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Price: 2000 Naira (BSC, MSC)
This project was centered on online cash receipt generating system. The current process of cash receipt generation is being operated manually and due to this procedure numerous problem are been encountered. A design was taken to computerized the manual process in order to check this problem. The problems were identified after series of interviews and examination of documents after which analysis was made and a computerized procedure recommended. This project will also suggest how to successfully implement the computerized procedure and to overcome the obstacle that would hinder the successful implementation of the system. The new system was designed using Microsoft asp.net server side language and HTML. This language was chosen because of its object oriented features and wealth of .NET class libraries for developing online based applications.
Cash receipt generating system is a viable source in any business organization and venture and so on, its main purpose is to maintain more reliable records of money going in and out from the firm. This is look upon the view that the business organization must have business associates that exchange market with each other. It is a sure fact that the most have been a contract of which, there is an obligatory task that stands the terms of agreement, it could be a payment to their client or partners or from their client who pays into their own account. Another thing matters weather it will be cash without remark balance or install mental, and how many installment it is going to be.
This is clear stated in the organization activities and manner of operation. Whenever there is payment, there is also the issuing of receipts this is centered on the writing of what each party has in stock.
1.1 JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROJECT
For there to be a computerized business operation, the business must be look upon in a new way of existence. Not only being concerned with customers, prices output and so forth one should also consider the fact that data forms, information flows procedures etc. it is momentous on the basic that computers are used as a co-existing element to information system. This application is effective and productive because it enhance to process amore better information system. (Automated)
On this work, we shall basically look upon the possibility of making the outline orderly model of designing effect change. The process of changing system is systematic such that it is a repetition process. It is a fact to say that every system has what is called life cycle especially information system. By reviewing and modifying them, we say,
It is a system development cycle. The routine is always cyclical. It is on the system development that the familiar input processing output-feedback pattern of all system. The system development contains the output which consists of various organization information systems. The feedbacks components help evaluate the effectiveness of the systems terms of changing requirements.
IN THE PROCESSING COMPONENTS WE HAVE THREE PARTS
None of these parts can be considered apart from the other two. To be courtesy, I would say that the activities involved in system development is interlinked set.
1.2 DEFINITION OF PURPOSE
The rate of accepting different sources of receipt by the topic of this project paper into an organization, keeping track of the files can at any operates the organization and client’s financial report.
1.3 PROBLEM DEFINITION
Cash receipt system of Rorban Stores LTD. Is to keep records of all receipts of purchase and sales made.
By so doing, they keep information concerning each transaction such as the name of client, address, data of transaction, description of goods. Quantity of goods, model number of the goods, the amount of the goods.
Inside this record the company can the know the financial reports of both the client and the organization itself.
1.3 SCOPE (DELIMITATION) OF THE PROJECT
This project is basically restricted to Rorban Stores LTD, as a case study for the project paper. Looking Rorban stores, the cash receipts system is restricted only to the.
1. Purchase receipts and/or invoice
2. Sales receipts and/or invoice
Other organization may run a different receipts system. At this project paper we shall base only on sales and purchases.
SCOPE OF PURCHASES
Out of this interview with the accountant and sales manager of Rarban stores LTD, I discovered that the organization do not keep any record on credits when purchases are made. Therefore the term paper nullifies the idea of computing credit in the purchase.
It will be right to say that Rorban stores do not go into purchasing on credit to avoid keeping much records that most often conflict matters.
SCOPE OF SALES
There is a particular sales file for all buyers and dealers (companies that buy from them) that buy on cash. It also maintains a separate buyer’ sales creditors files, and a separate buyers sales debtors files, that is kept by the company.
Therefore the term paper is basically on the above mention area as in sales. By this the company maintains one purchase data base file and three sales data base files, a total of four data base files.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
ACQUIRING BANK: This is a bank or financial institution that accepts payments for the product or services on behalf of a Merchant.
ASP.NET: This is a powerful server side scripting language for creating dynamic and interactive website.
COMPUTER: This is an electro-mechanical device that is capable of accepting data as inputs, stores it, processes the data and outputs it as result or information.
CREDIT CARD: It is a payment mechanism that enables consumers to make their online purchase.
DATA: Data are raw facts which undergo processing and become information. They are also the simplest unit of information that can stand on its own.
DIGITAL CERTIFICATE: It is a certificate that enables a merchant to do on-line business and it is been issued by a corporate body.
GATEWAY: This is a device that connects two computer networks that cannot be connected in any other way.
HYPERTEXT DOCUMENTS: They are documents written with HTML, ASP, ASP..NET, PHP, JAVA SCRIPT PAGES (JSP), CODE FUSION, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES.
INTERNET: It is an interaction of computer networks connecting other networks from computers, companies, houses etc.
ISP: (Internet Service Provider):This is a company(s) that provides internet access to homes or business users.
