Showing 21–40 of 103 results

  •  4,000.00  2,000.00

    Price: 2000 Naira (BSC, MSC)

    ABSTARCT

    This project study is focused on the design and development of security package for the Biotech Communication Limited.
    This research work came to existence the time when internet café business is becoming very popular and vast. The principal objective of this project is to stop or deny access to an unauthorized user and also to ensure proper accountability of cash received by the ticketers. Therefore the design and development of this internet security package for Biotech commucation Limited is worthwhile.
    This project covers all the general procedure involved in the design and development of a reliable in-house software application package that will provide automated Customer services for a cyber café. These procedures include the initial Design, Coding, Testing, Implementation, Maintenance and Enhancement of the new system. Thus this software will provide an accurate timing and billing information at any point in time for a cyber café operation. The New system was developed using Microsoft visual basic 6.0 programming language. This language was chosen because of its easy syntax and features for developing windows based application.

    CHAPTER ONE

    1.0 INTRODUCTION
    This is an introduction to the many threats that computer system and users face on the internet. Methods that users can implement to protect themselves are also explored. The security measures are used to gather, store, and distribute information as it is implemented differently across the web. Many companies and corporations that collect sensitive data do not have proper security protocols put into place, which may compromise personal information. Common errors that online businesses make when processing transactions will include information security and the protocols that they should put into place both in terms of their computer infrastructure, data collection and the establishment of personnel protocols, such as the handling of sensitive information and password changes. The transaction between the client and server will be examined along with the protocols used in the sharing of information, such as secure socket layers and their different certificates, encryption and security measures that are utilized. E-commerce firms must ensure that they control access to their networks by designing and implementing controls that will diminish the dissemination of sensitive information.

    1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
    The Internet has been described as the most revolutionary communication development of last century. It has changed everything about every type of business and there seems to be no end in sight to the advantages this phenomenon can bring to the enhancement of business communications. The Internet is a system for providing communication links between computers via local companies referred to as Internet of computer networks that is changing the way organizations and individuals communicates and do business.
    However, the major drawback is the security risks associated with it. The Internet suffers from a significant and widespread security problems. Perhaps, most important of all reason adduced for the poor security facilities on the internet may be the fact that it was not designed to every secured open access for the purpose of research was the prime motivation for the internet at the time of its conception. Other factors responsible for the security lapse of the internet are based on the TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) suite of protocol. A number of TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol) suites of protocols and a number of TCP/IP services are not secured and compromised by knowledgeable hackers. A number of security problems can be remedied or reduced through the use of this software and control for host security.
    1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
    Some of the problems associated with the internet security are as a result of inherent vulnerabilities in the services (and the protocols that the services implement), while others are as a result of host configuration and access controls that are poorly implemented or too complex to administer. Additionally, the role and importance of system management is often short-changed in job description resulting in many administrators begin at best, part-time and poorly prepared.
    Furthermore, the unavailability of experts who will carry the jobs for the people. Also the cost at which people or individuals will undergo before acquiring one will also arise to be a problem.
    1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT
    The objective of this research work is to develop an Internet Security Package consisting of a client billing software program with modification of existing software and eliminating the entire obstacle in previous versions of the numerous existing clients billing software program. Apart from producing an enhancement,
    It will also:
    i. Prepare daily account of all transactions with clients
    ii. Produce analyzed report for decision making
    iii. Provide security to enhance system lock when credit expires.
    iv. Automatically generate numbers as ID’S and allocate time and payments by clients.
    v. Enable the system within the network to identify user with particular name and password.

    1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT
    Like any other application development the significance of this project is to make internet café business much more profitable and easier to the investors.
    An internet café without effective security will gradually die because of pester and cashier stall time spent by clients.
    This software is intended to stop the death of internet café’s with attendant unemployment in the space. This will be facilitated by the development of automated technique i.e. café billing to check time automatically.

    1.5 SCOPE OF STUDY
    This project work or study is aimed at designing and developing an Internet Security Package consisting of a time billing software for the Access Point Communication Limited.
    Furthermore, it is also aimed at saving the management of the Access Point Communication Limited the troubles and difficulties in running an internet café manually.

    1.6 LIMITATION
    The main problem encountered or the constraints in the course of this research were with the initial difficulty in grasping the knowledge of the field, which was quite alien to the researcher. Though this was overcame within a short period of time.
    Also, the obtaining of accurate and complete information from the case study (Access Point Communication Limited) was somewhat inhibited. The researcher had to do some independent investigations and internet browsing to ensure that relevant information was used.
    Finally, the issue of time cannot be forgotten. There was a very limited time to carry out the research for the project and also limited time to produce the project work.

    1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
    DATABASE: A collection of interrelated data stored with controlled redundancy to serve one or more applications.
    E-MAIL: The term electronic mail is used to describe various system of sending data or message electronically via the telephone Network or other data network, through a central computer without the need to post letters.
    FLOWCHART: This is the diagrammatic representation of the program components using standard symbols.
    HACKING: A hacker is people who attempt to invade the privacy of a system. Hackers are normally skilled programmers.
    HARDWARE: This is the physical part of a computer system.
    INTERNET: The internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard internet protocol suite (often called TCP/IP) to serve billions of its users worldwide
    METHODOLOGY: A methodology is a collection of procedure techniques, tools and documentation aids which will help the system developer in their effort to implement a new information system, Abdul J.I (2004).
    MICROSOFT VISUAL BASIC: This is the software which allows you to develop your own software.
    NETWORK SERVERS: These are devices used to manage how the various resources on the network are shared.
    NEWS GROUP: These are meeting places for people discussing special topics.
    OFFLINE: This is the process of the computer not connected to the internet.
    ONLINE: This is the direct connection to the computers through the internet and under the influence of the computer C.P.U.
    SECURITY: This is an act of safeguarding a file or a document in order to prevent unauthorized access.
    SOFTWARE: This is the program that controls the computer operation.
    WWW: – This stands for World Wide Web which consists of the different websites which you can visit.

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  •  4,000.00  2,000.00

    Price: 2000 Naira (BSC, MSC)

    ABSTARCT

    This project study is focused on the design and development of security package for the Biotech Communication Limited.
    This research work came to existence the time when internet café business is becoming very popular and vast. The principal objective of this project is to stop or deny access to an unauthorized user and also to ensure proper accountability of cash received by the ticketers. Therefore the design and development of this internet security package for Biotech commucation Limited is worthwhile.
    This project covers all the general procedure involved in the design and development of a reliable in-house software application package that will provide automated Customer services for a cyber café. These procedures include the initial Design, Coding, Testing, Implementation, Maintenance and Enhancement of the new system. Thus this software will provide an accurate timing and billing information at any point in time for a cyber café operation. The New system was developed using Microsoft visual basic 6.0 programming language. This language was chosen because of its easy syntax and features for developing windows based application.

    CHAPTER ONE

    1.0 INTRODUCTION
    This is an introduction to the many threats that computer system and users face on the internet. Methods that users can implement to protect themselves are also explored. The security measures are used to gather, store, and distribute information as it is implemented differently across the web. Many companies and corporations that collect sensitive data do not have proper security protocols put into place, which may compromise personal information. Common errors that online businesses make when processing transactions will include information security and the protocols that they should put into place both in terms of their computer infrastructure, data collection and the establishment of personnel protocols, such as the handling of sensitive information and password changes. The transaction between the client and server will be examined along with the protocols used in the sharing of information, such as secure socket layers and their different certificates, encryption and security measures that are utilized. E-commerce firms must ensure that they control access to their networks by designing and implementing controls that will diminish the dissemination of sensitive information.

    1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
    The Internet has been described as the most revolutionary communication development of last century. It has changed everything about every type of business and there seems to be no end in sight to the advantages this phenomenon can bring to the enhancement of business communications. The Internet is a system for providing communication links between computers via local companies referred to as Internet of computer networks that is changing the way organizations and individuals communicates and do business.
    However, the major drawback is the security risks associated with it. The Internet suffers from a significant and widespread security problems. Perhaps, most important of all reason adduced for the poor security facilities on the internet may be the fact that it was not designed to every secured open access for the purpose of research was the prime motivation for the internet at the time of its conception. Other factors responsible for the security lapse of the internet are based on the TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) suite of protocol. A number of TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol) suites of protocols and a number of TCP/IP services are not secured and compromised by knowledgeable hackers. A number of security problems can be remedied or reduced through the use of this software and control for host security.
    1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
    Some of the problems associated with the internet security are as a result of inherent vulnerabilities in the services (and the protocols that the services implement), while others are as a result of host configuration and access controls that are poorly implemented or too complex to administer. Additionally, the role and importance of system management is often short-changed in job description resulting in many administrators begin at best, part-time and poorly prepared.
    Furthermore, the unavailability of experts who will carry the jobs for the people. Also the cost at which people or individuals will undergo before acquiring one will also arise to be a problem.
    1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT
    The objective of this research work is to develop an Internet Security Package consisting of a client billing software program with modification of existing software and eliminating the entire obstacle in previous versions of the numerous existing clients billing software program. Apart from producing an enhancement,
    It will also:
    i. Prepare daily account of all transactions with clients
    ii. Produce analyzed report for decision making
    iii. Provide security to enhance system lock when credit expires.
    iv. Automatically generate numbers as ID’S and allocate time and payments by clients.
    v. Enable the system within the network to identify user with particular name and password.

    1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT
    Like any other application development the significance of this project is to make internet café business much more profitable and easier to the investors.
    An internet café without effective security will gradually die because of pester and cashier stall time spent by clients.
    This software is intended to stop the death of internet café’s with attendant unemployment in the space. This will be facilitated by the development of automated technique i.e. café billing to check time automatically.

    1.5 SCOPE OF STUDY
    This project work or study is aimed at designing and developing an Internet Security Package consisting of a time billing software for the Access Point Communication Limited.
    Furthermore, it is also aimed at saving the management of the Access Point Communication Limited the troubles and difficulties in running an internet café manually.

    1.6 LIMITATION
    The main problem encountered or the constraints in the course of this research were with the initial difficulty in grasping the knowledge of the field, which was quite alien to the researcher. Though this was overcame within a short period of time.
    Also, the obtaining of accurate and complete information from the case study (Access Point Communication Limited) was somewhat inhibited. The researcher had to do some independent investigations and internet browsing to ensure that relevant information was used.
    Finally, the issue of time cannot be forgotten. There was a very limited time to carry out the research for the project and also limited time to produce the project work.

    1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
    DATABASE: A collection of interrelated data stored with controlled redundancy to serve one or more applications.
    E-MAIL: The term electronic mail is used to describe various system of sending data or message electronically via the telephone Network or other data network, through a central computer without the need to post letters.
    FLOWCHART: This is the diagrammatic representation of the program components using standard symbols.
    HACKING: A hacker is people who attempt to invade the privacy of a system. Hackers are normally skilled programmers.
    HARDWARE: This is the physical part of a computer system.
    INTERNET: The internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard internet protocol suite (often called TCP/IP) to serve billions of its users worldwide
    METHODOLOGY: A methodology is a collection of procedure techniques, tools and documentation aids which will help the system developer in their effort to implement a new information system, Abdul J.I (2004).
    MICROSOFT VISUAL BASIC: This is the software which allows you to develop your own software.
    NETWORK SERVERS: These are devices used to manage how the various resources on the network are shared.
    NEWS GROUP: These are meeting places for people discussing special topics.
    OFFLINE: This is the process of the computer not connected to the internet.
    ONLINE: This is the direct connection to the computers through the internet and under the influence of the computer C.P.U.
    SECURITY: This is an act of safeguarding a file or a document in order to prevent unauthorized access.
    SOFTWARE: This is the program that controls the computer operation.
    WWW: – This stands for World Wide Web which consists of the different websites which you can visit.

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  •  4,000.00  2,000.00

    Price: 2000 Naira (BSC, MSC)

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background of the Study
    In 1950, Alan Turing’s famous article “Computing Machinery and Intelligence” was published (Turing, Alan (1950), which proposed what is now called the Turing test as a criterion of intelligence. This criterion depends on the ability of a computer program to impersonate a human in a real-time written conversation with a human judge, sufficiently well that the judge is unable to distinguish reliably—on the basis of the conversational content alone—between the program and a real human. The notoriety of Turing’s proposed test stimulated great interest in Joseph Weizenbaum’s program ELIZA, published in 1966, which seemed to be able to fool users into believing that they were conversing with a real human. However Weizenbaum himself did not claim that ELIZA was genuinely intelligent, and the Introduction to his paper presented it more as a debunking exercise:
    [In] artificial intelligence … machines are made to behave in wondrous ways, often sufficient to dazzle even the most experienced observer. But once a particular program is unmasked, once its inner workings are explained … its magic crumbles away; it stands revealed as a mere collection of procedures … The observer says to himself “I could have written that”. With that thought he moves the program in question from the shelf marked “intelligent”, to that reserved for curios … The object of this paper is to cause just such a re-evaluation of the program about to be “explained”. Few programs ever needed it more (Weizenbaum, Joseph January 1966).
    ELIZA’s key method of operation (copied by chatbot designers ever since) involves the recognition of cue words or phrases in the input, and the output of corresponding pre-prepared or pre-programmed responses that can move the conversation forward in an apparently meaningful way (e.g. by responding to any input that contains the word ‘MOTHER’ with ‘TELL ME MORE ABOUT YOUR FAMILY’) (Weizenbaum, Joseph January 1966). Thus an illusion of understanding is generated, even though the processing involved has been merely superficial. ELIZA showed that such an illusion is surprisingly easy to generate, because human judges are so ready to give the benefit of the doubt when conversational responses are capable of being interpreted as “intelligent”.
    Interface designers have come to appreciate that humans’ readiness to interpret computer output as genuinely conversational—even when it is actually based on rather simple pattern-matching—can be exploited for useful purposes. Most people prefer to engage with programs that are human-like, and this gives chatbot-style techniques a potentially useful role in interactive systems that need to elicit information from users, as long as that information is relatively straightforward and falls into predictable categories. Thus, for example, online help systems can usefully employ chatbot techniques to identify the area of help that users require, potentially providing a “friendlier” interface than a more formal search or menu system. This sort of usage holds the prospect of moving chatbot technology from Weizenbaum’s “shelf … reserved for curios” to that marked “genuinely useful computational methods”.

    1.2 Statement of the Problem
    Malicious chatbots are frequently used to fill chat rooms with spam and advertisements, by mimicking human behaviour and conversations or to entice people into revealing personal information, such as bank account numbers. They are commonly found on Yahoo! Messenger, Windows Live Messenger, AOL Instant Messenger and other instant messaging protocols. There has also been a published report of a chatbot used in a fake personal ad on a dating service’s website.
    1.3 Aim of the Study
    The aim of this study is to design and implement of general knowledge chatbot using natural language processing for an organization.
    1.4 Objective of the Study
    The major objective of this work is to develop an expert system chatbot with general knowledge. It also targets towards contributing to academic research work.
    It is also to ascertain whether the issue and how it can be solve.
    It reduce the time taken and stress of waiting for been attend to by a staff.

    1.5 Significance of the Study
    Internet of Things (IoT) is emerging as a significant technology in shaping the future by connecting physical devices or things with internet. It also presents various opportunities for intersection of other technological trends which can allow it to become even more intelligent and efficient. In this paper we focus our attention on the integration of Intelligent Conversational Software Agents or Chatbots with IoT. Literature surveys have looked into various applications, features, underlying technologies and known challenges of IoT. On the other hand, Chatbots are being adopted in greater numbers due to major strides in development of platforms and frameworks. The novelty of this paper lies in the specific integration of Chatbots in the IoT scenario. We analyzed the shortcomings of existing IoT systems and put forward ways to tackle them by incorporating chatbots. A general architecture is proposed for implementing such a system, as well as platforms and frameworks – both commercial and open source – which allow for implementation of such systems. Identification of the newer challenges and possible future directions with this new integration, have also been addressed.

    1.6 Scope of the Study
    The scope of this study is centered on design and implementation of general knowledge chatbot using natural language processing for an organization.
    1.7 Limitation of the Study
    Usually, every work has some limitations and this study is not exempted.
    The two major limitations of this study are the high programming technique as well as financial constraints. The high programming technique constraint in PHP, JQUERY and MYSQL prevents the researcher to have an in depth study and analysis on the subject matter. While the issue of financial constraint limits the frequency of investigation to/from the institution toward gathering the necessary information relevant for the study.
    1.8 Definition of Term
    CHATBOT: also known as a smartbots, talkbot, chatterbot, Bot, IM bot, interactive agent, Conversational interface or Artificial Conversational Entity) is a computer program or an artificial intelligence which conducts a conversation via auditory or textual methods. Such programs are often designed to convincingly simulate how a human would behave as a conversational partner, thereby passing the Turing test.
    NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING: is a subfield of computer science information engineering and artificial intelligence concerned with the interations between computer and human (natural) langauges, in particular how to program computers to process and analyze large amounts of natural language data.
    HTML CODE: – HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language. It is a type of computer language that is primarily used for files that are posted on the internet and viewed by web browsers. HTML files can also be sent via email.
    Markup language: – A markup language is a combination of words and symbols which give instructions on how a document should appear. For example, a tag may indicate that words are written in italics or bold type.

    Web browser: -A Web browser is a software program that interprets the coding language of the World Wide Web in graphic form, displaying the translation rather than the coding. This allows anyone to “browse the Web” by simple point and click navigation, bypassing the need to know commands used in software languages.

    File extension: – A file extension is the suffix at the end of a filename that tells a computer, and the computer user, which program is needed to open the file. Also called a filename extension, this suffix preceded by at least one period, is generally one to five characters long but the norm is usually three characters in length.

    Email: – Email, also sometimes written as e-mail, is simply the shortened form of electronic mail, a protocol for receiving, sending, and storing electronic messages. Email has gained popularity with the spread of the Internet. In many cases, email has become the preferred method of communication.

    TCP/IP: – This often used but little understood set of operations stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. TCP/IP is the combination of the two and describes the set of protocols that allows hosts to connect to the Internet. In actuality, TCP/IP is a combination of “more than those two protocols, but the TCP and IP parts of TCP/IP are the main ones and the only ones to become part of the acronym that describes the operations involved.

    TEXT FILE: – A text file is a computer file that stores a typed document as a series of alphanumeric characters, usually without visual formatting information. The content may be a personal note or list, a journal or newspaper article, a book, or any other text that can be rendered accurately in typewritten form.

    Hyper Link:-A hyperlink is a graphic or a piece of text in an Internet document that can connect readers to another webpage, or another portion of a document. Web users will usually find at least one hyperlink on every webpage. The simplest form of these is called embedded text or an embedded link.

