also provide an overview of what the policy is about, the aims, objectives, merits, shortfalls, application and the implementation and how it affects money deposit bank-based transactions. This chapter will also discuss few experiences of other countries with the cashless economy.
    Chapter three includes the research methodology that is data specification, method of data collection, method of analysis and sources of data.
    Chapter four is basically data presentation and analysis
    Chapter five is the summary, conclusions and recommendations.

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    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
    In the last ten years, organisations especially in Africa have been hit with the undisputable fact that the creation of competitive advantage lies in people. Organisations have increasingly recognised the potential for their people to be a source of competitive advantage. Not too long ago, so called HR functions was the preserve of „Personnel Managers‟ whose duties were to recruit and select, appraise, promote and demote. These superficial duties could be performed by any manager, it therefore never seemed necessary to employ an expert in the form of a human resource manager let alone create a whole department dedicated to HRM. Little attention was paid to human resource management issues and its impact on organisational performance. The emphasis on traditions and socio-cultural issues injected an element of subjectivity in „personnel manager‟ functions such as recruitment and selection, performance appraisal, promotion, demotion, and compensation.
    In today‟s competitive and rapidly changing business world, organisations especially in the service industry need to ensure maximum utilisation of their resources to their own advantage; a necessity for organisational survival. Studies have shown that organisations can create and sustain competitive position through management of non-substitutable, rare, valuable, and inimitable internal resources (Barney, 1991). HRM has transcended from policies that gather dust to practices that produce results. Human resource management practices has the ability to create organisations that are more intelligent, flexible and competent than their rivals through the application of policies and practices that concentrate on recruiting, selecting, training skilled employees and directing their best efforts to cooperate within the resource bundle of the organisation. This can potentially consolidate organisation performance and create competitive advantage as a result of the historical sensitivity of human resources and the social complex of policies and practices that rivals may not be able to imitate or replicate their diversity and depth.
    Lately, organisations are focused on achieving superior performance through the best use of talented human resources as a strategic asset. HRM policies or strategies must now be aligned to business strategies for organisational success. No matter the amount of technology and mechanisation developed, human resource remains the singular most important resource of any success-oriented organisation. After all, successful businesses are built on the strengths of exceptional people. HRM has now gained significance academically and business wise and can therefore not be relegated to the background or left in the hands of non-experts. Attention must be paid to the human resources organisations spent considerable time and resources to select.
    Armstrong (2009) defines Human Resource Management (HRM) as a strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organisation‟s most valued assets; that is, the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of its objectives. Moreover, Human resource management practices can be defined as a set of organisational activities that aims at managing a pool of human capital and ensuring that this capital is employed towards the achievement of organisational objectives (Wright and Boswell, 2002). The adoption of certain bundles of human resource management practices has the ability to positively influence organisation performance by creating powerful connections or to detract from performance when certain combinations of practices are inadvertently placed in the mix (Wagar and Rondeau, 2006). So if we think human resource management as just the services any manager may provide in recruiting and selecting, appraising, training and compensating employees, then we rather would have to take the backseat for those who understand the influence HRM has on corporate performance to take the centre stage. Research has recorded a positive relationship between human resource management practices and corporate performance. Thus in order to stimulate corporate performance, management is required to develop skilled and talented employees who are capable of performing their jobs successfully (Klein, 2004).
    Achieving better corporate performance requires successful, effective and efficient exploit of organisation resources and competencies in order to create and sustain competitive position locally and globally. HRM policies on selection, training and development, performance appraisal, compensation, promotion, incentives, work design, participation, involvement, communication, employment security, etc must be formulated and implemented by HRM specialist with the help of line managers to achieve the following outcomes: competence, cooperation with management, cooperation among employees, motivation, commitment, satisfaction, retention, presence, etc
    In fact, Ahmad and Schroeder (2003) found a positive influence of human resource management practices (information sharing, extensive training, selective hiring, compensation and incentives, status differences, employment security, and decentralization and use of teams) on organisational performance as operational performance (quality, cost reduction, flexibility, deliverability and commitment). In furtherance of this assertion, Sang (2005) also found a positive influence of human resource management practices (namely, human resource planning, staffing, incentives, appraisal, training, team work, employee participation, status difference, employment security) on organisation performance. For businesses to survive, HRM should be given its rightful place of relevance in any organisation and not left in the hands of line managers who neither have the expertise nor the time and space to carry out the enormous functions of a human resource manager.