MERCHANT ACCOUNT: It’s a contract under which an acquiring bank extends a line of credit to a merchant who wishes to accept payment card association brand
MS SQL: This is relational database server that is ideal for both small and large applications.
ON-LINE SUPERMARKET: It is representation of material or real shop on the internet or on the web.
ON-LINE SHOPPING: This is the buying and selling of products through the internet or web.
PROGRAM: A program is a sequence of instructions written in a computer to execute a certain task and solve a problem. A program must possess clarity, be specific, effective and user friendly.
WWW (World Wide Web): It is a multimedia interface that connects us to resources such as documents, e-mails, chat, web sites that are available on the internet with the computer.
Price: 2000 Naira
According Jantz (2001) the emergence of computer based information system has changed the world a great deal, both large and small system have adopted the new methodology by use of personal computer; to fulfill several roles in the production of information therefore computerizing the documentation of patient record to enable easier manipulation of the input process and output will bring us to this existing new world of information system. Patients records and disease pattern documentation is concerned with documentation of information obtained from patients and their particular health system in order to function properly. If this information is not documented perfectly causing some data to get misplaced, the health system will not be efficient.
According tang (2001) In examine the document system that in existence at the hospital that is mostly manual much importance has been placed on creating a system that document the inpatient record using a computerized database system with a secure procedure for accessing it. One of the unit of the std/aids control program (STD/HCP) a server doctor at consultant level who is assisted by 3 doctors, a secretary, 5 medical assistance7 nurses trained consolers and part time statisticians and 2 laboratory technologists head of units. The various diseases managed at the unit include the following syphilis, virgin its, molluscus, scabies‟, pubic lice, gonorrhea, trichomoiasis, gentle mart etc.
Patient information past and present is extremely vital in the provision of patient‟s care which guides the physician in the making of right decision about the diagnosis. The rapid growth of information technology and system made to choose the health care industry to borrow a page from the air industry for the sake of patient‟s safety. Pilots have instant access to the data they need in whether condition and mechanical function to make information decision about navigation and delay.
The absence of a well established information system to serve patient and staff has led to inconveniences. This has tantamount to the loss of patient and staff records. This is basically because of the weakness of the existing system which includes over reliance on paper based work. Paper files consume a lot of the office space, slow recording, processing and retrieval of patient details. Accessing and sharing of information by different departments is difficult due to poor information management.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objective of the study is to design and implement an information system for patients in a hospital. Specific objectives of the study are:
1. To develop a secure system that protects patient data and other vital information of the hospital.
2. To design and implement a patient information management system (PIMS)
DEFINITION OF OPERATIONAL TERMS
Hospital: is defined as the entity that provides the medical services to the patient in questioned at a given period of time which is basically curative and preventive and is offered in clinic unit x-ray/ ultra sound, laboratory and dental unit in the hospital.
Patient Record Management System: It is a system that can manage multiple administrators and can have the track of the right assigned to them. It makes sure that all the Administrators function with the system as per the rights assigned to them and they can get their work done in efficient manner. Medical Form: it refers to the medical document describing the patient initials, diagnoses and treatment of a particular patient in question that can be used for future reference incase of no improvement in the health condition of the patient hence changes can be carried out accordingly.
Consultations Fee: is the money paid by the patient in question at the receptionist desk before any medical attention.
Price: 6000 Naira (MSC)
The operation of any company is based on the contribution of staff either from executive level or operational level. For example, in a factory, the shop floor operation required full attendance of engineer, technical staff, and operation level staff before they start the operation. Therefore, the attendance system provides the information of the student existing to a particular lecture. Their information will help them to plan the operation and do any changes for any absent.
Attendance can be defined as the action of being present at one place or event
 For example present to somebody party or present to work in office. Attendance is one of the important factors in many institutions and organization that need to be followed by people
. Staff attendance tracking is a common practice in almost all organizations or institution. It is highly important for one organization in order to maintain their performance standards.
. In the previous implementation, there are various types of attendance systems that have been developed. For example: attendance systems by using pen and paper, using database, and also biometrics. These implementations still can cause lots of problems such as providing incorrect information to the users.
The purpose of this integrated attendance system is to computerized the traditional way of record attendance. Besides that it is used to create a combination of various types of attendance where users can either choose to use smart card or fingerprint technologies. For example, by using combination of both smart card and fingerprint technologies to record workers attendance, the attendance system can be strongly protected and the inappropriate manner of behaviors can be eliminated. If one of the devices is malfunction, the others can acts as backup.
1.1 Problem statement
For organization that use pen and paper to record their attendance, with the large number of staff in the organization, this will be a problem to the record keeper to keep track on staff attendance because by using pen and paper, one staff can help other staff to sign his/her attendance even though they do not go to work or either the staff are late to work.
With the existing approach, there is only a single input device use to record the student attendance either using smart card or fingerprint. If one university would like to have 2 different input of attendance system to provide interchangeable function, they will need to purchase both systems which will be costly. In addition, if one day the single input device suddenly breakdown, the attendance cannot be recorded.