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    CHAPTER ONE
    INTRODUCTION
    1.1 Background of Study
    The errors associated with the existing manual method of processing of students’ results in most universities in Nigeria and Benin, including the Houdegbe North American University, Benin, makes it not only desirable but imperative that computerized approach be used to the full in measuring students’ academic progress. The manual methods being employed suffer a number of set-back. They make the process to be time-consuming and prone to errors even as they lead to late publication of examination results. Worst still, sometimes wrong grades are being entered and students’ grade point averages are computed wrongly. Consequently, the cumulative errors being generated are ultimately linked to awarding of erroneous class of degree. Some students could end up with undeserved good classes of degree, while others could be unfairly victimized, bringing about frustration. In this case, the image of the department(s) concerned and the whole University alike could become tarnished. The problem, therefore, that arises is to find a method of processing examination results that would be sufficiently accurate and reasonably timely.
    Result processing is a routine activity. Every semester in the higher institution calls for assessment of the performances of the students. This assessment usually comes in the form of examinations, tests, practical, labs, and the like. Without an assessment of the students, there will not be the need to work hard.
    Assessment takes the form of a reward system. Students are interested in a competitive environment. Tracing this to the primary and secondary school systems where the students are graded in positions; each student works very hard to make the best results. The higher institution system is no difference. At the end of each academic semester, the results of the semester academic activities are computed. The issue here is in the conversion of the levels of involvement and expertise of the students into relative figures which ranks the students.
    There are over forty (10) departments in the Houdegbe North American University, Benin (HNAUB), each having an average of over four hundred students. A simple calculation here surfaces that there are over two thousand students in Hnaub. Each of the students in every level has results to be computed. The task of result processing and other academic activities mandates the assignment of course advisers to take care of such functions.
    Result, by way of definition is the consequence of an action; the conclusion of a problem, or experiment after a period of time. At the end of each academic semester, the results of the exams, tests, practicals and labs are calculated and the grades are correspondingly computed. This is done by the various course coordinators of the courses. The next phase of the result processing process is done by the level course adviser. Each level of every department has its own dedicated course adviser. The course adviser acts on the list of results of all the students in his/her level and those of other students who sat for courses in other levels; either as borrowed courses or as carry over courses. The task ahead of the course adviser is to convert the grades of the students submitted to him into grade equivalents.

    1.2 Statement of the Problem
    The problems posed by manual methods of result processing are enormous. The situation is the same in Houdegbe North American and Uninvesity, Benin correspondingly, Information Management Technology department. The issues here can only be addressed by employing upper hands. The effort expended in the process of registration of students and computation of their examination results is tedious. Quite worrisome is the fact that these processes are carried out every academic session, putting the operators in a continuous and ever demanding cycle.
    The computation of examination results and registration of students is obviously an object-centered activity, the student being the dominant object in this case. Hence, the need to evolve not just a computerized process, but an object-oriented software design and implementation that will effectively and efficiently capture all the important objects associated with the registration and examination result processing within the University and the interactions among the objects. This genuine and noble desire necessitated the design and implementation of a result processing application for a course program, with Information Management Technology as the organization in question.
    So many softwares have been developed and even sold worldwide to solve this problem but most of such softwares have been discovered to be inefficient. Another problem which these softwares have posed is non-user specific problems as they are rather general use softwares, than specific use softwares. Students as well has researched and developed their own software but they could not give or develop error free software that will assist in result generation, automated course registration to keep or build a database of results in the university that will facilitate students’ transcripts.
    This problem has been procrastinating the results of graduating or graduated students hence, delay in leaving for the National Youth Service when they ought to have gone. This problem has dominated the system especially in the department of case study, computer science Department.
    To arrest this problem, there is a need to develop software that is accurate, error free, and that can run on the web (using real time) in order to give students access to their results as at when needed. This will also help reduce the queue usually seen at the course advisers’ office during result’s check and in turn tackle the so much stress on both exams and record and the management in Universities.

    1.3 Aim Of The Study
    The aim of this study is to design and implement of mobile application result checker for the school of computer science mathematics, information and technology.

    1.4 Objectives of the Study
    The objective of this project is to design and develop system that can:
    1. Provide a reliable solution to result processing that is corruption free.
    2. Ensure that normal credit loads in line with the school is maintained.
    3. Provide a software that will generate result that is accurate, timely and error free.
    4. Maintain a reliable database for storage of students’ records and update as the need arises.
    5. Restrict unauthorized access to the students’ record.
    6. Provide an advice engine based on the current status of the student advices the student result which on the next course of action to take in his/her academic pursuit.
    7. Produce relevant report of students’ general performance at the end of every academic semester, presented in the form of tables, charts and graphs, etc.

    1.5 Significance of the Study
    The project work will help in a good number of ways to ease the delay in manual examination processing. The software developed will help schools management to achieve efficient Information Management System. There are many other advantages, and some of them are listed below.
    1. It saves time during examination processing result.
    2. Database for course registration and examination result is maintained.
    3. References are very fast and delays can be avoided.
    4. It allows easy access to stored information.
    5. It provides a medium for the students to interact and discuss their results and the way forward of their academics.
    6. It helps in reducing the costs such as labor, inventory and stationery.
    7. Generation of accurate results/information on transactions is ensured.
    8. It guarantees the students unshared access to their individual results.

    1.6 Scope of the Study
    This research work will concentrate on course registration and result processing and checking system, as well as course adviser functions provided in an automated format which enables the course adviser, the Head of Department, seen here as the enroller and the validator respectively, as well as the student to interact with the application effectively. This work will also use computer science department as the organization in question for its development. The system developed will only cover registration of students, result processing and statement of result, advising functions, course creation and mapping and security of students’ record functions.

    1.7 Limitations of Study
    In the course of this design, some factors led to constraints in the effective actualization of the project.
    1. The duration for this project was too small for the study to be carried out in a more complex scope. There were some other programmes like exams, to be attended to which curtailed the time spent on the project. The above constraint led to limiting the application functionalities.
    2. The limited resources available for carrying out this project posed a major constraint. There was much work to be done but, limited cash was available. The available related materials in this research topic were insufficient and some of the respondents were unwilling to supply useful information.
    3. There is not sufficient knowledge in the programming languages chosen for this work which led to involving upper hands at an expense.

    1.7 Definition of Technical Terms
    Information System: It is a collection of procedures, people, instructions and equipment to produce information in a useful form.

    Technology: It is study of techniques or process of mobilizing Resource (such as information) for accomplishing objectives that benefits man and his environment.

    Information: Information can be defined as the process of gathering, transmitting, receiving, storing and retrieving data or several items put together to convey a desired message.

    Computer Network: Computer Network is a system that connects two or more computers together using a communication link.

    Databases: A systematically arranged collection of computer data, structured so that it can be automatically retrieved or manipulated. It is also called databank.

    File Transfer: Any kind of computer file can be sent via the Internet from one Internet user to another. Table of accounts on spreadsheets, design by a graphic artists, music sound files etc, can all be exchanged in this way.
    Database Table(s): It is a collection rows and columns where in the database which are used for logical data storage and retrieval in the database.

    Database Management System (DBMS): This is the software that performs the task of database management.

    Transaction: This is a group of operation (database operations) that must be executed as one.

    Encapsulation: This is the concept of hiding specific behavior and attributes from a user.

    Programming Language: This is the language used to give instructions to the computer.

    Structure Query Language (SQL): This is a very high level programming language that is used to query the database

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    Price: 2000 Naira (BSC, MSC)

    ABSTRACT

    This project was centered on online cash receipt generating system. The current process of cash receipt generation is being operated manually and due to this procedure numerous problem are been encountered. A design was taken to computerized the manual process in order to check this problem. The problems were identified after series of interviews and examination of documents after which analysis was made and a computerized procedure recommended. This project will also suggest how to successfully implement the computerized procedure and to overcome the obstacle that would hinder the successful implementation of the system. The new system was designed using Microsoft asp.net server side language and HTML. This language was chosen because of its object oriented features and wealth of .NET class libraries for developing online based applications.

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    Cash receipt generating system is a viable source in any business organization and venture and so on, its main purpose is to maintain more reliable records of money going in and out from the firm. This is look upon the view that the business organization must have business associates that exchange market with each other. It is a sure fact that the most have been a contract of which, there is an obligatory task that stands the terms of agreement, it could be a payment to their client or partners or from their client who pays into their own account. Another thing matters weather it will be cash without remark balance or install mental, and how many installment it is going to be.
    This is clear stated in the organization activities and manner of operation. Whenever there is payment, there is also the issuing of receipts this is centered on the writing of what each party has in stock.

    1.1 JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROJECT
    For there to be a computerized business operation, the business must be look upon in a new way of existence. Not only being concerned with customers, prices output and so forth one should also consider the fact that data forms, information flows procedures etc. it is momentous on the basic that computers are used as a co-existing element to information system. This application is effective and productive because it enhance to process amore better information system. (Automated)
    On this work, we shall basically look upon the possibility of making the outline orderly model of designing effect change. The process of changing system is systematic such that it is a repetition process. It is a fact to say that every system has what is called life cycle especially information system. By reviewing and modifying them, we say,

    It is a system development cycle. The routine is always cyclical. It is on the system development that the familiar input processing output-feedback pattern of all system. The system development contains the output which consists of various organization information systems. The feedbacks components help evaluate the effectiveness of the systems terms of changing requirements.

    IN THE PROCESSING COMPONENTS WE HAVE THREE PARTS
    System analysis
    System design
    System implementation.
    None of these parts can be considered apart from the other two. To be courtesy, I would say that the activities involved in system development is interlinked set.

    1.2 DEFINITION OF PURPOSE
    The rate of accepting different sources of receipt by the topic of this project paper into an organization, keeping track of the files can at any operates the organization and client’s financial report.

    1.3 PROBLEM DEFINITION
    Cash receipt system of Rorban Stores LTD. Is to keep records of all receipts of purchase and sales made.
    By so doing, they keep information concerning each transaction such as the name of client, address, data of transaction, description of goods. Quantity of goods, model number of the goods, the amount of the goods.
    Inside this record the company can the know the financial reports of both the client and the organization itself.

    1.3 SCOPE (DELIMITATION) OF THE PROJECT
    This project is basically restricted to Rorban Stores LTD, as a case study for the project paper. Looking Rorban stores, the cash receipts system is restricted only to the.

    1. Purchase receipts and/or invoice
    2. Sales receipts and/or invoice

    Other organization may run a different receipts system. At this project paper we shall base only on sales and purchases.

    SCOPE OF PURCHASES
    Out of this interview with the accountant and sales manager of Rarban stores LTD, I discovered that the organization do not keep any record on credits when purchases are made. Therefore the term paper nullifies the idea of computing credit in the purchase.
    It will be right to say that Rorban stores do not go into purchasing on credit to avoid keeping much records that most often conflict matters.

    SCOPE OF SALES
    There is a particular sales file for all buyers and dealers (companies that buy from them) that buy on cash. It also maintains a separate buyer’ sales creditors files, and a separate buyers sales debtors files, that is kept by the company.
    Therefore the term paper is basically on the above mention area as in sales. By this the company maintains one purchase data base file and three sales data base files, a total of four data base files.

    DEFINITION OF TERMS
    ACQUIRING BANK: This is a bank or financial institution that accepts payments for the product or services on behalf of a Merchant.
    ASP.NET: This is a powerful server side scripting language for creating dynamic and interactive website.
    COMPUTER: This is an electro-mechanical device that is capable of accepting data as inputs, stores it, processes the data and outputs it as result or information.
    CREDIT CARD: It is a payment mechanism that enables consumers to make their online purchase.
    DATA: Data are raw facts which undergo processing and become information. They are also the simplest unit of information that can stand on its own.
    DIGITAL CERTIFICATE: It is a certificate that enables a merchant to do on-line business and it is been issued by a corporate body.
    GATEWAY: This is a device that connects two computer networks that cannot be connected in any other way.
    HYPERTEXT DOCUMENTS: They are documents written with HTML, ASP, ASP..NET, PHP, JAVA SCRIPT PAGES (JSP), CODE FUSION, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES.
    INTERNET: It is an interaction of computer networks connecting other networks from computers, companies, houses etc.
    ISP: (Internet Service Provider):This is a company(s) that provides internet access to homes or business users.
    MERCHANT ACCOUNT: It’s a contract under which an acquiring bank extends a line of credit to a merchant who wishes to accept payment card association brand
    MS SQL: This is relational database server that is ideal for both small and large applications.
    ON-LINE SUPERMARKET: It is representation of material or real shop on the internet or on the web.
    ON-LINE SHOPPING: This is the buying and selling of products through the internet or web.
    PROGRAM: A program is a sequence of instructions written in a computer to execute a certain task and solve a problem. A program must possess clarity, be specific, effective and user friendly.
    WWW (World Wide Web): It is a multimedia interface that connects us to resources such as documents, e-mails, chat, web sites that are available on the internet with the computer.

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    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    According Jantz (2001) the emergence of computer based information system has changed the world a great deal, both large and small system have adopted the new methodology by use of personal computer; to fulfill several roles in the production of information therefore computerizing the documentation of patient record to enable easier manipulation of the input process and output will bring us to this existing new world of information system. Patients records and disease pattern documentation is concerned with documentation of information obtained from patients and their particular health system in order to function properly. If this information is not documented perfectly causing some data to get misplaced, the health system will not be efficient.

    According tang (2001) In examine the document system that in existence at the hospital that is mostly manual much importance has been placed on creating a system that document the inpatient record using a computerized database system with a secure procedure for accessing it. One of the unit of the std/aids control program (STD/HCP) a server doctor at consultant level who is assisted by 3 doctors, a secretary, 5 medical assistance7 nurses trained consolers and part time statisticians and 2 laboratory technologists head of units. The various diseases managed at the unit include the following syphilis, virgin its, molluscus, scabies‟, pubic lice, gonorrhea, trichomoiasis, gentle mart etc.
    Patient information past and present is extremely vital in the provision of patient‟s care which guides the physician in the making of right decision about the diagnosis. The rapid growth of information technology and system made to choose the health care industry to borrow a page from the air industry for the sake of patient‟s safety. Pilots have instant access to the data they need in whether condition and mechanical function to make information decision about navigation and delay.

    PROBLEM STATEMENT
    The absence of a well established information system to serve patient and staff has led to inconveniences. This has tantamount to the loss of patient and staff records. This is basically because of the weakness of the existing system which includes over reliance on paper based work. Paper files consume a lot of the office space, slow recording, processing and retrieval of patient details. Accessing and sharing of information by different departments is difficult due to poor information management.

    OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
    The main objective of the study is to design and implement an information system for patients in a hospital. Specific objectives of the study are:
    1. To develop a secure system that protects patient data and other vital information of the hospital.
    2. To design and implement a patient information management system (PIMS)

    DEFINITION OF OPERATIONAL TERMS

    Hospital: is defined as the entity that provides the medical services to the patient in questioned at a given period of time which is basically curative and preventive and is offered in clinic unit x-ray/ ultra sound, laboratory and dental unit in the hospital.
    Patient Record Management System: It is a system that can manage multiple administrators and can have the track of the right assigned to them. It makes sure that all the Administrators function with the system as per the rights assigned to them and they can get their work done in efficient manner. Medical Form: it refers to the medical document describing the patient initials, diagnoses and treatment of a particular patient in question that can be used for future reference incase of no improvement in the health condition of the patient hence changes can be carried out accordingly.
    Consultations Fee: is the money paid by the patient in question at the receptionist desk before any medical attention.

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    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background of the Study
    Although transportation has liberated man and makes him more mobile, his increasing reliance on vehicular movement has conferred great facilities on him and his activities. The greatest culprit of all the modes of transport is road of which traffic accident is the most disturbing repercussion of its use.
    Road traffic accident is therefore an issue of great international concern as it has emerged as the single greatest source of death all over the world. In the developing countries where the number of motor vehicles relating to population is generally much lower than in the developed countries, fatalities from automobile crashes are higher. It has been shown, for instance, that accidents in developing countries cost almost one percent of these countries Annual Gross National Product utilizing scarce financial resources they can ill-afford to lose .
    Nigeria, with a total land area of 910,771 square kilometres and human population of about 167 million, is the most populous country in Africa, and the 7th most populous nation in the world. Its large land mass and burgeoning population correlate with its high level of vehicular population estimated at over 7.6 million with a total road length of about 194,000 kilometres (comprising 34, 120 km federal, 30,500 Km, State and 129,580 km of local roads). Nigeria ranked as the country with the second largest road network in Africa in 2011. Its population density which varies in rural and urban areas (approximately 51.7% and 48.3% respectively) translates to a population- road ratio of 860 persons per square kilometres indicating intense traffic pressure on the available road network. This pressure contributes to the high road traffic accidents in the country .
    The Nigeria situation has reached such an alarming proportion even to the point of sheer frustration and near helplessness. Nigeria continues to feature in the bottom half of World Health Organisation country rankings of road traffic accidents. The country‟s 149th ranking in 2009 out of 178 member states indicates the hazards associated with road transportation in a country that is largely dependent on its road network for economic, social and physical activities.
    Indeed news of road traffic accidents in Nigeria no longer stirs any surprise. What may be shocking, however, is the magnitude of the fatality. Daily, Nigerian Newspapers carry news of road traffic accidents that are considered significant only in severity. Sometimes the papers sum up the number of lives claimed as if they were providing an expenditure account. e.g. “over 100 lives lost to fatal accidents in the Nyanya area in the last one year‟. Such news indicates that we live in accidents every day.
    According to Sumaila road traffic accidents have claimed more lives than deaths resulting from all communicable diseases put together including the dreaded Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome AIDS). Thus, the government and people of Nigeria are deeply concerned about the continuing high rate of road accidents and the unnecessary consequential waste of lives and properties. What is worrisome is the fact that road traffic crashes and mortality rates are still high despite various remedial measures taken in recent years to combat the problem.
    Transportation and property are important in physical and economic development of towns and cities all over the world. Property and land values tend to increase in areas with expanding transportation networks, and increase less rapidly in areas without such improvements. Rapid and continued rise in housing and land prices are expected in cities with transportation improvements and rapid economic and population growth .
    Man, nations, regions and the world would be severely limited in development without transportation, which is a key factor for physical and economic growth . Transportation systems and land use are interdependent. Indeed findings of earlier studies indicate compelling and consistent connections amongst them . According to Bailey, Mokhtarian, and Littlel , transportation route is part of distinct development pattern or road network and mostly described by regular street patterns as an indispensable factor of human existence, development and civilization. The route network coupled with increased transport investment result in changed levels of accessibility reflected through Cost Benefit Analysis, savings in travel time, and other benefits. These benefits are noticeable in increased catchment areas for services and facilities like shops, schools, offices, banks, and leisure activities.
    Road networks are observed in terms of its components of accessibility, connectivity, and traffic density, level of service, compactness, and density of particular roads. Level of service is a measure by which the quality of service on transportation devices or infrastructure is determined, and it is a holistic approach considering several factors regarded as measures of traffic density and congestion rather than overall speed of the journey .
    Access to major roads provides relative advantages consequent upon which commercial users locate to enjoy the advantages. Modern businesses, industries, trades and general activities depend on transport and transport infrastructure, with movement of goods and services from place to place becoming vital and inseparable aspects of global and urban economic survival. Developments of various transportation modes have become pivotal to physical and economic developments.
    Such modes include human porterage, railways, ropeways and cableways, pipelines, inland waterways, sea, air, and roads .
    According to Oyesiku , urbanization in Nigeria has a long history in its growth and development. Extensive development being a feature of the 19th and 20th centuries, with concentration of economic and administrative decision-making in Lagos, Ibadan, Kaduna, Jos, and Enugu, and high degree of specialization and larger population associated with greater specialization of goods and services. Wyatt states that urban areas have tendency to develop at nodal points in transport network and places with good road network will possess relative advantage over locations having poor network. Urban locations with such relative advantage are found where different transport routes converge with high degree of compactness, connectivity, density, length and accessibility exhibited within the intra- and inter- urban road networks.
    Ikeja is a typical example in the history of growth and development of cities in Nigeria. The city became capital of Lagos State in 1976 with improved road networks developed to cater for increase in concentration of pedestrian and vehicular movements. Similarly, commercial activities like banking, retail/wholesale businesses, and professional services congregated to take advantage of nearness to seat of governance. Concentration of activities attracted consumers and ancillary service providers. This partly caused increase in demand for commercial space and its concomitant effects on commercial property values along arterial roads in the metropolis.
    The present position concerning commercial properties in Ikeja is that majority are located along arterial roads that deliver much of the vehicular and pedestrian movements. There have been increases in rental values along the individual arterial roads although not at equal rates. It is against this background that this research analyzed the arterial roads, determined the levels of accessibility, connectivity, traffic density of the individual arterial roads, examined the pattern of commercial property values and the relationship between the explanatory variables of the road network in Ikeja Nigeria.
    1.2 Statement of the Problem
    With respect to the road travel, it is important to evaluate the extent and quality of the road network. As be seen from a tour of rural areas, many roads that have been constructed, are in a terrible state of disrepair. As with so many things in post-oil-boom Nigeria, many rural areas are only accessible by car in the dry season. Certain stretches of rural roads are so bad that motorized vehicles have by-passed the original road way to form new dirt tracks, other portion of rural roads have been reduced to one lane. Thus, small areas decay can very rapidly expand under the forces of erosion and weathering in the rainy season. Much of the problems associated with the erosion of road ways are compounded by the lack of adequate drainage infrastructure (which also make driving hazardous during heavy rains). While Nigeria are not forced to address maintenance problems derived from recurrent freezing and thawing (like temperate area of the United States), they do have to deal with intense seasonal rain.
    Another issue that directly relates to urban transportation is city planning, while the extent and effectiveness of planning in Nigeria cities varies to some extent, most urban areas are forced to deal with city regions where no formal planning was conducted. Hence transportation routes are often confined to pre-existing routes that may not always follow optimum courses. A diagrammatical example of planning done after development occurred in the city of Ibadan in 1980’s. Under military direction, city workers bulldozed swaths of houses and business, making ways for new streets. While this action probably improved traffic flow in certain part of the city, it clearly violated the human rights of the people affected by the removal process.
    One area to be discussed is the issue of urban transportation. It is that of cost of transportation.
    Another aspect of Nigeria urban transportation is the notable lack of public transportation. One final issue to consider with respect to cost of transportation is the cost of fuel. It is ironic indeed that oil-inch country such as Nigeria often has a scarcity of fuel.
    The factors that contributed to the discontinuous supply of oil are the reduced production capacity of Nigeria refineries and price controls imposed by the Federal government.
    It now remain a few words about inter-regional and inter-city transportation. First, most internal transportation is via land, many inter-urban land linkage are in good condition relative to rural-rural linkages.