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    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background to the Study
    The study presents empirical findings on the impact of Microfinance (MF) on the welfare and poverty alleviation in Southwest Nigeria. As indicated in the literature, poverty is number one problem in the world today as depicted by the following startling statistics: three billion people live below US$2 per day (World Bank, 2001); one and half billion people live below US$1 per day; 70-90 per cent of people in the developing world are poor; poverty is number one of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs); and 75 per cent of the world poor are women. It seems as if all the strategies applied in the past to fight poverty have proved ineffective, but the world seems to have found a most promising strategy. From the historical literature, informal saving and credit unions have operated for centuries across the world. In the Middle Ages, for example, the Italian monks had created the first official pawn shop (1462 AD) to counter usury practices. In 1515 Pope Leon X authorized pawn shops to charge interest to cover their operating costs. In the 1700s, Jonathan Swift initiated the Irish Loan Fund System, which provided small loans to poor farmers who had no securities. It is on record that the fund gave credit to about 20 per cent of all Irish households annually. In the 1800s, the concept of the financial cooperative was developed by Friedric Wilhelm in Germany. By 1865, the Cooperative movement had expanded rapidly within Germany and other European countries, North America and some developing countries (Bright, Helms, 2006).
    In early 1900s, adaptations of the models developed in the preceding century appeared in some parts of rural Latin America (Bright and Helms, 2006). Efforts to expand access to agricultural credit, in Bolivia for example were made unsuccessfully as the rate charged was too low and banks failed. By early 1950 – 1970, experimental programmes were on stream to extend small loans to groups of poor women to enable them invest in micro business. These experiments were initiated by the Grameen Bank of Bangladesh, ACCION International in Latin America and the Self-Employed Women‟s Association Bank in India (Little Field, Morduch and Hashemi, 2004). The term Microcredit began to be replaced by microfinance in the early 1990. By that time the term had started to include savings, and other services such as insurance and money transfers (Basu et al, 2000). Microfinance is the provision of financial services, such as loans, savings, insurance, money transfers, and payments facilities to low income groups. It could also be used for productive purposes such as investments, seeds or additional working capital for micro enterprises. On the other hand, it could be used to provide for immediate family expenditure on food, education, housing and health. Microfinance is an effective way for poor people to increase their economic security and thus reduce poverty. It enables poor people to manage their limited financial resources, reduce the impact of economic shocks and increase their assets and income (Robinson, 2001). Microfinance is no longer an experiment or a wish, it is a proven success. It has worked successfully in many parts of the World – Africa, Asia, Latin-America, Europe and North America. It is safe and profitable; indeed it is the oldest and most resilient financial system in history. The key issues in Microfinance include the realization that poor people need a variety of financial services, including loans, savings, money transfer and insurance which Microfinance provides. It is a powerful tool to fight poverty through building of assets and serving as an absorber against external ties and financial shocks. Microfinance involves building of financial sub-system which serve the poor and its architecture could be easily integrated into the financial system of the nation.
    The other key issues of Microfinance are the fact that it can pay for itself and should do so if it is to reach a large number of poor people. Microfinance is not limited to only micro-credit; it is inclusive of other financial services, such as micro-insurance, money transfer and savings.