Therefore, there is a need to develop an integrated attendance system with various type of input to fulfill student needs and requirements because it is flexible and it can bring convenient to the organization to summarize and manipulate staff information. Lack of effectiveness in their methods of record keeping, further compounds the problem.
1.2 Aims and objectives of the study
The aim of the study is to design and implementation of staff attendance system using finger print.
The objectives of this project are:
i. To develop an Integrated Staff Attendance System (ISAS) by using fingerprint technologies.
ii. To provide the potential users with the customize option of using both input device.
iii. To develop an algorithm for the student processing towards attendance system
1.3 Justification for the study
The use of staff attendance system is very important because of human being proneness to error, leaving the staff to write down their names might not be accurate as staff can even write attendance for their fellow staff and their handwriting legibility can be a case when compiling the attendance record at the end of the semester.
The official in charge of attendance collation is highly favored by this system because use of pen and paper as a means of collating staff attendance will leave the official in charge with numerous sheets of paper, which will be hectic as he/she has to start comparing several sheets to record the average attendance for just a staff. The official is going to waste a lot of time compiling the attendance percentage at the end of the semester, mistake can creep in due to the large volumes of papers.
Successful implementation of this project mean the student attendance credibility can be queried or put to test anytime, and result are produce fast and accuracy, without stress.
An embedded system is a combination of softwareandhardwareto performadedicatedtask.Someof the maindevicesusedinembeddedproductsaremicroprocessorsand microcontrollers.In thisproject,afingerprint based attendance systemusingmicrocontrollerisimplemented.Microcontroller forms thecontrolling module and it istheheartofthedevice.Initiallythefingerprintofusers andthatwillbeverifiedwiththefingerprintthatwasgivingatthetime of registration.
Iftheboth fingerprints arematchedthen, it will be confirmed that the person should be mark present.Thetaskrelated instructions areloadedintothe microcontrollerwhichisprogrammedusingembeddedlanguage.The systemconsistsofMicrocontrollerUnit,Fingerprintmodule,LCD,aUSBsystem module to interact with the pc for reading and writing of dataand microcontrollerthatcollectdatafromthefingerprintmodule.Asitisbasedonthefingerprintauthentication thereisnochanceone student writing the name of is friend.
AfingerprintreadershowninFigure.3.1isthe inputdevice.Theflashmemorycomprisesoffingerprint templateandotherdetailsofthe person.
This is the design phase of the Biometric based Staff Attendance Register Software. It involved decomposing thewhole system into modules and defining the relationship among the constituent modules. Top down design approachwas employed which involved dividing the system into subsystems or modules and each subsystem being furtherdivided into even smaller subs. This process of division is repeated until each module is sufficiently small enough tobe conveniently coded (implemented) as an independent entity that performs a clearly defined operation.
Figure 1.1 Fingerprint Reader
1.4.1 Model Formulation
_ Fingerprint Acquisition
At the enrolment phase, the fingerprints would be acquired such that the print of the texture of the first finger (that isthe pointing finger) is obtained twice and analyzed for processing. The fingerprint samples would be stored in aMicrosoft SQL Server database with the aid of an interfaced fingerprint reader/scanner. The fingerprints are then tobe saved inside a database to cater for subsequent need for the various fingerprint analysis during matching.
_ Fingerprint Feature Extraction
In any fingerprint image, there are dark lines which are called ridges, whereas the spaces in between those darklines are called valleys. Ridges and valleys often run in parallel but there are two things that happen to any print. It iseither, the ridges and the valleys terminate or they bifurcate. Termination of a fingerprint is simply the situation inwhich a particular ridge ends abruptly while bifurcation is the situation by which the line splits into two. In the analysisof the fingerprint images during matching (authentication), the pattern of the fingerprint exhibits one or more regionswhere the ridge lines assume distinctive shapes; which are: loop, delta and whorl. If the fingerprint scan matches anyone stored in the database at the enrolment phase, the staff with the fingerprint will be updated as present for the
_ Minutiae Extraction
Each fingerprint images in the database after enrolment will be processed in order to extract a unique feature calledminutiae. It is this unique feature that will be compared at the (authentication) matching phase. This requires thefingerprint grey-scale image to be converted into a binary image. The binary images obtained by the process aresubmitted to a thinning stage which allows for the ridge line thickness to be reduced to one pixel. Finally, a simpleimage scans allows the detection of pixels that correspond to minutiae through the pixel-wise computation ofcrossing number.
1.4.2 Workflow Development
1.4.3 Model Evaluation
The system consists of two main modules (phases); the enrolment module and the authentication (the attendance taking) module. The enrolment module can be referred to as the registration module. It starts with the taking offingerprint using the scanner, the fingerprint key features are extracted and the template gotten is then checked toverify if it has been taken before or not. If the fingerprint template is identified, the execution process will go back tothe line of code where fingerprint is being extracted, informing the user that ‘fingerprint template has been collectedbefore’. If the fingerprint template is not found, then it will be saved. This ensures that no single user can be enrolled(registered) more than once. Every successful fingerprint template is enrolled, and user’s details are saved alongsidewith the template. Figure ii depicts the enrollment flow process.