    1.4 Objectives of the Studies
    The objective of the project work is to provide an on-line system which will help to speed up services rendered to customers. In the work I will aim at designing and implementing an on-line ticketing and travel reservation system. The presence of this on-line system will help to update file accurately, and reservation terminals can be linked to other office in the ITC transport.
    After the data or information of a customer has been collected (this data includes; seat no, passenger’s name, time of arrival and departure time) they are processed by the computer, the output file when produce (which consist of passenger’s name, seat no, departure and arrival time) etc is updated and it is then used for report making or accounting. These report obtained from the updated file can be used for auditing by their board of directors.

    1.5 The Significance of the Study
    On-line ticketing increase the speed with which access is made to data. Hence data can be retrieved or processed when necessary. However, in on-line ticketing and travel reservation system data are:
    i. Collected in full with accuracy
    ii. Generated at appropriate time
    iii. Kept up-to-date and accurate in file process properly, accurately to provide good information.

    1.6 Scope and limitation of the Study
    The extent to be covered in this project is the designing and implementation of on-line ticketing and travel reservation system.
    The limitations are time and cost of transportation constraint, lack of fund in carrying out the project work and insufficient material such as textbooks.
    1.7 Definitions of Terms
    i. Browser: This is a program that allows user to access documents on the World Wide Web (WWW). Browsers can be either text or graphic.
    ii. E-Ticket: E-ticket (electronic ticket) is used to represent the purchase of a seat for a passenger through a website. This form of ticketing is rapidly replacing the old paper tickets. It exists only as a digital record in the transportation industry.
    iii. Graphics: This is the picture that computers display. Not text but just about everything else.
    iv. Internet: Internet (international network of computer) is a system of computer network connected to one another from different parts of the world, forming a very large network. Internet is an example of global area network.
    v. Online: This is when something is connected to a computer or controlled by a computer or to the Internet.
    vi. Protocol: This is the agreed method computer used to communicate with each other. It can be also define as a convention or agreement between the operating system of two machines on what messages may contain.
    vii. Reservation: This means arranging for a seat, ticket to be kept for the use of a particular person.
    viii. Server: This is a program or a computer that responds to request from other program and delivers the requested document. It can also be defined as a central computer that supervises the control of the network activities of other computer on a network.
    ix. Transportation: Is the means of traveling from one place to another.
    x. WebPages: This is an individual page on the Internet. Every time you click on a link you are taken to a new web page.
    xi. Website: It is a collection of related files this term describes a particular company’s users, or organization’s web pages served up by a web server.

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    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.0 Synopsis
    The operation of any company is based on the contribution of staff either from executive level or operational level. For example, in a factory, the shop floor operation required full attendance of engineer, technical staff, and operation level staff before they start the operation. Therefore, the attendance system provides the information of the student existing to a particular lecture. Their information will help them to plan the operation and do any changes for any absent.
    Attendance can be defined as the action of being present at one place or event
    [1] For example present to somebody party or present to work in office. Attendance is one of the important factors in many institutions and organization that need to be followed by people
    [2]. Staff attendance tracking is a common practice in almost all organizations or institution. It is highly important for one organization in order to maintain their performance standards.
    [3]. In the previous implementation, there are various types of attendance systems that have been developed. For example: attendance systems by using pen and paper, using database, and also biometrics. These implementations still can cause lots of problems such as providing incorrect information to the users.
    The purpose of this integrated attendance system is to computerized the traditional way of record attendance. Besides that it is used to create a combination of various types of attendance where users can either choose to use smart card or fingerprint technologies. For example, by using combination of both smart card and fingerprint technologies to record workers attendance, the attendance system can be strongly protected and the inappropriate manner of behaviors can be eliminated. If one of the devices is malfunction, the others can acts as backup.

    1.1 Problem statement
    For organization that use pen and paper to record their attendance, with the large number of staff in the organization, this will be a problem to the record keeper to keep track on staff attendance because by using pen and paper, one staff can help other staff to sign his/her attendance even though they do not go to work or either the staff are late to work.
    With the existing approach, there is only a single input device use to record the student attendance either using smart card or fingerprint. If one university would like to have 2 different input of attendance system to provide interchangeable function, they will need to purchase both systems which will be costly. In addition, if one day the single input device suddenly breakdown, the attendance cannot be recorded.
    Therefore, there is a need to develop an integrated attendance system with various type of input to fulfill student needs and requirements because it is flexible and it can bring convenient to the organization to summarize and manipulate staff information. Lack of effectiveness in their methods of record keeping, further compounds the problem.

    1.2 Aims and objectives of the study
    The aim of the study is to design and implementation of staff attendance system using finger print.
    The objectives of this project are:
    i. To develop an Integrated Staff Attendance System (ISAS) by using fingerprint technologies.
    ii. To provide the potential users with the customize option of using both input device.
    iii. To develop an algorithm for the student processing towards attendance system

    1.3 Justification for the study
    The use of staff attendance system is very important because of human being proneness to error, leaving the staff to write down their names might not be accurate as staff can even write attendance for their fellow staff and their handwriting legibility can be a case when compiling the attendance record at the end of the semester.
    The official in charge of attendance collation is highly favored by this system because use of pen and paper as a means of collating staff attendance will leave the official in charge with numerous sheets of paper, which will be hectic as he/she has to start comparing several sheets to record the average attendance for just a staff. The official is going to waste a lot of time compiling the attendance percentage at the end of the semester, mistake can creep in due to the large volumes of papers.
    Successful implementation of this project mean the student attendance credibility can be queried or put to test anytime, and result are produce fast and accuracy, without stress.

    1.4 Methodology
    An embedded system is a combination of softwareandhardwareto performadedicatedtask.Someof the maindevicesusedinembeddedproductsaremicroprocessorsand microcontrollers.In thisproject,afingerprint based attendance systemusingmicrocontrollerisimplemented.Microcontroller forms thecontrolling module and it istheheartofthedevice.Initiallythefingerprintofusers andthatwillbeverifiedwiththefingerprintthatwasgivingatthetime of registration.
    Iftheboth fingerprints arematchedthen, it will be confirmed that the person should be mark present.Thetaskrelated instructions areloadedintothe microcontrollerwhichisprogrammedusingembeddedlanguage.The systemconsistsofMicrocontrollerUnit,Fingerprintmodule,LCD,aUSBsystem module to interact with the pc for reading and writing of dataand microcontrollerthatcollectdatafromthefingerprintmodule.Asitisbasedonthefingerprintauthentication thereisnochanceone student writing the name of is friend.
    AfingerprintreadershowninFigure.3.1isthe inputdevice.Theflashmemorycomprisesoffingerprint templateandotherdetailsofthe person.
    This is the design phase of the Biometric based Staff Attendance Register Software. It involved decomposing thewhole system into modules and defining the relationship among the constituent modules. Top down design approachwas employed which involved dividing the system into subsystems or modules and each subsystem being furtherdivided into even smaller subs. This process of division is repeated until each module is sufficiently small enough tobe conveniently coded (implemented) as an independent entity that performs a clearly defined operation.

    Figure 1.1 Fingerprint Reader

    1.4.1 Model Formulation
    _ Fingerprint Acquisition
    At the enrolment phase, the fingerprints would be acquired such that the print of the texture of the first finger (that isthe pointing finger) is obtained twice and analyzed for processing. The fingerprint samples would be stored in aMicrosoft SQL Server database with the aid of an interfaced fingerprint reader/scanner. The fingerprints are then tobe saved inside a database to cater for subsequent need for the various fingerprint analysis during matching.

    _ Fingerprint Feature Extraction
    In any fingerprint image, there are dark lines which are called ridges, whereas the spaces in between those darklines are called valleys. Ridges and valleys often run in parallel but there are two things that happen to any print. It iseither, the ridges and the valleys terminate or they bifurcate. Termination of a fingerprint is simply the situation inwhich a particular ridge ends abruptly while bifurcation is the situation by which the line splits into two. In the analysisof the fingerprint images during matching (authentication), the pattern of the fingerprint exhibits one or more regionswhere the ridge lines assume distinctive shapes; which are: loop, delta and whorl. If the fingerprint scan matches anyone stored in the database at the enrolment phase, the staff with the fingerprint will be updated as present for the
    lecture.
    _ Minutiae Extraction
    Each fingerprint images in the database after enrolment will be processed in order to extract a unique feature calledminutiae. It is this unique feature that will be compared at the (authentication) matching phase. This requires thefingerprint grey-scale image to be converted into a binary image. The binary images obtained by the process aresubmitted to a thinning stage which allows for the ridge line thickness to be reduced to one pixel. Finally, a simpleimage scans allows the detection of pixels that correspond to minutiae through the pixel-wise computation ofcrossing number.

    1.4.2 Workflow Development
    1.4.3 Model Evaluation
    The system consists of two main modules (phases); the enrolment module and the authentication (the attendance taking) module. The enrolment module can be referred to as the registration module. It starts with the taking offingerprint using the scanner, the fingerprint key features are extracted and the template gotten is then checked toverify if it has been taken before or not. If the fingerprint template is identified, the execution process will go back tothe line of code where fingerprint is being extracted, informing the user that ‘fingerprint template has been collectedbefore’. If the fingerprint template is not found, then it will be saved. This ensures that no single user can be enrolled(registered) more than once. Every successful fingerprint template is enrolled, and user’s details are saved alongsidewith the template. Figure ii depicts the enrollment flow process.
    The authentication module verifies a registered (enrolled) user and allows the attendance to be taken. Itstarts with the taking of the finger print; the template of the finger print taken is extracted. The system goes ahead toverify the template to check if it has been pre stored (registered), so that it can match it with an existing templatetaken. If no finger print template has been pre-stored (matching unsuccessful), the system displays “PleaseRegister”. But if the matching is successful, the attendance status for the day is checked. If the fingerprint hasalready been matched for the lecture period, it displays. “Attendance Already Taken for period” and if not it goesahead to take the Staff’s Attendance. This ensures that the attendance cannot be taken more than once by the samestaff for the same lecture. The Admin views and generates reports of the staff using the attendance register of everyuser according to the time table. Figure iii depicts the authentication flow process.

    1.5 Scope and limitation of the study
    The scope of this study is to design and implement staff attendance system using finger print reader a case study of organization in Nigeria. The limitations of this study are:
    1. Unavailability of academic materials
    2. Transport problem
    3. Lack of financial support
    4. Lack of Time
    5. Unavailability of programming software such as vb.Net, and Crystal report

    1.6 Glossary of Operational Terms
    Management: It is the co-ordination of all the resources of an organization through the process of planning organization, directing and controlling.
    System: Physical component of a computer that is used to perform certain task.
    Data: Numbers, Text or image which is in the form suitable for Storage in or processing by a computer, or incomplete Information.
    Information: A meaning full material derived from computer data by organizing it and interpreting it in a specified way.
    Input: Data entered into a computer for storage or processing.
    Output: Information produced from a computer after processing.
    Information System: A set of interrelated components that collect (or retrieve), process, store and distribute information to support decision making and control in an organization.
    Computer: Computer is an electronic device that accepts data as Input, processes data and gives out information as output to the user
    Software:-Software is set of related programs that are designed by the manufacturer to control the hardware and to enable the computer perform a given task.
    Hardware: -Hardware is a physical part of a computer that can be touched, seen, feel which are been control by the software to perform a given task.
    Database: -Database is the collection of related data in an organized form.
    Programming:- programming is a set of coded instruction which the computers understands and obey.
    Technology: -Technology is the branch of knowledge that deals with the creation and use technical and their interrelation with life, society and the environment, drawing upon such as industrial art, engineering, applied science and pure science.
    Algorithm: A set of logic rules determined during the design phase of a data matching application. The ‘blueprint’ used to turn logic rules into computer instructions that detail what step to perform in what order.
    Application: The final combination of software and hardware which performs the data matching.
    Data matching database: A structured collection of records or data that is stored in a computer system.
    Data cleansing: The proactive identification and correction of data quality issues which affect an agency’s ability to effectively use its data
    Data integrity: The quality of correctness, completeness and complain with the intention of the creators of the data i.e. ‘fit for purpose’.
    Enrollment: The process of an individual to enroll in an agency. Involves the initial collection of identifying details

    1.8 projects Organization
    This project consists of five (5) chapters. Chapter 1 discusses on the introduction of the system. The purpose of this chapter is to briefly explain about the overview system that is developed. This chapter also supply with the problem statements, objectives and the scope of the study.
    Chapter 2 is literature review. As the name given the purpose of this chapter is to reviews the previous research works which was conducted by other researches. All the relevant journal, thesis and books taken from those researches will be discussed in detail.
    Chapter 3 is research methodology;this chapter reveals the techniques, algorithms and related software that will be used for the project development. Besides that, it will also discuss about the process flow in detail of this research. Chapter 4 is implementation and testing. This chapter documenting all the process that involved in developing this system and the testing made to the system. Lastly, chapter 5, the conclusion concludes and come out with a summary about the developed project.

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    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background of the Study
    The effect of the contributory pension Scheme (CPS) in the Nigeria economy since its inception cannot be underestimated. This can be attested to from the drastic reduction in external borrowings and from numerous developments in capital projects embarked upon and executed by the government since the enforcement of PRA 2004 and the level of accessibility to funds by the reputable/quoted companies as well as government to meet their financial needs especially long- term funds.
    The essence of the contributory pension scheme (CPS) is not only to ensure individuals have access to his/her retirement benefits as and when due or to promote saving culture in economy, but essentially to serve as long- term source of fund for government and quoted companies in order to meet their long term financial needs, which the short- term source of finance cannot meet or solved.
    However, the enactment of the Pension Reform Act in 2004 by then Olu-Obasanjo administration and its acceptability and enforcement in the F.C.T, public and private sector of the economy have transformed most real sectors and speed – up the completion of capital projects as result of easy accessibility to long- term fund through Contributory Pension Scheme. Though, many scholars will certainly criticize the impact of the contributory pension scheme (CPS) in the Nigeria economy, but this work is to critically review its impact in the Nigeria economy, basically how the scheme have help in the development and growth in the gross domestic products as well as creation of employment.
    The impacts of the contributory pension scheme have been seen in the reduction external debt/borrowings, increase in developmental projects executed, strong capital market capitalization and financial institution turnaround or re-engineering.
    The contributory pension scheme (CPS) is governed by the Pension Reform Act. Recently, the operating Pension Reform Act 2004 was repealed to reflect and accommodates the exigencies of grail areas that were not in the previous Act. This action warrant the amendments to essential areas of the Pension Reform Act 2004 to ensure total compliance with the new pension Reform Act 2014 that was signed into law in July, 2014.
    Pension is the regular stipend or an amount that is expected either monthly or quarterly basis through any mode of withdrawal s/he chooses at point of retirement to ensure the retiree could still be able live within the standard of living as at when s/he was working.
    Therefore, pension scheme has been in existence prior to emergence of the nation as practiced in the development countries. Its sole purpose is to ensure that retirees (i.e individual who have worked) have/can access its retirement benefits as and when due and promote saving culture.
    The pension framework started with establishment of the National provident fund (NPF) that was operational for years before the emergence of the National Social Insurance Trust Funds (NSIFT) which covered essentially the private companies with mandate to deduct certain percentage of workers emolument and employers’ quota and remit the total contribution to insurance companies via NSITF. The process was not transparent and efficiently managed due to the lack of Investment guidelines and strong regulatory agency to monitor the activities of the then scheme; metamorphosed to the enactment of the Pension Reform Act 2004 that birthed the contributory pension scheme. The birthed of the pension reform in June 2004 dismantled NSITF, the detail of the PRA 2004 will be review in the next chapter. The Act elaborates strict measure of compliance and punitive approaches. It specifies contributory rates for both employers and employees which individuals are expected to open a retirement savings account where the pension benefits can be remitted. The act empower pensions fund administrators to mobilize funds and efficiently manage the pool of funds through investment in financial instruments in appropriate ratios as specified by the regulator i.e National Pension Commission to avoid reckless investments by the Pension Fund Administrators to avoid capital erosion.
    Essentially, the impact of the contributory pension scheme have been seen and felt in the Nigeria economy through:
    (a) Rapid growth in the gross domestic product
    (b) Reduction in external debt/borrowings
    (c) Creation of employment
    (d) Strong source of long- term fund to finance capital projects and good avenue for easy access to funding for quoted companies and government.
    (e) Transparent and efficient management of retirement benefits to ensure workers retire comfortably.
    (f) Cultivate strong/mandatory saving cultures in the economy.
    (g) Strong reserve mechanism.