    Furthermore, donor funds are meant only to support and assist Microfinance institutions and not compete with them. In the developed world, leaders talk about the poor and how to alleviate poverty. One hears this often at political and conferences across Europe and other parts of the World. There are also talks of strategies of equitable trade, debt relief, subsidies and aid flows etc. It has become clear that the ultimate strategy for the World to meet the needs of the poor is through microfinance which gives them access to financial services to enable them make everyday decision on: payment of children school fees; payment for food and shelter; meet health bills and meet unforeseen finance needs resulting from flood, fire, earthquake, etcetera. Microfinance may not be able to solve all the problems of the poor, but it certainly puts resources in their hands in order for them to live an enhanced standard of life. Microfinance has globally achieved great accomplishments over the last 30 years. It has shown that poor people can be viable customers and that microfinance can create strong institutions which focus on them. No doubt Microfinance has strongly attracted the interest of private sector investors. However, the following challenges, among others, face Microfinance institutions: They need to increase the scale of financial services to the poor; they need to reach out and seek the poor wherever they are and give them access to finance. The Grameen Bank of Bangladesh has set a good example in this direction by allowing credit and other services to cost less for the poor and train staff to be uniquely suitable to Microfinance business. The latter enhances efficiency and sustainability of the sector; and develops and tailors products to meet the needs of the clients – the poor. This study presents empirical findings on the impact of microfinance on welfare and poverty alleviation in Southwest Nigeria.

    1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
    Before the 1970s, the Nigerian experience in Microfinance was limited to Self Help Groups, Rotating Savings and Credit Associations, Cooperative Unions Community, Savings Collectors and Local Money Lenders. They were all informal and largely unregulated. They were mainly Micro-Credit savings mechanisms. Their strengths were associated with good repayment records due to peer pressure and other cultural mechanisms. However, their weaknesses lay in low level access to capital and limited range due to informal non-structured frame work. Between 1970 and 1990, there were several government initiatives in the form of Rural Banking Programme (RBP); Sectoral Allocation of credit by Central Bank; Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme (ACGS); Nigerian Agricultural and Co-operative Bank (NACB) and the National Directorate of Employment (NDE) etc. These efforts were largely incoherent, and mainly targeted towards enhancing subsidized credit in agriculture and a few other sectors of the economy. They were not sustainable as a result of poor repayment records and inefficient administrative structures. In the 1990s, the Federal Government embarked on other initiatives, such as the Peoples Bank, (1990-2002), Community Banks, Nigerian Agricultural Insurance Corporation and National Poverty Eradication Programmes and the Family Economic Advancement Programme. These were focused on rural and community small-scale financing. They were all short lived and unsustainable as a result of poor government policies and corporate governance.
    Between 2000 to date, there have been other initiatives such as the merger of the Peoples Bank (PB), Family Economic Advancement Programmesme (FEAP), and NACB into the National Agricultural, Cooperative and Rural Development Bank (NACRDB). Then came the National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS), and the launch of Microfinance Policy in 2005. These are more interactive initiatives resulting from wider consultations with stakeholders with the hope of better success than their predecessors.
    The fact of the matter is that there are too many poor in SouthWest Nigeria who require micro/small financial services such as Credit, Insurance, Money transfer etcetera in order to engage actively in productive activities and improve their standard of living. Paradoxically, governments across the world, particularly in Nigeria over the years, have not been able to adequately help the poor in spite of all the rhetorics and several failed poverty-alleviation project. Since the discovery that Microfinance can help the poor to access credit and other financial services that will ensure better life for them, a lot of works have been carried out. It is this new strategy that this research intends to explore to establish the developmental relationship between microfinance and poverty alleviation, taking a queue from jurisdictions of the world. MFIs are recent phenomenon in the Nigerian economy. It came to light in 2005 when it replaced the Community Banks. Although many studies have examined the issue of poverty alleviation in Nigeria, not many of them have assessed the impact of MFIs on poverty alleviation. This study seeks to fill this gap.
    1.3 Research Questions.
    The issues of poverty alleviation, economic development and Microfinance have become major policy discourse globally. To this extent the research work has generated a set of questions which include the following:
    i. To what extent has the MFBs served as instruments of credit mobilization and dispersion among the working poor in Nigeria?
    ii. How can Microfinance really get the poor out of their poverty?
    iii. How has Microfinance enhanced the growth of micro and small scale enterprises in Nigeria?
    These are the research questions which the study attempts to provide answers.
    1.4 Objectives of the Study
    The main objective of this study is to examine the impact of Microfinance on the welfare of the poor and poverty alleviation in Nigeria. The specific objectives include the following:
    1. To examine the roles of microfinance towards the dispersion of credit among the working poor in Nigeria.
    2. To assess the extent to which microfinance institutions have successfully helped the poor to improve their standard of living.