The authentication module verifies a registered (enrolled) user and allows the attendance to be taken. Itstarts with the taking of the finger print; the template of the finger print taken is extracted. The system goes ahead toverify the template to check if it has been pre stored (registered), so that it can match it with an existing templatetaken. If no finger print template has been pre-stored (matching unsuccessful), the system displays “PleaseRegister”. But if the matching is successful, the attendance status for the day is checked. If the fingerprint hasalready been matched for the lecture period, it displays. “Attendance Already Taken for period” and if not it goesahead to take the Staff’s Attendance. This ensures that the attendance cannot be taken more than once by the samestaff for the same lecture. The Admin views and generates reports of the staff using the attendance register of everyuser according to the time table. Figure iii depicts the authentication flow process.
1.5 Scope and limitation of the study
The scope of this study is to design and implement staff attendance system using finger print reader a case study of organization in Nigeria. The limitations of this study are:
1. Unavailability of academic materials
2. Transport problem
3. Lack of financial support
4. Lack of Time
5. Unavailability of programming software such as vb.Net, and Crystal report
1.6 Glossary of Operational Terms
Management: It is the co-ordination of all the resources of an organization through the process of planning organization, directing and controlling.
System: Physical component of a computer that is used to perform certain task.
Data: Numbers, Text or image which is in the form suitable for Storage in or processing by a computer, or incomplete Information.
Information: A meaning full material derived from computer data by organizing it and interpreting it in a specified way.
Input: Data entered into a computer for storage or processing.
Output: Information produced from a computer after processing.
Information System: A set of interrelated components that collect (or retrieve), process, store and distribute information to support decision making and control in an organization.
Computer: Computer is an electronic device that accepts data as Input, processes data and gives out information as output to the user
Software:-Software is set of related programs that are designed by the manufacturer to control the hardware and to enable the computer perform a given task.
Hardware: -Hardware is a physical part of a computer that can be touched, seen, feel which are been control by the software to perform a given task.
Database: -Database is the collection of related data in an organized form.
Programming:- programming is a set of coded instruction which the computers understands and obey.
Technology: -Technology is the branch of knowledge that deals with the creation and use technical and their interrelation with life, society and the environment, drawing upon such as industrial art, engineering, applied science and pure science.
Algorithm: A set of logic rules determined during the design phase of a data matching application. The ‘blueprint’ used to turn logic rules into computer instructions that detail what step to perform in what order.
Application: The final combination of software and hardware which performs the data matching.
Data matching database: A structured collection of records or data that is stored in a computer system.
Data cleansing: The proactive identification and correction of data quality issues which affect an agency’s ability to effectively use its data
Data integrity: The quality of correctness, completeness and complain with the intention of the creators of the data i.e. ‘fit for purpose’.
Enrollment: The process of an individual to enroll in an agency. Involves the initial collection of identifying details
1.8 projects Organization
This project consists of five (5) chapters. Chapter 1 discusses on the introduction of the system. The purpose of this chapter is to briefly explain about the overview system that is developed. This chapter also supply with the problem statements, objectives and the scope of the study.
Chapter 2 is literature review. As the name given the purpose of this chapter is to reviews the previous research works which was conducted by other researches. All the relevant journal, thesis and books taken from those researches will be discussed in detail.
Chapter 3 is research methodology;this chapter reveals the techniques, algorithms and related software that will be used for the project development. Besides that, it will also discuss about the process flow in detail of this research. Chapter 4 is implementation and testing. This chapter documenting all the process that involved in developing this system and the testing made to the system. Lastly, chapter 5, the conclusion concludes and come out with a summary about the developed project.
Price: 2000 Naira (BSC, MSC)
1.1 Background of the Study
The effect of the contributory pension Scheme (CPS) in the Nigeria economy since its inception cannot be underestimated. This can be attested to from the drastic reduction in external borrowings and from numerous developments in capital projects embarked upon and executed by the government since the enforcement of PRA 2004 and the level of accessibility to funds by the reputable/quoted companies as well as government to meet their financial needs especially long- term funds.
The essence of the contributory pension scheme (CPS) is not only to ensure individuals have access to his/her retirement benefits as and when due or to promote saving culture in economy, but essentially to serve as long- term source of fund for government and quoted companies in order to meet their long term financial needs, which the short- term source of finance cannot meet or solved.