    1.2 Statement of the Problem
    The contributory pension scheme since its embracement by the concerned entities and possible enforcement to make it operational in the economy witnessed serious setback due to unacceptable dynamism and non- conformity by various sectors. With the success recorded in the industry so far within the short- period of operation in the economy, cannot be compare with desire result pre-supposed to have been attained assuming all affected entities, individuals and states that are yet be enact a bye- law to back its operational and enforcement embrace the scheme. Therefore, the problem of enforcement of the enacted law/act becomes imperative as there is no strong task force or sanctions even though there are paper enacted sanctions for those individuals, entities and government parastatals that refused to embrace into the scheme; but there has been no significant implementation of the act on the affected. This nonchalant attitude on the part of the regulatory agency has really encourage most affected entities to evade or circumvent the scheme that could have serve as a pool of funds for long- term source of funds for infrastructure development, provision of social amenities and other economic growth greed.
    On the other hand, the quoted companies probably complied not because they really want to but as an operational requirement for them to remain in the floor of capital market, but what happen to unquoted companies in which most of them employ large active workforce of the population that have refused to embrace the Scheme. Most of them become compelled to comply because either they require a compliance certificate for contracts bidding, otherwise after then they discontinued to remit for the employees, thereby create unfunded accounts. The Pension Fund Administrators might follow up to recover the unremitted sum; but they are not empowered by the law to compel the employer to pay or remit for the employees. Though, the new Act provides that such companies should be reported to the regulator in the event of non- remittance of pension contribution over a certain period of time (not specific) but most Pension Fund Administrators give a grace period of six (6) months of discontinuity. However, the basic question we should be asking is that, how many of these defaulters have been persecuted or tried is the law court? This reveals the lackadaisical attitude of the regulator in enforcing the provision of the Act.
    Apart from the non- enforcement of the act on the part of the regulator and no strict compliance by the most unquoted companies and government parastatals/states, there is low sensitization and dissemination of information by the Pension Fund Administrators to the public. The investment apparatus set-up by the regulator also constraint the Pension Fund Administrators to really invest the pension funds in real economy to boast the economy growth and development. The National Pension Commission (PENCOM) has strictly set –out percentages of funds under management (FUMS) to be invested in various sectors or markets or financial instruments to guide against Pension Fund Administrators taking unreasonable risk that will erode the pool of funds. As we can reconnect the trends in the capital market during the economics recession where Nigerian capital market and the global market experienced a down- turn in funds. The impairment of funds cannot be overemphasized because of its negative impact on the economy, therefore, the strict measure is put in place by the regulator to safeguard the individuals funds ie pension benefits or fund.
    In this research work, we practically endorse the approach of strict enforcement of the act on all concerns to continue grow the pool of funds that will reduce the existing cost of capital in the market. Because if we have a growing pool of fund it will affords the economic sectors to easily have access to relatively cheap funds to finance their long- term projects that will have positive impact on the economy. There should also be a taskforce and compulsory annual renewal certificate expect of all unquoted and quoted entities to produce in order to remain in operation. It should be given equal jurisdiction of taxation backing to remedy the set- back and evasion of compliance and non- remittance for those entities or employer that have set in.
    The process of bye-law in the states, local governments should be short- cut with timing of the Act. The PFAs should be empowered to send the names of non- complied employers to the industrial counts and not the regulators that are inefficient.
    1.3 Purpose of the Study
    The main objective of this study is to examine the input of contributory pension scheme on the Nigeria economy. Specifically the study focuses to:
    i. Determine the impact of contributory pension scheme (CPS) in economic development of Nigeria.
    ii. Review the impact of the act in compelling all concerns to embrace the scheme.
    iii. Compare the issue in the formal operative scheme and the now contributory pension scheme (CPS)
    iv. To find out whether employers comply with the scheme
    v. To ascertain the import of setting investment limit for the Pension Fund Administrators is the management of funds.
    vi. To find out how the new PRA, 2014 will positively impact in the continuous growth of pension funds in the economy.
    vii. To ascertain whether the enactment and migration from NSITF to CPS has really resulted is transparency and efficient management of pension’s funds in Nigeria.
    viii. To ascertain the process and management of pension funds that creates economic impact and development growth.
    ix. To evaluate the effectiveness of contributory pension scheme in Nigeria
    x. To review the connectivity among the organs in the scheme.
    1.4 Research Question
    Having defined the background to the problem and purpose of the study it is believed that practical answers will be provided to the following question at the end of the study;

    1. Does contributory pension scheme affect the development growth of Nigeria economy?
    2. How does the new pension scheme different from the operated scheme i.e NSITF or the government defined benefits?
    3. Do regulator and other organs in the scheme perform their duties according to the pension policies or act?
    4. To what extent has contributory pension scheme affects the Nigeria economy and prospective millennium development goals?
    5. How does the attitude of employers affect the management of contributory pension scheme?
    6. What should be done or put in place to compel all concerns to embrace the scheme?
    7. How does frequent amendment is the pension perform Acts affect the impact of contributory pension scheme.
    8. What should be done to ensure strict compliance in all sectors?

    1.5 Research Hypothesis
    In order to find answers to the questions above this hypothesis is formulated for test.
    H1. There is no significant relationship between the contributory pension scheme and the gross domestic products in the Nigeria economy.
    1.6 Significance of Study
    This study will be of aid to a lot of people. It is believed that the results of its findings will be far reading to the following categories of people. The PFA managers and PFC managers; It will avail them the opportunity of knowing how employers could react to enforcement of the pension scheme on them, the cost implications.
    The auditors will find the result of this study also useful is the course of performing their professional duties in terms of reporting on the financial statement of PFAs and PFCs, especially the investment limit and also the complied employers as regard to contributory rates and regular remittance the financial analysis and economic policy makers will be acquainted with the impact of pension perform Acts on the contributory pension scheme and their multiplier effect on the economy.
    More importantly, the need for strict compliance and observance of the pension reform Act or polices rate applicable and regular remittance with objective by the pension manager will revealed.
    1.7 Scope of the Study
    The research work intends to cover the relevant pension perform Act and the evolution of pension scheme in Nigeria and its impact in the economy the wide coverage of the pension perform Act of 2004 and 2014 with critical analysis of its implication and impact of the contributory pension scheme in the Nigeria economy.
    However, in-depth analysis of data of pension fund mobilization per licensed pension funds Administrators in Nigeria since inception of the contributory pension scheme in 2004 to date. This will reveal the prospect and potential investment for economic growth. It will also look at legal framework and duties as enacted in the law i.e PRA 2004 & 2014 of each organ for transparent and efficient management of pension scheme in Nigeria.
    The survey of the study covers the economy of Nigeria as relate to the adoption and implementation of the PRA 2004 and 2014 in the remittance of pension funds or contributions of employers and employees regularly to the Pension Fund Custodians (PFC) for onward investment by the PFA that stimulates economic impact. The study revolve around the available financial resource at the researcher disposal, the analysis essentially focus on the organizations and government.
    1.8 Limitation of the Study
    This study as a matter of fact is supposed to the thorough and elaborate without persimmon, but the following problems were encountered.
    TIME CONSTRAINTS: This time of approval of the project topic and submission of the completed which was so short forced to limit the study to only organic framework of the contributory pension scheme in Nigeria.
    FINANCIAL CONSTRAINTS: A successful conduct of this work depends on finance which was not forth coming considering the present economic readily of the day.
    LACK OF MATERIAL: It is unfortunate considering the infancy of the pension industry that most operators’ management do not understand the need for research students to use their financial records, as a result, they tend to be uncompromising when it comes to obtaining relevant information and data, without pre-empting them it is believed that the uncompromising attitude of library staff affect the conduct of this study is terms of getting receivable marketer.
    1.9 Definition of Terms
    The following terms used in this work are defined as follows:
    1. Pension Scheme: An arrangement by which an employer and, usually, an employee pay into a fund that is invested to provide the employee with a pension on retirement.

    2. Annuity: A series of payment made at stated interval until a particular event- usually the death of the person receiving the annuity – occurs.
    3. Contributory Scheme: A scheme in which active members are required to make contributions toward the cost of their benefits.
    4. Defined contribution Scheme: Also know as a Money purchase scheme – a scheme where the individual member’s benefits is determined solely by reference to the contributors paid into scheme by or in behalf of the member and to investment return earned on those contribution.
    5. Funding: The provision in advance for future benefit n advance for future benefit liabilities by setting aside money in a trust, which is separate from the employer’s business, to finance the payment of pension.
    6. Investment: The process by which contributions and net income of a scheme are used to increase the value of pension fund assets by means of cash deposits, the purchases and sale of equities, bound’s property and other assess as authorized by the trust dead and by law.
    7. Pension Act: An Act of 2004 & 2014 for the regulation pension schemes, which provides for preservation of benefits, a funding standard in the case of defined benefits schemes, disclosure of information, the duties and responsibilities of PFA, PFC and National pension commission and a pension commission and pension Board to supervise the operatory of the Act.

    8. Unfunded Scheme: A scheme under which advance financial provision for the payment of benefits is not normally made.
    9. Pension: Is a fixed sum to be paid regularly to a person, typically following retirement from service.

    1.10 Organization of the Study
    This study id divided into five sub-headings. The first chapter was on the introduction in which we have overview, statement of problem, the purpose of the study, significance of the study, organization of the study, scope of the study, limitation of the study, hypotheses, research question and definition of the terms were all discussed.
    The second chapter dealt with the reviews of contribution of related literature on the impact of contributory pension scheme in the Niger economy and its related pension reforms Act as well as duties of organism the scheme.
    The third dealt with research methodology and tools utilized in the study. It explained to research designed, sample procedure/sample size determination, data collection techniques and data analysis method.
    Furthermore, chapter four deals with presentation of data analysis and interpretation of data so collected also include the hypothesis testing and findings for better decision.
    Finally, chapter five presents the summary, conclusion, and suggested recommendation of the research.

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    ABSTRACT

    The study examined the effects of guided Inquiry method on academic performance of chemistry students in selected senior secondary schools in Kaduna state. The study used a quasi-experimental research design.A sample of 120 senior secondary 11 (SS2) chemistry students were selected by random sampling from 2 urban and 2 rural schools which comprised both boys and girls with 30 students each in experimental and control groups respectively. The research instruments comprised of chemistry Achievement Test (CAT). The CAT contained 30 multiple choice questions with four options (A-D) and 5 essay questions. The students were divided into two groups; Experimental and control groups which were subjected to inquiry method and traditional methods of teaching respectively. The t-test statistics was used to analyze the data. Major findings revealed that Chemistry students taught using inquiry teaching method performed significantly better than their counterparts taught using traditional teaching method. Hence the study concluded that the inquiry teaching method produced students with significantly higher academic performance inChemistry. The study therefore recommend among others that the use of Inquiry teaching method should be encouraged in all Secondary Schools that offer Chemistry to its students in Kaduna State and other states in Nigeria, also Government should sponsor teachers to attend various workshops and seminars on appropriate and effective use of the inquiry teaching method.

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background to the Study Chemistry is the scientific study of interaction of chemical substances that constitute atoms or the subatomic particles; protons, electrons and neutrons. It is an integral part of the science curriculum both at the senior secondary school as well as higher institutions. At this level, it is often called “general chemistry” which is an introduction to a wide variety of fundamental concepts that enables students to acquire tools and basic skills useful at the advanced level. One of the objectives of science education is to develop students’ interest towards science and technology. The development of any nation today depends greatly on its technological and scientific advancement. Teachers are expected to device ways of motivating their students to develop positive attitudes towards science and science related disciplines (Sola and Ojo, 2007). Chemistry, in particular is central to many of the scientific fields of human endeavors; therefore, teaching ofchemistry should be given serious attention.
    Science teachers have always recognized the importance of practical work as a means of introducing learners to the scientific process of experimentation.To this end, the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the International Union of pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) have participated in numerous international meetingsto promote inexpensive experimental based teaching in chemistry. Inquiry teaching method is a style or method of teaching where the learner is seeking to discover and create answers to recognized problems through procedure of making a diligent search, some time with minimum guidance from the teacher (Callahan, et al 1995). Science process skills are based on scientific inquiry and teaching science by inquiry involves teaching students science process skills, critical thinking, scientific reasoning skills used by scientists (Pratt and Hackett, 1998) and inquiry is defined as an approach to teaching, the acts scientists use in doing science and it can be a highly effective teaching method that helps students to understand concepts and use of process skills (Yagger and Akcay, 2010). Inquiry teaching method is also a term used in science teaching that refers to a way of questioning, seeking knowledge, information or finding out about phenomena, it involves investigating data and arriving at a conclusion (Sola and Ojo, 2007). In inquiry situation students learn not only concept but also self-direction, responsibility and social communication. It also permits students to assimilate and accommodate information. It is the way people learn when they are left alone.
    Cheval and Hart (2005), classify inquiry teaching method into three (3) classes, namely: structured inquiry, guided inquiry and open inquiry. All these types of inquiry can be useful to students to learn science when taught appropriately. Structured inquiry is the most teacher-centered of the three types of inquiry. This type of inquiry is commonly seen in science classrooms in the form of laboratory exercises. The teacher provides fairly structured procedures for the inquiry activity, and students carry out the investigations. Structured inquiry could be described as the most traditional approach to inquiry (Cheval and Hart, 2005). The open inquiry on the other side is a type of inquiry which requires the least amount of teacher intervention and is student centered. Students, in this case, often work in groups and plan all phases of their investigations, while guided inquiry falls in the middle of the inquiry instructional spectrum. This type of inquiry is commonly used when students are asked to make tools or develop a process that results in a desired outcome. For example, a science teacher gives his seventh grade middle school students materials to create a rocket but no instructions for designing the rocket. The students must use their own knowledge and creativity to design the rocket so that it will launch properly, fly a certain distance, and land without becoming disassembled. The teacher provides the problem and materials and the students develop the rocket using their own scientific process or procedure (Cheval and Hart, 2005). In this study, guided inquiry will be used. Students will be given a set of topic and materials to develop method to find answers to the given problem. The lecture method is used primarily to introduce students to a new subject, but is also a valuable method for summarizing ideas, showing relationships between theory and practice, and re-emphasizing main points.Chemistry activities deals with telling and showing, therefore, a lecture-demonstration method is a teaching technique that combines oral explanation with “doing” to communicate processes, concepts and facts. It is particularly effective in teaching a skill that can be observed. Demonstration is usually accompanied by a thorough explanation, which is essentially a lecture. Lecture method according to Garba(1996), is a traditional method of transmission of knowledge; it is essentially a one-way process. The current Nigerian classroom whether primary, secondary or tertiary institutions level, tends to resemble a one-person show with a captain but often comatose audience. Classes are usually driven by “teacher-talk” and depend heavily on textbooks for the structure of the courses. Teachers serve as pipelines and seek to transfer their thoughts and meanings to passive students. There is little room for student-initiated questions, independent thought or interaction between students. Therefore, the study is aimed at determining the effect of guided inquiry teaching strategy and the traditional methods on students’ academic performance in chemistry at the senior secondary school level. Guided Inquiry teaching method is chosen in this study due to its scientific nature and it is student-centered and it involves all scientific process. 1.2 Statement of the Problem
    Students’ persistent poor performance in chemistry has been partly ascribed to inadequate teaching and instructional methods adopted by teachers. In supporting this view, Derek (2007), reported the seriousness of the deplorable performance of secondary school students in chemistry and identified the persistent use of the traditional methods of instruction as one of the major shortcoming affecting the learning and higher achievement in chemistry . Many students find chemistry to be a hindrance in attaining their aims and objectives. Donald, (2000) said students wishing to read medicine cannot do so unless they credit chemistry. It is therefore necessary to properly groom the students right from the secondary level to enable them improve their academic achievement in chemistry. Poor performance of students in science subjects, particularly chemistry, has assumed a serious dimension as reported by West African Examination Council (1991). In the light of this, science teachers need to seek suitable ways of tackling the current massive failure in chemistry if they are to halt the drifts of science students to art and social science subjects. 1.3 Objectives of the Study The objectives of this study are to: 1. determine the effects of guided inquiry method and traditional method on the performance of chemistry students in senior secondary schools in Kaduna state; 2. determine the effects of guided inquiry method on the performance of students in chemistry in Kaduna state; 3. determinethe effects of guided inquiry method on theperformance of male and female students in chemistry in Kaduna state; and 4. determine the differencein the performance between urban and rural students in chemistry taught with guided inquiry teaching method in Kaduna state.
    1.4 Research Questions
    1. It is assumed that most chemistry teachers in the secondary schools do not make use of appropriate chemistry teaching methods in secondary schools in Kaduna state. 2. It is also assumed that teachers are employed to teach Chemistry without considering their area of specialization, educational qualifications and training. 3. It is assumed that teachers do not use appropriate Chemistry teaching methods. 4. Learning by doing could enhance and motivate students to improve on their performance in chemistry. 1.7 Significance of the Study The findings of this study will help in the following ways: The chemistry teachers will utilize the findings of this study in their chemistry classrooms; helping students’ understanding of chemistry concepts through guided inquiry teaching method. Students at the senior secondary school (SSS) level in Kaduna state and other states can be encouraged and motivated by this research.Active involvement of students helps to develop self-confidence and positive attitude to chemistry through this research.The study will provide information for educational planners and curriculum designers in the Federal Ministry of Education. They will support the use of inquiry teaching method in senior secondary schools by carrying out effective quality assurance for teachers in order to improve teaching/learning situations currently existing in senior secondary schools in Kaduna state.
    It is hoped that the students will find Chemistry very interesting as it will equip them for job opportunities in industries in both private and public sectors such as manufacturing and processing industries, industries related to petroleum, chemical,

    ceramic, polymer, food, electronics, the environmental, mining, pharmaceuticals and health- related industries, agriculture industries, government agencies, including forensic science and patents, defence, education and research, and areas related to biotechnology. 1.8 Scope of the Study Thisstudy on Effects of guided inquirymethod on academic performance of chemistry studentsis delimited to senior secondary schools in Sabon/gariand Zaria local government areas of Kaduna state, Nigeria. The study involves senior secondary two (SS2) chemistry students with a total population of five thousand, nine hundred and thirteen (5,913).It is delimited to a consideration of the effects of inquiry method on students’ performance in chemistry in Kaduna state.

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    Estate Agent/property management system is a complete end to end solution to cover all aspects of Estate day to day activity and property buying and selling procedure for large and small organization. The objective of this work is to develop and design an e-property management system that will automate all processes of property management with the aim of making information concerning properties available on demand. I was motivated by the problems associated with  the manual property management such as: loss of property documents, sales of property with fake property documents, conspiracy of fraudsters with staff of ministry of lands as well as the numerous litigations and other violent acts associated with manual property management. The software engineering methodology adopted is structured system analysis and design methodology. The expected result is to develop a property management software that will guarantee the effective and efficient management of properties that can reduce illegal practices associated with property management.