    3. To assess the impact of microfinance on the growth of small and medium scale enterprises in Nigeria.
    1.5 Statement of Research Hypotheses
    The main and specific objectives of this study have been specified in the preceding section. The associated research hypotheses are as follow: (a) Ho: MFBs have not been potent instruments in the dispersion of credit among the working poor in Nigeria Hi: MFBs have been potent instruments in the mobilization and dispersion of credit among the working poor in Nigeria (b) Ho: Microfinance Institutions have not successfully helped the poor to improve their standard of living. Hi: Microfinance Institutions have successfully helped the poor to improve their standard of living. (c) Ho: Microfinance Institutions have not impacted on the growth of small and medium scale enterprises in Nigeria Hi: Microfinance Institutions have impacted on the growth of small and medium scale enterprises in Nigeria
    1.6 Significance of the Study
    The significance of this study cannot be over emphasized. Poverty is pervasive in our economy and attempts to alleviate it have not yielded the desired results. Therefore, it is necessary to review the severity of poverty in the country with a view to assessing how microfinance institutions could help to reduce the incidence. It is also necessary to understand how microfinance institutions could contribute to economic development of the nation, by enhancing the productive capabilities and welfare of a largely distressed/vulnerable segment of the society.
    1.7 Scope of the Study
    The study examined the impact of microfinance institutions on poverty alleviation among the entrepreneurs of SMEs in Nigeria. It used cross-sectional data collected from selected respondents in selected areas of both the Lagos and Ogun States of Nigeria respectively. The study highlighted how certain countries such as India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bolivia and the Philippines have used microfinance strategy to alleviate poverty. The cross-sectional data obtained from questionnaires administered enabled the researcher to assess the impact and effectiveness of microfinance institutions alleviating poverty in Nigeria. It is known that children and women are among the poorest of the earth. The study targets the customers of MFIs between the ages of 18 and 60 who are gainfully employed and can repay loans. It has been discovered that the ability of women to borrow, save and earn income has enhanced their confidence and they are more able to confront other systemic inequalities (Little Field, Morduch and Hashemi, 2004). Therefore, this study examined the impact of Microfinance on women and other vulnerable groups particularly. In Indonesia, for example, women customers of Bank of Rakayat (Microfinance) partake more in family decisions on children education, use of contraceptives, etc. than women with little or no access to finance.
    This study is not unaware of the role of international donors to the Microfinance sector and how it can boost domestic growth. However, the study is limited to local Microfinance institutions and how they constitute effective strategies for poverty alleviation and economic development.

    1.8 Outline of the Thesis
    The study is divided into five parts. Chapter One presents the background to the study, the objectives of the study, the statement of the research problem, research questions, the hypotheses to be tested, the significance of the study, the scope and limitation of the study. Chapter two reviews the existing literature on Microfinance, Poverty and strategy to alleviate poverty in developed and developing countries. It also reviewed the historical background of Microfinance, the method of operation, the roles of Microfinance in the success of micro, small and medium enterprises, the challenges confronting Microfinance Institutions and the global perspective of Microfinance. Chapter three examines the theoretical framework and methodology adopted for the study in terms of the model specification, methods of estimation, data collection and instrument, data description, study population and sample size. Chapter four presents the data analysis and interpretation of results. The descriptive analysis results and the regression results are presented in qualitative form and were fully discussed so that meaningful conclusion could be drawn. In this chapter formulated hypotheses are to establish the relationship which exists among the variables. Chapter five which is the last part deals with the summary of the study, conclusion, recommendations for policy, and contributions to knowledge and suggestions for further research.
    1.9 Method of Data Collection and Analysis
    This section of the study details the various data collected and how the data were analyzed. This study relied on the use of primary data collected directly from respondents to the structured questionnaires and interviews. The questionnaire method was used in this study and administered by well trained interviewers in the study area which is Lagos and Ogun States of Nigeria.

    The data analysis for this study was by the use of descriptive statistics such as frequency distributions, means, per centages and cross tabulations between the variables identified. The multiple regression analysis was employed to make tentative predictions concerning the outcome of variables. The outputs of the analysis were presented in tables and figures. The statistical tool used was the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS).

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