However, the enactment of the Pension Reform Act in 2004 by then Olu-Obasanjo administration and its acceptability and enforcement in the F.C.T, public and private sector of the economy have transformed most real sectors and speed – up the completion of capital projects as result of easy accessibility to long- term fund through Contributory Pension Scheme. Though, many scholars will certainly criticize the impact of the contributory pension scheme (CPS) in the Nigeria economy, but this work is to critically review its impact in the Nigeria economy, basically how the scheme have help in the development and growth in the gross domestic products as well as creation of employment.
The impacts of the contributory pension scheme have been seen in the reduction external debt/borrowings, increase in developmental projects executed, strong capital market capitalization and financial institution turnaround or re-engineering.
The contributory pension scheme (CPS) is governed by the Pension Reform Act. Recently, the operating Pension Reform Act 2004 was repealed to reflect and accommodates the exigencies of grail areas that were not in the previous Act. This action warrant the amendments to essential areas of the Pension Reform Act 2004 to ensure total compliance with the new pension Reform Act 2014 that was signed into law in July, 2014.
Pension is the regular stipend or an amount that is expected either monthly or quarterly basis through any mode of withdrawal s/he chooses at point of retirement to ensure the retiree could still be able live within the standard of living as at when s/he was working.
Therefore, pension scheme has been in existence prior to emergence of the nation as practiced in the development countries. Its sole purpose is to ensure that retirees (i.e individual who have worked) have/can access its retirement benefits as and when due and promote saving culture.
The pension framework started with establishment of the National provident fund (NPF) that was operational for years before the emergence of the National Social Insurance Trust Funds (NSIFT) which covered essentially the private companies with mandate to deduct certain percentage of workers emolument and employers’ quota and remit the total contribution to insurance companies via NSITF. The process was not transparent and efficiently managed due to the lack of Investment guidelines and strong regulatory agency to monitor the activities of the then scheme; metamorphosed to the enactment of the Pension Reform Act 2004 that birthed the contributory pension scheme. The birthed of the pension reform in June 2004 dismantled NSITF, the detail of the PRA 2004 will be review in the next chapter. The Act elaborates strict measure of compliance and punitive approaches. It specifies contributory rates for both employers and employees which individuals are expected to open a retirement savings account where the pension benefits can be remitted. The act empower pensions fund administrators to mobilize funds and efficiently manage the pool of funds through investment in financial instruments in appropriate ratios as specified by the regulator i.e National Pension Commission to avoid reckless investments by the Pension Fund Administrators to avoid capital erosion.
Essentially, the impact of the contributory pension scheme have been seen and felt in the Nigeria economy through:
(a) Rapid growth in the gross domestic product
(b) Reduction in external debt/borrowings
(c) Creation of employment
(d) Strong source of long- term fund to finance capital projects and good avenue for easy access to funding for quoted companies and government.
(e) Transparent and efficient management of retirement benefits to ensure workers retire comfortably.
(f) Cultivate strong/mandatory saving cultures in the economy.
(g) Strong reserve mechanism.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The contributory pension scheme since its embracement by the concerned entities and possible enforcement to make it operational in the economy witnessed serious setback due to unacceptable dynamism and non- conformity by various sectors. With the success recorded in the industry so far within the short- period of operation in the economy, cannot be compare with desire result pre-supposed to have been attained assuming all affected entities, individuals and states that are yet be enact a bye- law to back its operational and enforcement embrace the scheme. Therefore, the problem of enforcement of the enacted law/act becomes imperative as there is no strong task force or sanctions even though there are paper enacted sanctions for those individuals, entities and government parastatals that refused to embrace into the scheme; but there has been no significant implementation of the act on the affected. This nonchalant attitude on the part of the regulatory agency has really encourage most affected entities to evade or circumvent the scheme that could have serve as a pool of funds for long- term source of funds for infrastructure development, provision of social amenities and other economic growth greed.
On the other hand, the quoted companies probably complied not because they really want to but as an operational requirement for them to remain in the floor of capital market, but what happen to unquoted companies in which most of them employ large active workforce of the population that have refused to embrace the Scheme. Most of them become compelled to comply because either they require a compliance certificate for contracts bidding, otherwise after then they discontinued to remit for the employees, thereby create unfunded accounts. The Pension Fund Administrators might follow up to recover the unremitted sum; but they are not empowered by the law to compel the employer to pay or remit for the employees. Though, the new Act provides that such companies should be reported to the regulator in the event of non- remittance of pension contribution over a certain period of time (not specific) but most Pension Fund Administrators give a grace period of six (6) months of discontinuity. However, the basic question we should be asking is that, how many of these defaulters have been persecuted or tried is the law court? This reveals the lackadaisical attitude of the regulator in enforcing the provision of the Act.