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    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    Formal examination can rightly be defined as the assessment of a person‘s Performance, when confronted with a series of questions, problems, or tasks set him, in order to ascertain the amount of knowledge that he has acquired, the extent to which he is able to utilize it, or the quality and effectiveness of the skills he has developed.
    The Jesuits introduced written examination into their schools in the 16th century. The Definitive Ratio Argue Institution Studiorum of 1599, which was not revised until 1932, contains a code of rules for the conduct of school examinations, which were held annually, and determined whether or not children were promoted to a higher class. During the 19th century, formal written examinations became regular in universities, schools, and other educational institutions. Examinations were also increasingly employed for the selection of recruits to the civil service, and the professions, and to posts in industry and commence. Over the ages, standardized testing has been the most common methodology, yet the validity and credibility of the expanded range of contemporary assessment techniques have been called into question.
    There are two types of systems that help automatically establish the identity of a person:
    1) Authentication (verification) systems and
    2) Identification systems. In a verification system, a person desired to be identified submits an identity claim to the system, usually via a magnetic stripe card, login name, smart card, etc., and the system either rejects or accepts the submitted claim of identity (Am I who I claim I am?). In an identification system, the system establishes a subject‘s identity (or fails if the subject is not enrolled in the system data base) without the subject‘s having to claim an identity (Who am I?). The topic of this paper is channel towards the development of examination impersonation elimination system and this system would strictly do with the unique feature of identification by means of finger print. A verification system based on Iris and fingerprints, and the terms verification, authentication, and identification are used in a loose sense and synonymously.
    Accurate automatic personal identification is becoming more and more important to the operation of our increasingly electronically interconnected information society. Traditional automatic personal identification technologies to verify the identity of a person, which use ―Something that you know,‖ such as a personal identification number (PIN), or ―something that you have,‖ such as an identification (ID) card, key, etc., are no longer considered reliable enough to satisfy the security requirements of electronic transactions or school management system. All of these techniques suffer from a common problem of inability to differentiate between an authorized person and an impostor who fraudulently acquires the access privilege of the authorized person.
    Biometrics is a technology that (uniquely) identifies a person based on his physiological or behavioral characteristics. It relies on ―something that you are‖ to make personal identification and therefore can inherently differentiate between an authorized person and a fraudulent imposter. Although biometrics cannot be used to establish an absolute ―yes/no‖ personal identification like some of the traditional technologies, it can be used to achieve a ―positive identification‖ with a very high level of confidence, such as an error rate of 0.001%. Iris biometric technology using biometrics employ certain advantage of eradicating the problem of examination impersonation by allowing the measure of what you are to perform the security activities of student participation in the exams.
    1.1 Background of Study
    An examination board is an organization that sets examinations and is responsible for marking them and distributing results. Examination boards have the power to award qualifications, such as SAT scores, to students. Most exam boards are running as non-profit organizations.
    The West African Examinations Council (WAEC) is a not-for-profit examination board formed out of the concern for education in Africa. Established in 1952, the council has contributed to education in Anglophonic countries of West Africa (Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, and the Gambia), with the number of examinations they have coordinated, and certificates they have issued. They also formed an endowment fund, to contribute to the education in West Africa, through lectures, and aid to those who cannot afford education.
    Dr. Adeyegbe, HNO of WAEC Nigeria (2004) said “the council has developed a team of well-trained and highly motivated staff, and has administered Examinations that are valid and relevant to the educational aspirations of member countries”. In a year, over three million candidates registered for the exams coordinated by WAEC. The council also helps other examination bodies (both local and international) in coordinating Examinations.
    The University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate, University of London School Examinations Matriculation Council and West African Departments of Education met in 1948, concerning education in West Africa. The meeting was called to discuss the future policy of education in West Africa. At the meeting, they appointed Dr. George Barker Jeffery (Director of the University Of London Institute Of Education) to visit some West African countries, so as to see the general education level and requirements in West Africa. At the end of Jeffery’s three month visit (December 1949- March 1950) to Ghana, the Gambia, Sierra Leone, and Nigeria, he tendered a report (since known as Jeffery report) strongly supporting the need for a West African Examination Council, and making detailed recommendations on the composition and duties of the Council. Following this report, the groups met with the governments of these countries, and they agreed on establishing a West African Examination council, fully adopting Jeffery’s recommendations.
    The legislative assemblies of Nigeria, Ghana, Sierra Leone, and the Gambia passed an ordinance (West African Examinations Council Ordinance NO. 40) approving the West African Examination Council in Dec 1951. The Ordinance agreed to the coordination of exams, and issuing of certificates to students in individual countries by the West African Examination Council. Liberia later issued their ordinance in 1974, at the annual meeting held in Lagos, Nigeria. After the success of forming an examination council, the council called a first meeting in Accra, Ghana on March 1953. In the meeting, the registrar briefed everybody about the progress of the council. In that same meeting, five committees were formed to assist the council. These committees are: Administrative and Finance Committee, School Examinations Committee, Public Service Examinations Committee, The Professional, Technical and Commercial Examinations Committee, and the Local Committee. The total number of people present for this meeting was 26.

    Organizational Diagram

    1.2 Objective Of The Study
    The objective of this study is as follows
    To create a system that is capable of tracking impersonators in the examination system using the methodology of IRIS biometrics.
    To reduce rate of corruption in the educational sector and increase the rate of self-confidence on students.
    To demonstrate the possibility of computer technology in the satisfaction of human needs and also enforce strict security measures that ensure unregistered students do not write exams for other registered students.

    1.3 Justification
    The justification for the system is as follows
    To add more security measures to the examination processes using Iris biometrics.
    To eliminate the possibility of an imposter appearing in an exam.
    1.4 Statement of Problem
    The problems which are encountered in the previous system are
    1. Student impersonation
    2. In secured authentication of students
    3. Manual verification of student
    1.5 Scope Of The Study
    This system would be implemented using the vb.net and Microsoft access database and also all necessary method of data collection within my reach to ensure the system meet up to acceptable standard has been put into consideration. Also tables‘graphs for easily analysis and demonstration of development trend of achievement would also be shown. Also this work would be carried out under close supervision for adequate guidance and interpretation of the work as it unfolds.

    1.6 Significances of Study
    With the increasing rate of exam malpractices in the educational sectors the school management deserve to inculcate a tight security means to ensure that these activities of exam impersonators stop. The activities of these exam impersonators have seen the educational sector suffer some serious form corruption ranging from registered student, to examination supervisor. So it best for the educational body to strategies some certain security means to stop this aspect of corruption in the educational sector.
    The system uses an IRIS biometrics this would help ensure that only registered student during registration with their finger prints are allowed into the examination hall.
    The system would contribute in the area of stopping any activity of corruption in the educational sector among students, and student to teachers.
    Hard work would be encouraged as every registered student knows he/she is going to write the exam by him or herself.
    The impersonation which has eating the educational system there by encouraging laziness among students would be eliminated and standard of student educational performance would be increased.

    1.7 Definition of Terms/Variables Used
    WAEC: A body responsible for conducting and issuing certificate to secondary school graduating student among West Africa.
    DATABASE: A collection of related information which can be stored and retrieved.
    EXAMINATION: A measure for the test of knowledge.
    MALPRACTICES: This refers to negligence or misconduct
    IMPERSONATION: General process of acting on behalf of a client.
    IMPERSONATOR: A performed skilled at copying the manner or expression of another mime.
    IRIS: In humans and most mammals and birds, the iris is a thin, circular structure in the eye, responsible for controlling the diameter and size of the pupil and thus the amount of light reaching the retina.
    FINGER PRINT: An impression on a surface of the curves formed by the ridges on a fingertip.
    BIOMETRICS: Is the use of measurable, biological characteristics such as fingerprints, or iris patterns to identify a person to an electronic system.
    ELIMINATION: To get rid of
    DESIGN: Is a creative activity whose aim is to establish the multi faceted qualities of objects processes, service and their systems in whole life cycles.
    SECURITY ACCESS: Permission granted to users base on their identification.
    AUTHENTI CATION: The process of identifying someone base on users name or password in security system
    AUTHORIZATION: Act of granting someone the permission to do or take something.

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    ABSTRACT

    The study sets out to interrogate the relationships between external debt and crisis of development in Africa within the period 1999-2007 in Nigeria. The aim of the research was to provide a framework that explains the effect of external debt on national development. The theory of post colonial state was adopted as the analytical framework to demonstrate that Nigeria has followed a developmental strategy dictated by the interest of the imperialists and their local allies among the indigenous population. The method of data collection used was the secondary sources of data. Three hypothesis tested were: there is no relationship between debt servicing and shortage of electronic voting machines in Nigeria; debt relief tends to have no effect on the rate of unemployment in Nigeria, and, debt rescheduling tend to deepen external dependence of Nigeria.The findings of the study revealed that there‘s no relationship between debt servicing and shortage of electronic voting machine in Nigeria in the 2007 election. Against the background of the national economic crisis, the study recommends that the international economic system should be restructured and unequal term of trade balance with fair economic trade relations so as to encourage enhance foreign exchange for national development.

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Introduction Anyone who observes the condition of Africa , comes up with so much confusion and perplexity. The average per capital national income in Africa is one-third lower than that of the world‘s next poorest region, South Asia. Most African countries have lower per capita income now than they had in 1980 or in some cases in 1960. Half of Africa 888 million people live on less than US $1 a day. African entire economic output is not more than $420 billion, just 1.3 per cent of the world‘s gross domestic product, less than a country like Mexico. African share of world‘s trade has declined to less than half of what it was in the 1980s, amounting to only 1.6 per cent ; its share of global investment is less than 1 per cent. It is the only region where school enrollment is fallen and where illiteracy is still common place. (Meredith,2005:682) It was expected that Africa would become the giant of other regions at least going by its human cum natural resources. But unfortunately, reverse is the case. After independence African leaders shifted the responsibilities of their development to other imperialist nations and consequently sought and acquired external finance for development projects. (Ake,2001: 18) According to Fasipe (1990:1), ―progress in the world is characterized and helped by interdependence of ideas and men, goods and capital‖. (Madavo 2003:91) stated that borrowing and therefore debt is neither an aberration nor peculiar to African countries. It is, in fact a legitimate part of everyday economic management. Hence most of the rich countries in the world today relied heavily on external finance to attain their present economic height.
    Post second World War Europe especially Germany was reconstructed and rehabilitated through external borrowing under the aegis of the Marshal plan (ogbenovo,2005:2). African nations after the traumatic effect of colonialism resorted to external credit, this was expected among other things to be used to develop their economies and provide the social-economic needs of their citizenry.Unfortunately, this resort to external borrowing turned out to be the Westphalia treaty that settled nothing. This is not unconnected with their weak economic base, unfavourable terms attached to the loans, policy errors and mismanagement among others. Furthermore, the post colonial African states of which Nigeria is among, became unable to repay their debt and thus got entangled in the web of debt crises that bedeviled their socio-economic development. Africa‘s debt crises attracted global attention during the last quarter of 1982, series of prescription to get the continent out of its economic doldrums have been offered. Prominent among them is the restructuring of African economy in line with IMF-dictated reforms of deregulation, privatization and liberalization (Obaseki and Bello,1995:241). However, many debtor countries and their sympathizers prefer debt cancellation to release fund for the development and welfare of the countries of Africa since they were overburdened by excruciating debt service obligation. Nigeria for instance, prior to 2006 was expending US$2 billion annually on debt servicing which was nine times the annual health budget (Okonjo –Iweala et al,2003:8) When Obasanjo led democratic government came on board in 1999 the situation on ground made him to flag off an intensive campaign for debt relief/cancellation. This yielded positive result in April 2006 and 2007 when Nigerian major creditors-the Paris club cancelled 60 percent of the total debt owed to it by the country and also settled its debt to the London club. But the debt burden is far from being over as Nigeria present external debt stands at over $2.6 billion consisting bilateral and multilateral loans which have a grace period of ten years, attract yearly service charge of 0.75 per cent and it requires thirty and forty years to liquidate. As a direct consequence of external debt burden, this study investigates the causes(s) of the unabating debt crisis and assesses its impact on socio-economic development of Nigeria. 1.2 Statement of Problem
    Nigeria after independence had a low ratio of external debt to gross domestic product (GDP) of 3.4 percent (Fajana, 1990:65). It was on this promising economic condition that Nigeria launched its first five years National Development Plan that was expected to usher in rapid development and emancipate it from the chains of colonial legacy.But partly because of the ravages of the civil war (1967-1970) and largely because of its burning desire for rapid socio-economic development, the Nigeria government resorted to development finance from public funds mostly from bilateral and multilateral lending bodies. Since the Five Year Plan of the early 1960 up to date, Nigeria had launched several Development Plans sourcing finance from the International Capital Market that is notorious for its high rates of interest and terms of repayment. Yet development seems to elude the country. Nigeria is classified as one of the severely indebted low- income countries that are greatly afflicted by underdevelopment, dependency, general poverty and external debt, in spite of its widely acknowledge oil wealth. Coupled with this, is the magnitude of capital flight from the country in the form of debt servicing payments that not only absorbed a major proportion of export earnings but also eat into the funds that could be used to provide essential facilities and improve the welfare of its citizens (Aja,2003:106). This tends to negate the past imaginative and generous efforts at finding solutions to the debt crisis.
    Nigeria‘s external debt stock prior to April 2006 stood at US$2 Billion being expended annually on debt servicing so that between 1977 and 2005 for which record is available, the country had expended over US$31 billion on debt repayment of the actual US$13.5 billion. Olusegun Obasanjo during his regime implored fervently for debt cancellation cum relief so that he would channel the about US$45 Million that occur daily from the sales of crude oil to poverty reduction and socio-economic projects. In spite of the debt repayment to its major creditors Paris and London Club, Nigerians are yet to experience any fundamental change on their socio-economic lives. Notwithstanding one can categoricaly affirm that it is not yet uhuru since the country is still not only saddled with an external debt burden of over $2.6 billion and a staggering amount of N1.87 trillion domestic debt (The Guardian, 2007:16). These are made up treasuring Bills worth N754 billion, representing 40.40 per cent of the total debt, Treasuring Bonds of N413.6 billion accounting for 22.16 per cent of the stock and finally development stock made up of N720 million, which is 0.04 per cent of the debt (DMO, 2007). Despite this uninteresting reality, most scholars on Nigeria‘s debt crisis like (Oyejide et al, 1985:17) tend to ignore the implication of the large amount of domestic debt on the countries balance of payment capacity. Rather than dwelling on why all the debt management plans failed to address Nigeria‘s debt crisis, they prefer to dissipate their intellectual energy on celebrating a debt repayment that seem to be a waste of nation‘s resources. They also failed to probe the subsisting complementary interest of the countries ruling class and that of the international bourgeoisie with regard to debt repayment issue. The study shall attempt to fill this gap within the context of the questions stated below:
    (i) Is debt servicing implicated in the shortage of funds for the implementation of the electronic voting system in Nigeria?
    (ii) Is there any relationship between debt relief and reduction of unemployment in Nigeria?.
    (iii) Does debt rescheduling resolve Nigeria‘s external dependence on the West?.
    1.31.4 Objective of Study
    The central objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of debt crisis on Nigeria‘s socio-economic development. However, the study is guided by the following specific objective:
    (i) To examine if Nigeria‘s external debt servicing is implicated in the shortage of the funds for the implementation of the electronic voting system in Nigeria.
    (ii) To find out the effect of debt relief on the level of unemployment in Nigeria .
    (iii) To interrogate if debt rescheduling has resolved Nigeria‘s external dependence on the West.
    1.41.5 Significance of Study
    The significance of this study is at two principal levels: practical and theoretical. Practically, this study will be of paramount importance to policy makers of developing countries especially in Nigeria as it provides guidelines for not only tackling underdevelopment but also averting debt trap in their subsequent domestic and external policies and other African countries. In as much as many articles, seminars and speeches have been written and presented on the causes and consequences of debt crisis and underdevelopment in Nigeria, this study is simply another contribution in the explanation of debt crisis and underdevelopment in Africa. This of course contributes to knowledge as well as stimulates further studies. Also theoretically, this study explores and problematises external debt economic policy as a multi-dimensional process whose dynamic either impacts and transforms the lives of citizens , or impacts and escalates their living conditions. Thus, by interrogating the interface between external debt and crisis of development in Nigeria especially under Obasanjo‘s civilian administration, the study will be a good starting point for further studies in this sensitive but crucial area of international relations. Finally, by provoking and eliciting enlightened discourse, the study will not only join the on-going intellectual debate on the dynamics of international political, economic and social relations, but will also synchronize with existing inquiries to form a dependable pool of literature for scholars and policy makers alike.
    1.51.9 Literature Review
    Attempts to arrive at a broad consensus meaning of the word, debt seem to be in a quandary as scholars and commentators from economics and political science are sharply divided over its meaning. The controversy generated by this scholarly stand off has resulted in a plethora of definitions that obfuscate rather than explicate its meaning. Hence most of the available definitions of the concept are underscored by an economic undertone to the extent that one is left to wonder if debts is strictly an economic issue.We shall however, in this study limit ourselves to the specific study. Nevertheless, the flood of economic definitions of the concept that has punctuated international economic system is so over bearing that it will amount to academic prejudice if they are not accorded their deserved attention in this study. For instance, debt and in specific term external debt is conceptualized by Mark Ellyn and Han Flinch (1990:15) as: ―the amount at any given time, of disbursed and outstanding contractual liabilities of residents of a country to non-residents to repay principal with or without interest or to pay interest with or without principal‖. This is a purely economic definition of debt, which concerns itself with interest to be paid in addition to the capital disbursed. The implication of the definition is that debt is an aspect of business transaction that is profit-oriented and uncharitable in nature. Another aspect of the definition that must not escape mention is its tendency to restrict debt transaction to only the residents of different countries thereby ignoring domestic debt that seem to be one of the predisposing factor to external debt. A major defect of this definition is its failure to include other non-economic liabilities, which appropriately qualify for debt added to this, is the fact that contractual liabilities are mostly carried out by states and even when individuals or residents of the state guarantees such transaction before carrying out such transactions it becomes a liability, a legal burden. It is in this connection that most Third World countries, particularly Nigeria were plunged into debt trap because of its unguarded guaranteeing of export credits. (Oyejide et al, 1985:17). Therefore, it will be inadequate if not misleading to limit contractual liability to residents in different countries only. Unfortunately however Oyejide et al (1985) adopt similar economic position with Ellyn and Flinch above in their conceptualization of external debt as:a repayable obligation that has either a maturity of up to one year (i.e medium and long term debt)…..owed to non resident and repayable in foreign currency.(1985:17).
    This definition from all intent and purposes excludes domestic debt transaction, which is a major pitfall. As earlier pointed out, publicly guaranteed debt (i.e. an external obligation of a private debtor that is guaranteed for repayment by a public entity) is one of the three component parts of external debt. However , their latter definition of debt as ―the resource or money in use in an organization which is not contributed by its owners and does not in other way belong to them‖ seems more inclusive and useful to this study save for their utter disregard for non economic variables. This sheer omission or neglect of a more important aspect of debt renders their definition inconsistent with choices made in this study. Regrettably, many scholars adopt similar position in seeing debt generally as:any purchase or credit negotiated through government or voluntary agencies on terms more favourable than ‗normal‘ commercial terms. (see for instance, Akin Fadahunsi, 1977 :4). It is perhaps, this penchant for giving a purely economic definition to debt that might have rendered past efforts at addressing the debt crisis impotent since a lasting solution to a problem is contingent upon an impartial recognition and treatment of the problem. This actually informs our preference for Fadahunsi‘s conception of debt within the wider political economy context. In his exact words, debt is : Any negotiated transaction in kind or monetary –on terms more favorable than normal commercial terms between nation –states and other governments or agencies that are consistent with the national interest as then perceived by the parties to the transaction. The relevance of this definition includes but is not limited to its recognition of other non –economic variables such as foreign aid that is more or less political. Hence the transaction must be consistent with the national interest of the parties.
    Another area of interest in the definition is that it also recognizes that agencies are also engaged in the negotiated transactions. Our argument however, is that whether the transaction is in kind or monetary, the recipient becomes a debtor of gratitude or obligation and by virtue of the fact that ―he who pays the piper dictates the tune‖ the negotiated transaction in whatever complexion but with terms attached may turn out to be Greek gift-a Trojan horse-that spells doom for the receiver. It is probably in the light of this that one wonders why most if not all the negotiated transaction either in kind or monetary should result in debt crisis and becomes a burden to the receivers‘ development contrary to the purpose of incurring the debt in the first place. For instance, separate and collaborative works of erudite scholars in debt such as Bahram Nowzad (1990:9), Oyejide et al. (1985:14), Falegan S.B (1978:9) Akintayo Fasipe (1990:1) Graham Brid (1989:2), Callsito Madavo (2003:91), Ngozi Okonjo-Iwala (2003:169) and Chukwuma Soludo (2001:29), etc, all share pervading perspective of linking debt to development. This could be seen from the assertion of Madavo (2003:1) that borrowing and therefore debt is a legitimate part of everyday economic management. To him, external debt does not constitute a burden when contracted loans are optimally used and the return on investment is enough to meet maturing obligations, while the servicing of the domestic economic is not undermined (Ojo, 1994:15). The implication of this is that the debt crisis in Africa is a product of poor economic management, and especially, the mismanagement of contracted loans by inefficient public enterprises. External factors such as decline in commodity prices, increases in world interest rate and collapse of world trade are absolved of debt crisis in Africa. But this the usual ―blame the victim‖ approaches by the Western World and international lenders that only obfuscates the actual cause of the debt crisis. As aptly argued by Ake (2001:70) the foundation for debt crisis in Africa was laid soon after independence when the new leaders of Africa settle for economic development. In any case: With sparse resources of their own to work with, they looked to foreign powers to finance their aspirations and reintroduced in the economic context some of the issues of dependence that they had settled in the political context. Ake‘s observation is timely because it helps in revealing that debt is a shared responsibility between the countries of Africa and their creditors. But the creditor countries should take the larger share of the blame since it was their activities in Africa during the colonial era that actually weakened the structure of Africa economy and left the emerging leaders at independence with no option but to foist the burden of development on other countries (S.Ibi Ajayi;2003:105). Ake elaborated on this further when he lamented that the consequence was what has become as dependent development because the conditions attached to the foreign loan /aid took for granted the validity of the inherited economic structure (Ake,2001:19).
    It is perhaps in the fight of this that the OECD had to caution that development finance should be made to achieve ―acceleration in the process of development in the less developed nations‖ (See Freund,1965).This however, can be possible when the fund according to Woods (1966:206-215) is released ―on terms more appropriate to the facts of life in underdeveloped countries‖ This advice is necessary because since borrowing was engendered by the need to fill the resources gap in African countries in other to enable the public sector provide infrastructure, create assets and investment in productive enterprises that would create jobs imposing unfavorable terms would definitely produce contrary results as is the case presently in most of Africa (Okonjo-Iweala, 2003:169). Nevertheless, the lenders have a contrary intention which is that loan is never meant as a development finance. Rather, it is a huge trap for the recipient countries with the ultimate aim of ensuring that they remain firmly within the sphere of influence of the lenders. In other words external borrowing to underdeveloped countries is a ploy for the perpetuation of the economic domination of the borrowing countries through high interest rate and unfavorable terms. This is why the claim by other authorities (See Palmer, 2005:550) that the debt crisis occurs because ―the capacity of underdevelopment countries to utilize outside capital is extremely limited‖ should not be taken seriously. Assuming the claim is true then it is an open acknowledgement that the colonial despoliation of Africa economy weakened its base and , therefore renders it incapable of servicing the loan and at the same time ―carry out any development project either of macroeconomic nature or to finance transitory balance of payments deficits‖ (Soludo , 2003:29). Therefore why not disputing the fact that ―in many respects the taking on debt is an entirely rational and welfare enhancing activity representing an inter-temporal redistribution of living standard‖ (Bird ,1982:2),such loan should be devoid of any strings so that it would be used to finance high –return investment and enhance the availability of resources in the future. It is strongly believed that it was the none adherence to this tenet that paved the way for the debt crisis, which Hope (1996) describes as:

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    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background of the Study

    An organization is composed of people, facilities and systems put in place to achieve specific objectives. In most cases, the objective is to render service(s) in pursuit of money or in fulfilling social obligations. The people, the facilities and the systems interplay in order to achieve the given goal. The facilities are composed of buildings, infrastructure and support services. The system is the inter-link and the web that binds people and facilities together and turns them into a production system. As a production system, it is subject to wear and tear apart from the fact that both facilities and the people respond to the dictates of life cycle. The sustenance of a virile system implies proactive management as re-echoed by Thorncroft (1965:14) when he averred that estate management has gone beyond the day-to-day routine activities of the estate manager but what he called the ‘shaping of an estate’. What properties within the estate should be retained and what might be sold to the advantage of the organization. What opportunities are there for adding to the estate, by buying in new property or by terminating leases previously granted out of the ownership? Is the policy to be one of disposal of property to raise This is strategic property management and its essence is the realization that the built estate is a valuable resource, which, along with other resources, such as manpower and finance, can help to deliver the corporate goals of an organization (Worthing, 1994). Some of the tools of strategic estate management are maintenance management, property management and facilities management. BS 3811 (cited by Seeley 1976: 2) defines ‘maintenance’ as: ‘work undertaken in order to keep or restore every facility to an acceptable standard’. Beyond engineering components, the importance of maintenance in property investment is re-echoed by College of Estate Management (1993: 1) in its definition of estate management as:
    being concerned with the administration of tenanted land, including letting, control, rent assessment and collection, insurance, repair and renewal, and in general the care and maintenance of the estate with particular regard to conserving and improving its revenue – earning potential

    The College of Estate Management (1995: 321) defined property management as “the application of management principles to property assets with the aim of maximizing their potentials’’. Thus, facilities have become crucial, very important and elements that cannot be dispensed with. Sustenance of facilities however, have gone beyond maintenance management or property management due to the need to meet the trinity of investment objectives which are to preserve capital, to enhance its value and to earn a net cash profit on the capital invested Hanford (1970). The trend now is facilities management which Spedding (1999) defined as ‘the practice of coordinating the physical workplace with the people and work of the organization, integrating the principles of business administration, architecture and behavioral and engineering sciences’.
    Facilities management is not completely new. It is an offspring of maintenance management and property management. These specialties have been expanded and broadened. Owen (1995) affirmed that facilities management became recognized as an identifiable management concept in the United States at the start of the eighties and has been practised in the United Kingdom since 1983 with the main growth occurring in the nineties. All the functions, which are now incorporated under facilities management umbrella, existed prior to the recognition of facilities management. What facilities management has achieved, which is new, is an understanding that a coordinated and integrated approach to a range of business activities can add value to an organization’s process. This trend is captured by Alexander’s (1996:1) definition of facilities management as “the process by which an organization delivers and sustains support services in a quality environment to meet strategic needs”.
    Undoubtedly, facilities management has come to stay as a profession in Europe and other developed nations of the world. However, in Nigeria its existence and even its practice are not sufficiently documented. The Nigerian Institution of Estate Surveyors and Valuers’s 28th Annual Conference of March 1998 focused on the theme ‘Facility Management in Nigeria – The Estate Surveyor and Valuer’s perspective’. That Conference might be regarded as the pioneering effort on facilities management awareness in Nigeria particularly from the estate surveyors’ point of view though it does not necessarily mean that elements of facilities management had not been in operation before 1998.
    Other professional institutions such as The Nigerian Institute of Quantity Surveyors, The Nigerian Institute of Building and The Nigerian Society of Engineers had organized seminars and workshops on facilities management. Presently, there has been much argument as to whether it should be a distinct professional calling at all. However, some surveyors do not see any difference between facilities management and maintenance management or property management while others doubt the practicability of its principles being applied in business circles in Nigeria Ojo (2002).
    European and American industrial and commercial organizations (including Hotels) have gone ahead to adopt facilities management as one of their strategic management instruments to improve the performance of their hotels (Telfer, 2005). Effective facilities management (FM) combines resources and activities to generate the work environment vital to the success of any organization. At a corporate level, it contributes to the delivery of strategic and tactical objectives. On a day-to-day level, effective FM provides a safe and efficient working environment, which is essential to the performance of any establishment, whatever its size and scope of works (Edum-Fotwe, Egbu and Gibb, 2003). It is imperative that research must begin to be conducted on the responsiveness of Nigerian society to facilities management and whether facilities management, where and whenever it is adopted and practised, is actually enhancing the quality of service delivery.
    One major area of the Nigerian economy, which should attract such investigation, is the hotel and hospitality industry. This industry is crucial to the growth and development of tourism as a foreign exchange spinner for many countries of the world, Nigeria inclusive. Hotel organizational structures are not immune to the influences of the economy and business cycles, so the difficulties that befall business in general during economic down-turns also affect hotel organizations. Downsizing, reengineering, facilities management and strategic estate management are some of the strategic tools being used to describe the changes hotel companies have undergone or are undergoing Rutherford (2002).

    1.2 The Statement of the Research Problem

    In Nigeria, a good number of facts and incidents aid and abet the development of hotels. First is the public sector involvement, which had been predominant at least up to the late nineties. Hotels were established for providing accommodation for government visitors and patrons. Examples include Zaranda Hotel in Bauchi, Owena Hotels in Akure and Maiduguri International Hotel in Maiduguri. In some cases, hotels were established for prestige and business reasons. Examples include Premier Hotel in Ibadan, a colossus of the former Western Region of Nigeria with its thriving cocoa business and Hamdala Hotel in Kaduna catering for the need of the then Northern Regional Government. Second, international occasions and requirements may warrant the establishment of the hotel. Examples are the defunct Durbar Hotels in Lagos and Kaduna, which came into existence as a result of Festac 77. There is also Nicon Noga Hilton Hotel at Abuja (now Transcorp Hilton). This came into being as a result of the establishment of Abuja as the capital city of Nigeria. Such hotels are owned and managed by the government appointed representatives on behalf of the public. However, many of these hotels are bedeviled by mis-management leading to facilities decay, which caused their gradual collapse Bode-Thomas (2003). Third, there are privately owned hotels but usually at a lower scale compared to government owned hotels. Examples include Greenspring Hotel, Ibadan; D’Rovan Hotel Ibadan, Kilo Hotel, Lagos; Bagauda Lake Hotel, Kano and so many others. Even though they might have declined one way or the other due to age, level of use or effluxion of time yet they are still thriving. The most interesting aspect of hotel development is the continued interest, which the private sector is showing in its development. For instance, Ibru Organizations bought over Federal Palace Hotel from the Federal Government and subjected it to total refurbishment for greater service. They also own Ikeja Sheraton Hotel and Towers. Kuku Organizations developed the Grand Hotel, Asaba and is now proposing to develop a larger version in Lagos to be named Ikoyi Grand Hotel. Global Oil Fleet Organizations purchased the extensive Federal Government Guest House at Victoria Island Lagos and proposed to turn it into a 5-star Hotel complex along the ones the organization is already operating at Port Harcourt and Lekki-Ajah axis of Lagos Dada (2005). Sunny Side Corporation of U.S.A bought over Ikoyi Hotel from the Federal Government and the hotel is presently being renovated so as to revive its degenerated facilities. The former Durbar Hotel Lagos was bought over by UACN Property Development Company Plc and is now being re-constructed to a 5-star hotel with modern facilities. Despite the non-proactive nature of facilities maintenance in some of these hotels, other hotels in Nigeria are not left behind in the adoption of facilities management as strategic management principle to get hold of the market going by what are being published in the daily newspapers; for instance Sheraton Hotel and Towers, Ikeja Lagos, Le Meridien Hotel, Victoria Island Lagos and Nicon Hilton Hotel, Abuja (Bode-Thomas, 2003). If these colossal investments are to be retained, sustained and accelerated, there is the need to investigate what the thriving hotels are doing to sustain themselves in business with particular regards to the management of their facilities and property assets.

    The research is thus aimed at providing answers to the following research questions:
    i. Are the hotels within the study area fully equipped in terms of facilities for effectiveness in accordance with national standards?
    ii. Does hotel asset management style lead to effectiveness in service delivery?
    iii. What is the extent of application of facilities management in hotel organizations?
    iv. What indicators can best be derived for effective facilities management implementation in hotel organizations?
    v. What are the challenges militating against effective application of facilities management in hotel operations?
    vi. Are there benefits derivable from the adoption of facilities management, from which other hotels can learn from for their effective operations?
    It is against this background that this study is designed to examine the management of hotel properties from facilities management perspectives.

    \
    1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Research

    The aim of the study is basically to investigate the degree of beneficial application of facilities management principles in the management of hotel organizations in the study area.
    In order to achieve the above stated aim the following objectives are set to: –

    i. Assess the extent to which the provision of facilities in hotel industry
    meets national standard as propounded by Nigeria Tourism Development Corporation.
    ii Assess the extent of application of facilities management in hotel industry.
    iii Assess the impact of hotel assets management style on service delivery effectiveness
    iv Derive indicators for effective facilities management implementation in the hotel industry.
    v Examine the perceptions of potential benefits of facilities management among various hotel industries’ stake holders.
    vi Identify the challenges militating against holistic adoption of facilities management principles in hotel organizations.

    1.4 Justification for the Research

    Facilities management is a relatively new area with origin in United States of America and spreading to the United Kingdom in the late eighties. Little or nothing had been written about the management of hotel properties generally in Nigeria and in particular facilities management as a strategic estate management tool to meet organizational objectives.
    Most of the current literature in Nigeria are therefore preliminary and pedagogic addressing issues such as definitions and scope [Odiete (1998), Ojo (2002)], facilities management tools [Mbamali and Adebayo (2006), Opaluwah (2005)] and which of the professionals within the environmental setting is best suited to serve as facilities manager or to handle what within the facilities management field [ Odiete (1998), Ahmad (1998), Ojo (2002)].
    It is only recently that facilities management has come to be applied to specific sectors of the economy usually education and hospital sectors. Most of earlier studies have taken place in South Africa [Kotze and Nkado (2003)] and United Kingdom [Amaratunga and Baldry (1999), Amaratunga (2000)]. In Nigeria, studies have not yet been applied to any sector of the economy. Most of the studies in Nigeria have been devoted to clarifying what facilities management really entails and distinguishing it from the traditionally practised property management and maintenance management. The present study will fill this gap by providing a pioneering application of facilities management to a major economic sector in Nigeria and that is the hotel industry.
    The seeming survival of the privately owned hotel in Nigeria might be due to so many reasons amongst which are applications of facilities management principles. Thus, despite the challenges permeating the fabric of hotel businesses in Nigeria, some are still functioning and effectively too. Among the major players are Sheraton Hotels and Towers, Lagos Airport Hotel, Lagos and Trascorp Hilton, Abuja. Within the medium and small hotel categories, there are functional and efficient ones too. What is keeping them going may not be unconnected with effective facilities management, effective management including strategic estate management. The industry is a porous one and the business of owning hotels remains an all comers’ affair. Commendably, more wealthy people, local and foreign, including State Governments are still investing huge sums of money building great structural edifices in a bid to buy into the market, which potentials, experts said remained largely untapped. Probing the extent of applications of facilities management principles and establishing the benefits, probable challenges against holistic adoption of facilities management principles should contribute a great deal to the resolution of this level of uncertainty and information obscurity. It will also provide research result from which upcoming hoteliers can pick from to guide them on successful operation of hotels in Nigeria. Furthermore, the researcher is unaware of anyone who had investigated the impact or contribution of facilities management to hotel management in Nigeria. Thus, in order for business to be conducted in any hotel, it is essential for constructed assets to be appropriately managed if the investment is to maintain and enhance its value and sustain reasonable returns. If Nigeria is to give fillip to the tourism sector of the economy as a veritable and dependable source of foreign exchange, the backbone of which is the hotel and hospitality industry, then the research is considered as highly justified.

    1.5 Scope of the Research

    The scope of this study is limited to the hotel sector within the South-western geo-political zone of Nigeria; in particular Oyo, Ogun, Osun, Ondo, Ekiti and Lagos States. It should have been ideal to cover all the States in Nigeria, however, the study opted to restrict the scope to South-western geo-political zone of Nigeria because a study of the entire country would make conclusions unnecessarily wide varied and incapable of clear interpretations since the study is perhaps the first of its kind in Nigeria. Thus, a study restricted to South-western geo-political zone of Nigeria on the other hand, would allow the researcher to form definite conclusions, which may be more amenable to clear interpretations and create a pedestal for further research that can be extended to other parts of the country.
    Again, it would have been ideal to address the application of facilities management to all sectors of the economy. However, this is unrealistic for the same reasons mentioned earlier. A study of the application of facilities management to sectors as varied as oil and gas, education etc with their differing problems and standards would merely result in generalized and shaky conclusions which may lead to varied implications of inadequate understanding. A study devoted to the hotel industry, on the other hand, would afford the researcher a more concentrated study in a hitherto neglected area of the economy.
    Also, the time frame allowed for the research as well as associated logistics in covering the whole country make it imperative that the research be limited to the South-western geo-political zone of Nigeria.
    Further, there are so many hotels, private or public, singly or collectively owned; or quoted or unquoted on the stock exchange. It is not possible in the face of the various limitations to cover all the hotels. This research focused on 2 – star to 5- star hotels, that is, hotels with a minimum of 20 bedrooms, private or public. This category accounts for more than 70% of the total hotel stock in accordance with Standard for National Classification and Grading of Hotels and other Serviced Accommodation in Nigeria (2001) produced by Nigerian Tourism Development Corporation (NTDC) in collaboration with Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON). The reason had been that these categories of hotels cut across privately and publicly owned hotels but exclude other serviced accommodations which are classified with 1- Star hotels or lower category of hotels. It is also noted that the hotels are concentrated within big and popular cities of each State with heavier concentration in the State capital as shown in Appendix I. Thus, the farther the city from the State capital the lesser the number of hotels, the lower the quality and the lesser the number of accommodations provided. These inner city hotels can be categorized as hinterland hotels or rural hotels if one goes by Stephen’s classification based on British situations. For this research they have to be dispensed with.
    Facilities management is a new field internationally including Nigeria as reflected in the literature review. This study is particularly an exploratory survey research trying to establish the receptivity of facilities management principles in asset management within the Nigerian economy. In this context, the research relied extensively on research questions and field interviews in achieving its aim and objectives.