Apart from the non- enforcement of the act on the part of the regulator and no strict compliance by the most unquoted companies and government parastatals/states, there is low sensitization and dissemination of information by the Pension Fund Administrators to the public. The investment apparatus set-up by the regulator also constraint the Pension Fund Administrators to really invest the pension funds in real economy to boast the economy growth and development. The National Pension Commission (PENCOM) has strictly set –out percentages of funds under management (FUMS) to be invested in various sectors or markets or financial instruments to guide against Pension Fund Administrators taking unreasonable risk that will erode the pool of funds. As we can reconnect the trends in the capital market during the economics recession where Nigerian capital market and the global market experienced a down- turn in funds. The impairment of funds cannot be overemphasized because of its negative impact on the economy, therefore, the strict measure is put in place by the regulator to safeguard the individuals funds ie pension benefits or fund.
In this research work, we practically endorse the approach of strict enforcement of the act on all concerns to continue grow the pool of funds that will reduce the existing cost of capital in the market. Because if we have a growing pool of fund it will affords the economic sectors to easily have access to relatively cheap funds to finance their long- term projects that will have positive impact on the economy. There should also be a taskforce and compulsory annual renewal certificate expect of all unquoted and quoted entities to produce in order to remain in operation. It should be given equal jurisdiction of taxation backing to remedy the set- back and evasion of compliance and non- remittance for those entities or employer that have set in.
The process of bye-law in the states, local governments should be short- cut with timing of the Act. The PFAs should be empowered to send the names of non- complied employers to the industrial counts and not the regulators that are inefficient.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main objective of this study is to examine the input of contributory pension scheme on the Nigeria economy. Specifically the study focuses to:
i. Determine the impact of contributory pension scheme (CPS) in economic development of Nigeria.
ii. Review the impact of the act in compelling all concerns to embrace the scheme.
iii. Compare the issue in the formal operative scheme and the now contributory pension scheme (CPS)
iv. To find out whether employers comply with the scheme
v. To ascertain the import of setting investment limit for the Pension Fund Administrators is the management of funds.
vi. To find out how the new PRA, 2014 will positively impact in the continuous growth of pension funds in the economy.
vii. To ascertain whether the enactment and migration from NSITF to CPS has really resulted is transparency and efficient management of pension’s funds in Nigeria.
viii. To ascertain the process and management of pension funds that creates economic impact and development growth.
ix. To evaluate the effectiveness of contributory pension scheme in Nigeria
x. To review the connectivity among the organs in the scheme.
1.4 Research Question
Having defined the background to the problem and purpose of the study it is believed that practical answers will be provided to the following question at the end of the study;
1. Does contributory pension scheme affect the development growth of Nigeria economy?
2. How does the new pension scheme different from the operated scheme i.e NSITF or the government defined benefits?
3. Do regulator and other organs in the scheme perform their duties according to the pension policies or act?
4. To what extent has contributory pension scheme affects the Nigeria economy and prospective millennium development goals?
5. How does the attitude of employers affect the management of contributory pension scheme?
6. What should be done or put in place to compel all concerns to embrace the scheme?
7. How does frequent amendment is the pension perform Acts affect the impact of contributory pension scheme.
8. What should be done to ensure strict compliance in all sectors?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
In order to find answers to the questions above this hypothesis is formulated for test.
H1. There is no significant relationship between the contributory pension scheme and the gross domestic products in the Nigeria economy.
1.6 Significance of Study
This study will be of aid to a lot of people. It is believed that the results of its findings will be far reading to the following categories of people. The PFA managers and PFC managers; It will avail them the opportunity of knowing how employers could react to enforcement of the pension scheme on them, the cost implications.
The auditors will find the result of this study also useful is the course of performing their professional duties in terms of reporting on the financial statement of PFAs and PFCs, especially the investment limit and also the complied employers as regard to contributory rates and regular remittance the financial analysis and economic policy makers will be acquainted with the impact of pension perform Acts on the contributory pension scheme and their multiplier effect on the economy.
More importantly, the need for strict compliance and observance of the pension reform Act or polices rate applicable and regular remittance with objective by the pension manager will revealed.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The research work intends to cover the relevant pension perform Act and the evolution of pension scheme in Nigeria and its impact in the economy the wide coverage of the pension perform Act of 2004 and 2014 with critical analysis of its implication and impact of the contributory pension scheme in the Nigeria economy.
However, in-depth analysis of data of pension fund mobilization per licensed pension funds Administrators in Nigeria since inception of the contributory pension scheme in 2004 to date. This will reveal the prospect and potential investment for economic growth. It will also look at legal framework and duties as enacted in the law i.e PRA 2004 & 2014 of each organ for transparent and efficient management of pension scheme in Nigeria.
The survey of the study covers the economy of Nigeria as relate to the adoption and implementation of the PRA 2004 and 2014 in the remittance of pension funds or contributions of employers and employees regularly to the Pension Fund Custodians (PFC) for onward investment by the PFA that stimulates economic impact. The study revolve around the available financial resource at the researcher disposal, the analysis essentially focus on the organizations and government.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
This study as a matter of fact is supposed to the thorough and elaborate without persimmon, but the following problems were encountered.