    1.6 Limitations of the Research

    It is recognized that, in some ways, any research work would have limitations. For this research, there is little published work relating to hotels in Nigeria, and what is available mainly focused on the privatization of government hotels. Also, as highlighted by Asika (1991), there are various barriers to the collection and exchange of information, compounded by the location and the remoteness of some hotels and fears about commercial confidentiality. All these had been guided against in the sample frame and sample selection.
    Geographical limitation as introduced above and the adoption of Tourism Board list may inevitably introduce limited bias into the survey, which could limit the application of the results to geographically dissimilar areas. It is anticipated that the results could at least form the framework for future research of other far away locations in the country. Limiting the research work to South-Western geo political zone of Nigeria and the fact that the focus is on hotel businesses is a major limitation of this work in that it hampers the application of the findings to other sectors of the economy without caution.

    1.7 Definition of Key Terms

    In a study of this magnitude, it is necessary to define the various terms to distinguish between operational definitions and constitutive definitions to avoid ambiguity. Constitutive definition involves substituting the concept or construct being defined with other concepts or constructs. Operational definition requires that the concept or construct be assigned a type of meaning which one wants it to carry throughout the study (Asika, 1999).

    Facilities Management, as applied to the hospitality sector, is defined as the proactive management of constructed facilities and organizational assets to improve their efficiency and add value to their performance and services (Okoroh, Jones and IIozor, 2003). This is in tandem with Alexander’s (1996: 1) definition as ‘the process by which an organization delivers and sustains support services in a quality environment to meet strategic needs’. This study borrows from these two definitions and proposes that facilities management, as applied to the hotel business, is the proactive management of facilities, support services and organizational assets to improve their efficiency and add value to the core accommodation they provide for their customers to meet organizational strategic objectives. Facilities, in the context of hotels, include buildings, industrial kitchen equipment, restaurant, halls of all categories, central air-conditioning system, fans, elevators, lifts, electrical installations, escalators, bakery equipment, recreational facilities including golf courses. This essentially tallies with the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors’ Facilities Management Skill Panel’s (1993) [Cited in Owen, 1993] assertion that FM consists of the management of support services; the management of property and the management of information technology. This research adopts this definition totally and as an exploratory study focuses on the three (support services, property and information technology) as they apply to hotel organizations.

    Hotel Effectiveness
    Effective hotel combines resources and activities to generate the hotel environment vital to the success of the organization. At corporate level, it contributes to the delivery of strategic and tactical objectives. On a day-to-day level, effective hotel provides a safe and efficient working environment which is essential to the performance of the establishment and give the customer what he wants and needs at a price he is prepared to pay while the hotel sells itself.

    Hotel Stakeholders
    Hotel stakeholders are the people who are involved in hotel organizations either as investors, general managers, and hotel workers of all categories including line staff and facilities managers and hotel users or customers.

    Management Style
    This refers to property asset sustenance method that is being applied in the running of the hotel and it could be maintenance management, property management or facilities management

    Operational Excellence: This according to Torkildsen (1992) is anything or everything being done to satisfy customers’ requirements and meet the organizational goals and objectives in a sustainable way. This study adopts this definition for its operation.

    Support Services: These are functions that are accessories or adjunct to the core services in many organizations. For hotel businesses some are rendered as revenue yielding activities while some are part of the total package. They include mail services, fleet cars, catering, reception, housekeeping, and office administration; refuse disposal, reprographics, car park management, horticulture and porterage. This is in agreement with the schedule of support services as identified by (Owen, 1995).
    Strategic Estate Management
    Aakers (1984:6) defined strategy as “the development of a sustainable competitive advantage with which to compete in a chosen product/market”. However, in line with Thorncroft’s (1965) view and for this research, strategic estate management means property assets’ management decisions that determine the overall direction of business and its ultimate viability in the light of the predictable, the unpredictable and the known and unknown changes that may occur in its most immediate surrounding environments which are considered sustainable. Such decisions may include adoption of facilities management, sales and lease back and change of use of strategic properties.

    1.8 The Structure of the Thesis
    The thesis consists of seven chapters, organized in a logical manner in order to enable the readers to appreciate the thoughts of the author in achieving the objectives of the study. The chapters are organized as follows:
    Chapter One is the introductory chapter and it provides the background of the study, the statement of the research problem, aim and objectives, justification for the study, scope of the research, limitation of the research, definition of key terms and the structure of the thesis.
    Chapter Two deals with the review of the related literature, which is structured into a discussion of the whole essence of facilities management detailing its history, goals, and functions. Further the chapter reviews previous empirical studies, which basically are current research studies laden with quantitative analysis of facilities management and hotel businesses.
    Chapter Three presents the concept and the theoretical framework of the research. It is composed of the outlines of the researcher’s process of thought, summary of a priori expectations and the theoretical framework.
    Chapter Four describes the research method. It is composed of the setting of the study, the research design, population of study, sampling design/sampling frame, sampling size, data requirements, method of data collection, the techniques of refuting a priori expectations, method of developing the conceptual framework of the facilities management compliant hotel and method of data analysis.
    Chapter Five presents the analysis of data and interpretation of results while Chapter Six discusses the results. Finally, Chapter Seven focuses on the summary of findings, conclusion and discussion of implication for theory, practice and research.

    1.9 Chapter Summary

    This introductory chapter deals with the research theme and the nature of the problem to be investigated. Others include the research problem, the aim, objectives, and justification of the study, the study area, and definition of key terms. The next chapter dwells on the review of related literature.

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    ABSTRACT

    This Thesis explores human resources development and utilization, in Enugu State civil service,
    an activity that has been neglected in the public sector. It presents answers to the following
    questions. The intent is to provide a useful basis for change in the human resource management
    culture in the civil service of Nigeria. The theoretical framework used in the study is Human
    Relations Theory that are in line with human research development and utilization. Most
    importantly, its objectives to the government agencies and organizations.
    In pursue of the above goals of this study, the researcher distributed and administered
    questionnaires to the employees of Enugu State Civil Service. The responses from the
    questionnaires were analyzed using simple percentage and frequency tables for proper
    clarification. From the analysis and interpretation of hypotheses, the researcher found out that
    many problems/factors affected the human resources development and utilization in Enugu State
    Civil Service such as: poor coordination among the agencies charged with the responsibility of
    human resources development, incompetent professionals and corruption. Based on these
    findings, the researcher has made the following recommendations.
    1) The agencies charged with the responsibility of human resources planning must
    continuously monitor and; evaluate outcomes from the services of workers in order
    to know their level of performance/productivity, where changes should be made and
    then plan better strategy for improving future performance. These are important
    corrective measures. The purpose of evaluating a training programme is to
    determine its effectiveness. A training programme is effective only if it has gathered
    in the evaluation process will enable the civil service to improve on programme for
    future trainees and also enable the trainers appraise themselves in terms of method
    and content.
    2) Another strategy for improving human resource development and utilization is by
    providing the agencies involved in human resources development with sufficient fund
    to make the process productive. This is because, every aspect of human resource
    development requires fund. For example, the training and development of human
    resources require money. Therefore, government should allocate sufficient fund to
    Enugu State Civil Service to enable them plan effectively for their human resources
    development, which in turn will improve the economy of the state.
    3) Adequately equipped training centres and facilities should be provided across the
    length and breadth of the country, so that different ministries should have easy
    access to obtaining training when the need arises. To properly plan and utilize
    human resources in Enugu State Civil Service, there should be provision for
    adequate training facilities, which will be used in developing human resources for
    productive services. There is no doubt that any training programmes is meaningful
    only if it enables man to be of great service to his organization. Training has its
    cardinal goals of creation of “behavioural change” in a desire direction as
    organizational needs dictates. Knowledge and skills should be designed and
    imparted on relevant employee(s) so as to affect a significant change in their job
    behaviour. According to Chandan (2007), employee training should assume the
    following specific form:
    (a) Induction and orientation course
    (b) On-the-job training
    (c) Off-the-job training
    (d) Vestibule training
    (e) Regular refreshers course in form of seminars, workshops etc.

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background to the Study
    The Human resources of an organization comprise of men and women, young and old who
    engage in the production of goods and services and who are the greatest assets of the organization
    (Ndiomu, cited in Ezeani, 2002:2). The people, in the words of Gant (1979, are the human
    resources for the supply of physical labour, technical and professional skills which are germane
    for effective and efficient planning and implementation of development policies, programmes,
    projects, and daily activities. There is no doubt that the ability of any organization or society to achieve its goals depends to a large extent on the caliber, organization and motivation of its
    human resources. As succinctly captured by Likert in Ezeani (2002:1).
    All the activities of any enterprise are initiated and determined by the persons who make up
    that institution. Plant, offices, computers, automated equipment, and all else that a modern firm
    use are unproductive except for human effort and direction.
    Similarly, Harbison cited in Ezeani (2002:1) opined that “human resources and not any other
    constitute the ultimate basis for the wealth of nations.” And according to Drucker (1978:273) “…
    good organizational structure does not by itself guarantee good performance. Human resources is as
    a fact of life of the existence, survival and development of an organization as food is to man”.
    However, these and such other statements by human resources management experts and
    practitioners alike are pointers to the importance and critical role of the human element in
    organization. Indeed, the human resources is a critical factor in the attainment of the goals of any
    organization. The ability of the human resources to contribute to the attainment of the goals of an
    organization such as the Local government depends to a great extent on how well they are
    managed.
    On the other hand, given the increasing volatile and complex socio-economic structure of our
    business organization in Nigeria, two basic factors are crucial for business success: Capital and
    Human Resources. According to Nwankwo (cited in Onah, 2007), every organization needs three
    main resources to survive. They are: financial, material and human resources. An organization needs
    money to pay it staff and to buy the essential materials or equipment for operations. Maximum
    production of services offered cannot be achieved unless the essential material resources are
    available. Of course, there is no organization without human resources. Capital, whether acquired
    through loans or from private sources, can be easier to manage and control, only when there is qualified and quality human resources. Even if an organization has got all the money and materials it
    needs, it must still find capable people to put them into effective use. Organizations, whether public
    or private, are prone to jeopardy when there is no adequate human resource and manpower planning.
    However, it is from the foregoing premise that the compelling need arises for manpower
    planning and development as a sine-qua-non for enhanced productivity. Despite available
    human/manpower, organizations in Nigeria have not been properly managed nor the available
    human resources managed adequately. This calls for strategic ways of improving human
    resource/manpower planning and its utilization to improve our economy. When organizations are not
    proper managed and are not productive, the economy of the country will be badly affected.
    Furthermore, according to the 1974 Udoji report (as quoted by Oshionebo, 2001), the public
    service must be changed and strengthened to respond effectively to the demand of development.
    They need qualified, skilled and motivated people at the right place and at the right time to achieve
    objectives, to transfer paper plan into actual achievement of all aspect of personnel management.
    It is pertinent to note that the civil service has continued to accord appreciable attention to
    proper strategies for improving manpower planning and staff development. In the wake of the
    professionalism introduced or reinforced by the 1988 Civil Service Reform, it was imperative for
    very job incumbent (holder) to possess requisite knowledge, skill and attitudinal tendencies in
    specific job activity in government service. Accordingly, we are told that in order to improve the
    economy and efficiency and raise the performance standard of employers to the minimum possible
    level of proficiency, ministries are to establish, operate and maintain programmes or plans for the
    training of employees in or under their ministry (FRN 1988).
    Government is also experiencing serious revenue shortfalls to meet its development
    objectives. Staff rationalization and other downsizing and rightsizing measures have been the consequence of revenue shortfall in both public and private sector as well as across economic subsectors.
    According to Banjiko (1996), Human resource/manpower planning, can therefore, be seen as
    the overall organization planning process by which the organization tries to ensure that it has the
    right number of persons and the right kind of people, at the right time and at the right place
    performing functions which are economically useful and which satisfy the needs of the organization
    and provide satisfaction for the individual involved.
    Well, to have the right number and quality of people requires effective strategies for human
    resource planning and sources managerial commitment. It is important for the following reasons:
    First, for any organization to achieve a reasonable degree of success, it is
    important neither to plan with excess or inadequate manpower. Human resources are
    always costly to acquire and retain, thereby making it economically difficult to justify
    keeping excess manpower. When we have excess employees, it can cause serious problem
    and even redundancy for the organization. Also, the organization cannot keep or afford to
    keep too few employees, as over-work by the available employees may retard work
    progress and lead a lot of dysfunctional behaviour on the part of employees. Effective
    strategic manpower planning and its utilization that takes into account the whole
    arrangement of potential planning factor can help to determine the right quality and kind
    of employees to keep.
    Secondly effective strategies for improving manpower planning can be useful for stabilizing
    employment level.
    Third, the need to cope with possible future changes and competitive forces in both product
    and labour market, in technology and government regulatory requirement, call for a realistic and
    effective manpower planning.
    It is pertinent to note that the Nigerian public service is the highest employer of labour in
    Nigeria. The civil service commission, both at the federal and state level, has the responsibility of
    manpower recruitment, selection and employment. Government programme and projects are
    becoming more complex and difficult, thus the necessity to plan manpower in order to meet
    challenges. In order to undertake good strategy for improving manpower planning and utilization in
    Enugu state civil service, government should, through its personnel managers, analyze from time to
    time, the various positions available, anticipate expansion of service and take cognizance of some
    factors that influence employment in the public sector. Such factors as quota system, political and
    fiscal policies of government.
    However, in the face of decreasing productivity in the public sector, the Obasanjo’s
    administration in 2006, set up a body to reform the public sector/service, especially in the
    employment of only qualified graduates. The Bureau for Public Service, head by Malam El-Rufai,
    was empowered to revive the public service to ensure effectiveness. The reform led to the
    retrenchment of about thirty thousand workers (unqualified, incompetent and dead wood) and the
    employment, training and development of about one thousand, five hundred fresh graduates with
    first class and second-class university degree.
    In fact, the central focus of this study is to interrogate how manpower training and utilization
    affects the Enugu State Civil Service.

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    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background Of Study
    The development of any nation depends to a very large extent on the calibre, organization and motivation of its human resources. In the specific case of Nigeria where diversity exerts tremendous influence on politics and administration, the capacity to increase the benefits and reduce the costs of this diversity constitutes a human resource management challenge of epic proportion in its public sector organizations. Human Resource Management (HRM) is the function within an organization that focuses on recruitment of, management of, and providing direction for the people who work in the organization. Human Resource Management can also be performed by line managers.
    Human Resource Management is the organizational function that deals with issues related to people such as compensation, hiring, performance management, organization development, safety, wellness, benefits, employee motivation, communication, administration, and training.
    Human Resource Management is also a strategic and comprehensive approach to managing people and the workplace culture and environment. Effective HRM enables employees to contribute effectively and productively to the overall company direction and the accomplishment of the organization’s goals and objectives. Human Resource Management is moving away from traditional personnel, administration, and transactional roles, which are increasingly outsourced. HRM is now expected to add value to the strategic utilization of
    employees and that employee programs impact the business in measurable ways. The new role of HRM involves strategic direction and HRM metrics and measurements to demonstrate.
    HRM covers a wide range of activities. The main area of study we will focus on will be incentives and work organization. Incentives include remuneration systems (e.g. individuals or group incentive/contingent pay) and also the system of appraisal, promotion and career advancement. By work organization we mean the distribution of decision rights (autonomy/decentralization) between managers and workers, job design (e.g. flexibility of working, job rotation), team-working (e.g. who works with whom) and information provision.
    Human resource management encompasses the traditional personnel functions of recruitment, selection, training, motivation, compensation, evaluation, discipline, and termination of employees. Each of those tasks demands particular skills. Increasingly, human resource management is being recognized for its strategic importance to organizations and jurisdictions, and is moving beyond its traditional position as a monitor of compliance. This course is designed to provide you with an understanding of the evolution of human resource management policies and practices, and how changes over time reflect shifting societal values and environmental circumstances. Our emphasis is on improving understanding of the
    historical context and current conditions of public sector HRM and developing basic skills necessary to be an effectively manage human resources.
    According to Likert (1996:112) the term human resource refers to the talents.” Thus the term connets man in relationship to the world of works. Such work involves producing things and providing services of all kinds in the social political, cultural and economic development of a nation.
    “Human resources management is simply described as the management of the human resources in an organization for optimal utilization and attainment of organizational objectives” Banjoko (1996:69) AS opined by Harbinson (1998 :213) man power refers to human beings i.e. human
    resources of an organization or nation regardless of their skill. They make
    organizations functions”. Karen (1999:89) looks at manpower as a unique
    resource. It is an indispensable means of converting all other resources to
    mankind use and benefits” How well it is used determines how well an organization performs. Human resources management takes place within
    the frame work of an organization in a purpose constrict, deliberately
    designed to achieve certain goals. The efficiency with which that organization is operated will depend to a large extent on how utilized. For a manager to be effective, the manager has to design a programme which ensures the selection and training of employees for the jobs that best suit their abilities and motivating them to exert that maximum effort for the attainment of the corporate objective.
    In the last ten years, organisations especially in Africa have been hit with the undisputable fact that the creation of competitive advantage lies in people. Organisations have increasingly recognised the potential for their people to be a source of competitive advantage. Not too long ago, so called HR functions was the preserve of „Personnel Managers‟ whose duties were to recruit and select, appraise, promote and demote. These superficial duties could be performed by any manager, it therefore never seemed necessary to employ an expert in the form of a human resource manager let alone create a whole department dedicated to HRM. Little attention was paid to human resource management issues and its impact on organisational performance. The emphasis on traditions and socio-cultural issues injected an element of subjectivity in „personnel manager‟ functions such as recruitment and selection, performance appraisal, promotion, demotion, and compensation.
    In today‟s competitive and rapidly changing business world, organisations especially in the service industry need to ensure maximum utilisation of their resources to their own advantage; a necessity for organisational survival. Studies have shown that organisations can create and sustain competitive position through management of non-substitutable, rare, valuable, and inimitable internal resources (Barney, 1991). HRM has transcended from policies that gather dust to practices that produce results. Human resource management practices has the ability to create organisations that are more intelligent, flexible and competent than their rivals through the application of policies and practices that concentrate on recruiting, selecting, training skilled employees and directing their best efforts to cooperate within the resource bundle of the organisation. This can potentially consolidate organisation performance and create competitive advantage as a result of the historical sensitivity of human resources and the social complex of policies and practices that rivals may not be able to imitate or replicate their diversity and depth.
    Lately, organisations are focused on achieving superior performance through the best use of talented human resources as a strategic asset. HRM policies or strategies must now be aligned to business strategies for organisational success. No matter the amount of technology and mechanisation developed, human resource remains the singular most important resource of any success-oriented organisation. After all, successful businesses are built on the strengths of exceptional people. HRM has now gained significance academically and business wise and can therefore not be relegated to the background or left in the hands of non-experts. Attention must be paid to the human resources organisations spent considerable time and resources to select.
    Armstrong (2009) defines Human Resource Management (HRM) as a strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organisation‟s most valued assets; that is, the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of its objectives. Moreover, Human resource management practices can be defined as a set of organisational activities that aims at managing a pool of human capital and ensuring that this capital is employed towards the achievement of organisational objectives (Wright and Boswell, 2002). The adoption of certain bundles of human resource management practices has the ability to positively influence organisation performance by creating powerful connections or to detract from performance when certain combinations of practices are inadvertently placed in the mix (Wagar and Rondeau, 2006). So if we think human resource management as just the services any manager may provide in recruiting and selecting, appraising, training and compensating employees, then we rather would have to take the backseat for those who understand the influence HRM has on corporate performance to take the centre stage. Research has recorded a positive relationship between human resource management practices and corporate performance. Thus in order to stimulate corporate performance, management is required to develop skilled and talented employees who are capable of performing their jobs successfully (Klein, 2004).
    Achieving better corporate performance requires successful, effective and efficient exploit of organisation resources and competencies in order to create and sustain competitive position locally and globally. HRM policies on selection, training and development, performance appraisal, compensation, promotion, incentives, work design, participation, involvement, communication, employment security, etc must be formulated and implemented by HRM specialist with the help of line managers to achieve the following outcomes: competence, cooperation with management, cooperation among employees, motivation, commitment, satisfaction, retention, presence, etc
    In fact, Ahmad and Schroeder (2003) found a positive influence of human resource management practices (information sharing, extensive training, selective hiring, compensation and incentives, status differences, employment security, and decentralization and use of teams) on organisational performance as operational performance (quality, cost reduction, flexibility, deliverability and commitment). In furtherance of this assertion, Sang (2005) also found a positive influence of human resource management practices (namely, human resource planning, staffing, incentives, appraisal, training, team work, employee participation, status difference, employment security) on organisation performance.
    For businesses to survive, HRM should be given its rightful place of relevance in any organisation and not left in the hands of line managers who neither have the expertise nor the time and space to carry out the enormous functions of a human resource manager.
    1.2 Statement Of Problem
    The management of any organization be it profit or non profit oriented institution or organization is often faced with one common problem. This problem normally has to do with the efficient and effective utilization of resources for the attainment and of organization goals and objectives. The set goals and objectives clearly justify the existence of any organization and therefore its realization or non-realization determines the survival or untimely death of such organization. The need to realize organizational objectives imposed on management a variety of problems which management needs to tackle from time to time. It has often been
    discovered that improper and poor management of human resources in organizations usually leads to problems such as.
    1. High labour turnover
    2. Low employee morale
    3. Lack of job satisfaction
    4. Reduced creativity and sturned growth on the part of the employee
    5. Lack of employee motivation which often result in low employee productivity and
    6. Reduce corporate profitability and threatened growth and survival
    of the organization.
    The effects of these problems on employee productivity and how it
    could be reduced or eliminated completely to enhance productivity via
    effective human resources management is what the research is set to
    achieve.
    HRM has made significant inroads into the Nigerian corporate world. It is common to see large organisations in Nigeria set up a whole department for the sole purpose of managing human resources and hire experts in the field to be in charge of HRM. The enormous benefits of properly managing human resource cannot be over emphasised. However, the majority of the local government in Nigeria are yet to catch the “HRM cold”. Inappropriate HRM policies and practices of some of these banks can be attributed to the non-existence of HRM specialists or HRM departments. Research has established significantly a positive relationship between an organisation‟s HRM practices and performance. Most of these organization do not realise the impact of properly managing its human resource and therefore leave policies in the hands of line managers and board of directors who are non-HRM experts to implement or enforce strategies, policies, processes, programmes and practices. The value of properly managing human resources is lost to such rural banks.
    Human Resource Management is extremely important for banks especially because banking is a service industry. Management of people and management of risk are two key challenges facing banks. How you manage the people and how you manage the risks determines your success in the banking business. Efficient risk management may not be possible without efficient and skilled manpower.
    Organization has been and will always be a “People Business”. Though pricing is important, there may be other valid reasons why people select and stay with a particular bank. Organization must try to distinguish themselves by creating their own niches or images, especially in transparent situations with a high level of competitiveness. In coming times, the very survival of the Organization would depend on customer satisfaction. Those who do not meet the customer expectations will find survival difficult. Organization must articulate and emphasize the core values to attract and retain certain customer segments. Values such as “sound”, “reliable”, “innovative”, “close”, “socially responsible”, “Nigerian”, etc. need to be emphasized through concrete actions on the ground and it would be the Organization human resource that would deliver this.

    1.3 Aim and Objective Of The Study
    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the perceptions of employees towards HRM practices in Beyelsa local government system and to establish the impact of such practices on organizational performance.
    The main objectives of the study are to critically assess the productivity and human resource development in Nigeria Organization with a view to:
    1) Identifying the importance of HRM to an organization in Nigeria
    2) Identifying the need for HRM in an organization
    3) Identifying problems associated with HRM in organizations.
    4) Examine the trend and techniques of HRM in organizations
    5) Reviewing the process of HRM and its impact on organization
    productivity
    6) Identifying the relationship between effective HRM and
    organizational profitability.
    7) Identifying the problems associated with HRM and prefer solutions
    to them.
    1.4 Research Questions
    1. What is the evidence to prove that work motivation and compensation contributes to the productivity of an organization?
    2. What is the evidence to prove that Ethics and Values contribute to poor productivity of an organization?
    3. What is the significant relationship to show that work attitude of workers by workers affects the productivity of an organization?
    4. What is the evidence to show recruitment and selection process of workers affects the productivity of public sector organization?
    1.5 Research Hypotheses
    The following research hypotheses are tested.
    The researcher uses hypotheses HO which is a test of no difference
    HO1: There is evidence to prove that work motivation and compensation contributes to the productivity of an organization.
    HO2: There is evidence to prove that Ethics and Values contribute to poor productivity of an organization.
    HO3: There is a significant relationship to show that work attitude of workers by workers affects the productivity of an organization.
    HO4: There is evidence to show recruitment and selection process of workers affects the productivity of public sector organization

    1.6 Significance Of Study
    Human Resource Management is the backbone of any economy production of any nation.
    HRM plays a vital role in the productivity of the Nigeria public sector organizations. It is therefore important to identify the significances of the research work which are subdivided as:
    1. The findings of this research will serve as a guide in the productivity of other public sector through their human resource.
    2. The findings of this study will enable for proper management of human resource
    which will lead to effective customer value and productivity in public sector
    organization management.
    3. It will also enhance government, private sector and general public participation
    contribution in addressing these human resource management in public sector
    organization.
    4. The study will enable me to contribute my own views and ideas on managing human resource and productivity in the civil servant of Nigeria.
    5. The study will be of immense help to other people and students who might wish to carry out other researches in the field.

    1.7 Scope Of The Study
    The work is on Productivity and human resource development in Nigeria, with Civil servant as a case. It will cover the concept of productivity; examine Human Resource Management in Public Sector, the impact of HRM on Productivity in civil servant and also the challenges of Human Resource Management in Public Sector.
    1.8 Limitations Of The Study
    In carrying out this research many factors served as constraints:
    1. The limitation of the research title as just HRM and Productivity in the Nigeria civil servant.
    2. Financial Limitation.
    3. Inadequate Time: time factor constitutes the major limitation of this research study. It relates to the fact that the time for research work was short because it was combined with lectures, studies and examination.
    4. Negative attitude of respondent: the problem facing the researcher with regards to the respondents relates to the non-cooperation and uncompromising attitude some respondents in giving

    1.9 Definition Of Terms
    (a) Document study: Ikeagwu (1998:89), a document study refers to
    the study of any written material that contains information about
    the happenings that are being studied.
    (b) Manpower: Harbinso (1998:106) refers manpower as human
    being i.e. human resources of an organization for optional
    utilization and attainment of organizational objectives.
    (c) Manpower development: According to Kennedy (1961:57) this is
    a process of acquiring and increasing the number of persons who
    have educational skills and experience, and motivation which are
    critical for economic and social development of an organization. It
    includes investment by society in education, investment by
    employer’s in training and investment by individual in time and
    money in their own development.
    (d) Productivity by (Mail, 1978:42) is seen as reaching the highest
    level of performance with the least expenditure of resources. It
    represents the output of goods and services which can be obtained
    from a given input indices as manpower const/unit of output,
    manpower cost as a ratio of sales, per employee and contribution
    per employee. Internal and external either through reduction in number of mechanization by Bedium (1987:80).
    (e) Training: Is defined as discipline and instruction which improve
    character through exercises to achieve objectives or goals
    efficiently. Rom Herzog (1977:102).
    (f) Staff appraisal: Refers to critical performance appraisal it
    plays important role in determine who has potential for
    development (Banjoko, 1996:46). Each manager or head of
    department filling a form over viewing certain areas of
    performance of the subordinates normally carries it out. The form
    which each manager is expected to complete in respect of the staff
    has various columns for recording salient aspects of an employee’s
    contribution over a period of twelve months.
    (g) Compensation what the employees receive in exchange for their
    contribution to the organization Kertk, (1996:8).
    (h) Manpower Plan: Is action steps to meet manpower need. It is
    specific action plan or blue prints for bridging the gap between the
    forecast and the inventory to be met as a result of changes in the
    existing workforce. Specific plans will have to be developed for the
    recruitment training and transfer of the necessary personnel. Karek,
    (1999:102).

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    ABSTRACT

    The title of this project is “Impact of Urhobo Voice Newspaper on Development of Ovwain Community in Udu Local Government Area of Delta State”. To achieve this objective, the study made use of the survey method which involved personal interview and administration of questionnaires on respondents in Ovwain Community and the aim of this exercise was to obtain the data needed for the successful execution of the study. The study made use of table to analyse the data collected from a random sampling of respondents. It also used the simple percentage to analyse the data. The study reveals that Community Newspaper (Urhobo Voice) have impact on Development. It has been able to establish that the Urhobo Voice as a community Newspaper has helped in improving the standard living of the Ovwain people in their community. The study urges both government and private individual to emulate the publisher of the Urhobo Voice by establishing more community newspaper in the rural areas to enable development take place. Finally, the study recommends the granting of soft loans by the government to interested individual to establish newspapers in the rural areas. This with a view to encourage private ownership of the mass media.

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1. Background Of The Study

    A community newspaper is that paper established in the rural area with the basic aim of bringing development closer to the grassroots. A community newspaper should b e community in outlook reporting the activities of the community to the outside world. It is also a veritable medium through which the people are informed about government policies and programmes. To this end, it could be rightly said that a community newspaper has significant impact on national development since effective development of any nation commences from the grassroots.
    Igwe (1991:175) agrees with the above postulation when he declares that “a rural or community newspaper serves the information need of a particular locality. Such papers should not be mistaken for provincial papers such as the Calabar-based pioneer. These have a wider coverage and circulation range beyond state boundaries.
    The origin of community newspapers in Nigeria could be traced to 1859 when Reverend Henry Townsend established the first newspaper known as “Iwe Irohin in Abeokuta. According to Akinfeleye (1985:28), which launching the maiden issue of Iwe Irohin, Reverend Townsend said: “my object is to get the people to read… that is to beget the habit of seeking information by reading newspapers”.

    This statement could be interpreted to mean that the aim and objective behind the establishment of the Irohin was for the Egba people to seek information from their environment by reading newspaper.
    Initially, Iwe Irohin was published fortnight in Yoruba Language and later in both Yoruba and English Languages. It has eight pages with four pages in Yoruba languages and another four supplementary pages in English Language translating the Yoruba version of it.
    Akinfeleye (1985:29) throws more light on Iwe Irohin when he says:

    “In January 1866,Iwe Irohim for the first time started publishing two separate editions-one in Yoruba language and the other entirely in English language. It continued with two separate editions until these 1867 when it temporally ceased publication as a result of civil disruption (IFOLE) between the Ibadan and Egba traders…. After a short while, Iwe Irohim resumed publication through under a new management but some title and flag”
    Akinfeleye also points out that in the beginning the news coverage of Iwe Irohim was limited in scope. For instance, it carried only religious news items such as news transfer of preachers from one parish or location to another, coronations of pastors or preachers, weddings, baptisms, confirmations and the like. It later expanded its news coverage and began to run non-religions news in addition to religious items. It began to carry stories and news about trade and commerce, exhibitions, sports, health, hygienic, educational and other news items of national significance.

    fIwe Irohin was particularly informative in its presentation of up-to-date information about schedules of arrivals and departures of slip, cargoes from and to European countries. Crimes reports, nudity, immoral news abstract, alcoholic promotion and the like were unacceptable to the paper.
    Akinfeleye concludes by saying that one of the uniqueness of Iwe Irohin is that, it is still the only native language newspaper in the continent of Africa that has lived for over 120 years without any major prolonged stoppage. Today in Nigeria, copies of Iwe Irohin (though how under another management, but same title) can still be found on sale in several Nigerian newsstands particularly in the southern state of Nigeria. Most of its contemporaries have been closed or ceased publication.
    Igwe (1991:176) says that “more than 20 years after establishment of Iwe Irohin, three other community newspaper came up in Lagos. These were “the Lagos observer”, “the Lagos Times” and “The Lagos standard”. These papers published the pre- independence socio-political conditions in Nigeria. For this reason, they could have been mistaken for national newspaper. But they were “Lagos community newspapers”.
    After the demise of the above pre-independence community newspapers, others sprang up in Nigeria. These could be rightly regarded as post-independence papers. Some of them are already defunct. They are “The Oniwu sun” based in Ikorodu, “The village news” based in Akinale village in the outskirt of Abeokuta, “The Obanta star” and “The Obanta News” based in Ijebu-Ode and “Gaskiya Tafi Kwabo” based in Zaria.
    Also worthy of mention are the Onitsha based “Nigerian mirror” which was established in the mid 1960s, “The Lagos News” and the “City Tempo” based in Lagos;

    the Makurdi based “voice” which circulates in Benue State and the Uyo based weekly, “The pioneer”.
    The introduction/background would be inconclusive without mentioning “the Urhobo Voice” … a community newspaper – belonging to the Urhobo ethic group in Delta State – which happens to be focus of this study.
    The plan to establish “the Urhobo voice was hatched in 1937 by the current Editor in – Chief and publisher, Mr. Ogbemure Imene. However, it was not until October , 1997 that the first copies of the newspaper hit the newsstands. Its first editor was Mr. Godwin Okpubigbo.
    The paper is printed by Uvoh – Amroma International ltd. at No. 1 Orofin Street (Goodday Communication), Maza – Maza, Lagos.
    The aims and objectives of the papers are:

    1. The creation of awareness for the upliftment of the Urohobo nation,

    2. To unite the Urhobo people into one universal spectrum;

    3. To act as an organ of universal information to the Urhobo people and become partners in progress with their neighbour for the betterment of all.
    4. To capture the essence of the Urhobo world,

    5. To champion excellence in grassroots journalism.

    Although, the paper has not joined the Audit Bureau of Circulation (A.B.C.), its distribution is undertaken by Mr. Dominic Onunu who is the marketing manager.
    The paper has approximate circulation figure of seven thousand (7,000) copies.

    At the inception of the paper in 1997, it was published monthly. In April 1999, it became a fortnightly after. Again in September same year (1999) it became a tri-monthly

    newspaper. With effect from January 2000 the management will make it a weekly newspaper.

    1.2. Statement of the Problem

    It is not out of place to say that in most rural communities in Nigeria, there are no community newspapers through which the rural folks could be informed about government policies and programmes and above all mobilized towards improved condition of living. This unfortunate situation has compelled many people to lastly conclude that the print media have no relevance in community development in Nigeria.
    It is also known that there are some other communities in Nigeria which are not development, just like Urhobo community at this jet age when even the smaller countries around us are boasting of continues supply of electricity.
    The researcher does not want this phenomenon to continue to occur and that is why she has carried out this research.
    Also farmers do not have the means of knowing how to make use of the modern farming implements and other things like fertilizer, so farm produce in that community do not yield well. To add to the fact that the traders among them have no means to advertise their products.
    This research is therefore undertaken to find out whether community newspaper has impact on development, with particular reference to the Urhobo voice. And this research will also go a long way to but these problem to an end, if they carry out their role in the community properly.

    1.3. Objective of the Study

    1. To find out whether the community newspaper can be used in the development of our community.
    2. To find out the strategy used by the community newspaper in impacting development on Ovwain Community.
    3. To find out the benefits of having developed community

    4. To examine the factors that many militate against the community newspaper in their effort to help develop our community (Ovwain Community).

    .4. Research Question

    1. Does the employment of Ovwain people by government of Delta State as a result of Urhobo voice?
    2. Does the new developmental project in Ovwain community as a result of sensitize of government by Urhobo voice, like-new school, good road, hospital and creating of awareness etc as a result of how Urhobo voice sensitize the government by Urhobo voice?
    3. Does the Urhobo voice have any consequences in mobilizing the people of Ovwain community toward development?
    4. Does the Urhobo voice encounter hindrance in their effort to develop Ovwain community through Urhobo voice.

    1.5. Scope Of The Study

    This study is restricted to a particular community newspaper in Delta State known as “the Urhobo Voice”.
    The choice is based on it‟s proximity and patronage. Moreover, Urhobo is Ovwain community is in Udu Local Government Area of Delta State.

    1.6. Significance Of The Study

    The rationale/significance for this study is high-lighted as follows:

    1. To discover the role of community newspapers plays in development.

    2. To discover the effectiveness of the Urhobo voice as a medium of information, education, entertainment and for mobilization the Ovwain community towards sustainable development.

    3. To ascertain whether there is alternative channel through which information could be best disseminated to the community under focus.
    4. To unravel the problems and prospects of the Urhobo Voice since it inception.

    1.7. Limitations Of The Study

    The inability of the researcher to visit the Ovwain community in Delta State to solicit the people‟s response to the project topic, due to time constraint is a major impediment. Nevertheless, it does not in any way affect the overall credibility of the work.
    Finance is another limitation. The unfavourable economic climate in Nigeria Limited the acquisition of books on community newspapers and development. Again, this limitation does not affect the credibility of the project since the researcher was able to improvise where necessary.
    A lot of traveling was done in searching for search of materials. This involved enormous spending.
    Finally, booking appointment with media practitioners, scholars and other personalities whose contributions were crucial to the completion of this projection involved a lot of time and energy.

    1.8. Definition Of Terms Impact:
    Impact in this context refers to the effect which community newspapers have on community development. Impact is also the measure of effect or influence of certain event on people.
    Urhobo Voice Newspaper

    Urhobo voice newspaper is a community newspaper belonging to the Urhobo ethnic group in Delta State, which happens to be the focus of this study. Urhobo voice newspaper is also a newspaper covering event in Urhobo land and offering diverse perspectives on Urhobo history.
    Development

    The process of economic and social transformation that is based on complex cultural and environmental factors and their interactions.

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