TIME CONSTRAINTS: This time of approval of the project topic and submission of the completed which was so short forced to limit the study to only organic framework of the contributory pension scheme in Nigeria.
FINANCIAL CONSTRAINTS: A successful conduct of this work depends on finance which was not forth coming considering the present economic readily of the day.
LACK OF MATERIAL: It is unfortunate considering the infancy of the pension industry that most operators’ management do not understand the need for research students to use their financial records, as a result, they tend to be uncompromising when it comes to obtaining relevant information and data, without pre-empting them it is believed that the uncompromising attitude of library staff affect the conduct of this study is terms of getting receivable marketer.
1.9 Definition of Terms
The following terms used in this work are defined as follows:
1. Pension Scheme: An arrangement by which an employer and, usually, an employee pay into a fund that is invested to provide the employee with a pension on retirement.
2. Annuity: A series of payment made at stated interval until a particular event- usually the death of the person receiving the annuity – occurs.
3. Contributory Scheme: A scheme in which active members are required to make contributions toward the cost of their benefits.
4. Defined contribution Scheme: Also know as a Money purchase scheme – a scheme where the individual member’s benefits is determined solely by reference to the contributors paid into scheme by or in behalf of the member and to investment return earned on those contribution.
5. Funding: The provision in advance for future benefit n advance for future benefit liabilities by setting aside money in a trust, which is separate from the employer’s business, to finance the payment of pension.
6. Investment: The process by which contributions and net income of a scheme are used to increase the value of pension fund assets by means of cash deposits, the purchases and sale of equities, bound’s property and other assess as authorized by the trust dead and by law.
7. Pension Act: An Act of 2004 & 2014 for the regulation pension schemes, which provides for preservation of benefits, a funding standard in the case of defined benefits schemes, disclosure of information, the duties and responsibilities of PFA, PFC and National pension commission and a pension commission and pension Board to supervise the operatory of the Act.
8. Unfunded Scheme: A scheme under which advance financial provision for the payment of benefits is not normally made.
9. Pension: Is a fixed sum to be paid regularly to a person, typically following retirement from service.
1.10 Organization of the Study
This study id divided into five sub-headings. The first chapter was on the introduction in which we have overview, statement of problem, the purpose of the study, significance of the study, organization of the study, scope of the study, limitation of the study, hypotheses, research question and definition of the terms were all discussed.
The second chapter dealt with the reviews of contribution of related literature on the impact of contributory pension scheme in the Niger economy and its related pension reforms Act as well as duties of organism the scheme.
The third dealt with research methodology and tools utilized in the study. It explained to research designed, sample procedure/sample size determination, data collection techniques and data analysis method.
Furthermore, chapter four deals with presentation of data analysis and interpretation of data so collected also include the hypothesis testing and findings for better decision.
Finally, chapter five presents the summary, conclusion, and suggested recommendation of the research.
EFFECTS OF INQUIRY METHOD ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF CHEMISTRY STUDENTS IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA
Price: 4000 Naira (BSC, MSC)
The study examined the effects of guided Inquiry method on academic performance of chemistry students in selected senior secondary schools in Kaduna state. The study used a quasi-experimental research design.A sample of 120 senior secondary 11 (SS2) chemistry students were selected by random sampling from 2 urban and 2 rural schools which comprised both boys and girls with 30 students each in experimental and control groups respectively. The research instruments comprised of chemistry Achievement Test (CAT). The CAT contained 30 multiple choice questions with four options (A-D) and 5 essay questions. The students were divided into two groups; Experimental and control groups which were subjected to inquiry method and traditional methods of teaching respectively. The t-test statistics was used to analyze the data. Major findings revealed that Chemistry students taught using inquiry teaching method performed significantly better than their counterparts taught using traditional teaching method. Hence the study concluded that the inquiry teaching method produced students with significantly higher academic performance inChemistry. The study therefore recommend among others that the use of Inquiry teaching method should be encouraged in all Secondary Schools that offer Chemistry to its students in Kaduna State and other states in Nigeria, also Government should sponsor teachers to attend various workshops and seminars on appropriate and effective use of the inquiry teaching method.
1.1 Background to the Study Chemistry is the scientific study of interaction of chemical substances that constitute atoms or the subatomic particles; protons, electrons and neutrons. It is an integral part of the science curriculum both at the senior secondary school as well as higher institutions. At this level, it is often called “general chemistry” which is an introduction to a wide variety of fundamental concepts that enables students to acquire tools and basic skills useful at the advanced level. One of the objectives of science education is to develop students’ interest towards science and technology. The development of any nation today depends greatly on its technological and scientific advancement. Teachers are expected to device ways of motivating their students to develop positive attitudes towards science and science related disciplines (Sola and Ojo, 2007). Chemistry, in particular is central to many of the scientific fields of human endeavors; therefore, teaching ofchemistry should be given serious attention.
Science teachers have always recognized the importance of practical work as a means of introducing learners to the scientific process of experimentation.To this end, the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the International Union of pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) have participated in numerous international meetingsto promote inexpensive experimental based teaching in chemistry. Inquiry teaching method is a style or method of teaching where the learner is seeking to discover and create answers to recognized problems through procedure of making a diligent search, some time with minimum guidance from the teacher (Callahan, et al 1995). Science process skills are based on scientific inquiry and teaching science by inquiry involves teaching students science process skills, critical thinking, scientific reasoning skills used by scientists (Pratt and Hackett, 1998) and inquiry is defined as an approach to teaching, the acts scientists use in doing science and it can be a highly effective teaching method that helps students to understand concepts and use of process skills (Yagger and Akcay, 2010). Inquiry teaching method is also a term used in science teaching that refers to a way of questioning, seeking knowledge, information or finding out about phenomena, it involves investigating data and arriving at a conclusion (Sola and Ojo, 2007). In inquiry situation students learn not only concept but also self-direction, responsibility and social communication. It also permits students to assimilate and accommodate information. It is the way people learn when they are left alone.
Cheval and Hart (2005), classify inquiry teaching method into three (3) classes, namely: structured inquiry, guided inquiry and open inquiry. All these types of inquiry can be useful to students to learn science when taught appropriately. Structured inquiry is the most teacher-centered of the three types of inquiry. This type of inquiry is commonly seen in science classrooms in the form of laboratory exercises. The teacher provides fairly structured procedures for the inquiry activity, and students carry out the investigations. Structured inquiry could be described as the most traditional approach to inquiry (Cheval and Hart, 2005). The open inquiry on the other side is a type of inquiry which requires the least amount of teacher intervention and is student centered. Students, in this case, often work in groups and plan all phases of their investigations, while guided inquiry falls in the middle of the inquiry instructional spectrum. This type of inquiry is commonly used when students are asked to make tools or develop a process that results in a desired outcome. For example, a science teacher gives his seventh grade middle school students materials to create a rocket but no instructions for designing the rocket. The students must use their own knowledge and creativity to design the rocket so that it will launch properly, fly a certain distance, and land without becoming disassembled. The teacher provides the problem and materials and the students develop the rocket using their own scientific process or procedure (Cheval and Hart, 2005). In this study, guided inquiry will be used. Students will be given a set of topic and materials to develop method to find answers to the given problem. The lecture method is used primarily to introduce students to a new subject, but is also a valuable method for summarizing ideas, showing relationships between theory and practice, and re-emphasizing main points.Chemistry activities deals with telling and showing, therefore, a lecture-demonstration method is a teaching technique that combines oral explanation with “doing” to communicate processes, concepts and facts. It is particularly effective in teaching a skill that can be observed. Demonstration is usually accompanied by a thorough explanation, which is essentially a lecture. Lecture method according to Garba(1996), is a traditional method of transmission of knowledge; it is essentially a one-way process. The current Nigerian classroom whether primary, secondary or tertiary institutions level, tends to resemble a one-person show with a captain but often comatose audience. Classes are usually driven by “teacher-talk” and depend heavily on textbooks for the structure of the courses. Teachers serve as pipelines and seek to transfer their thoughts and meanings to passive students. There is little room for student-initiated questions, independent thought or interaction between students. Therefore, the study is aimed at determining the effect of guided inquiry teaching strategy and the traditional methods on students’ academic performance in chemistry at the senior secondary school level. Guided Inquiry teaching method is chosen in this study due to its scientific nature and it is student-centered and it involves all scientific process. 1.2 Statement of the Problem
Students’ persistent poor performance in chemistry has been partly ascribed to inadequate teaching and instructional methods adopted by teachers. In supporting this view, Derek (2007), reported the seriousness of the deplorable performance of secondary school students in chemistry and identified the persistent use of the traditional methods of instruction as one of the major shortcoming affecting the learning and higher achievement in chemistry . Many students find chemistry to be a hindrance in attaining their aims and objectives. Donald, (2000) said students wishing to read medicine cannot do so unless they credit chemistry. It is therefore necessary to properly groom the students right from the secondary level to enable them improve their academic achievement in chemistry. Poor performance of students in science subjects, particularly chemistry, has assumed a serious dimension as reported by West African Examination Council (1991). In the light of this, science teachers need to seek suitable ways of tackling the current massive failure in chemistry if they are to halt the drifts of science students to art and social science subjects. 1.3 Objectives of the Study The objectives of this study are to: 1. determine the effects of guided inquiry method and traditional method on the performance of chemistry students in senior secondary schools in Kaduna state; 2. determine the effects of guided inquiry method on the performance of students in chemistry in Kaduna state; 3. determinethe effects of guided inquiry method on theperformance of male and female students in chemistry in Kaduna state; and 4. determine the differencein the performance between urban and rural students in chemistry taught with guided inquiry teaching method in Kaduna state.
1.4 Research Questions
1. It is assumed that most chemistry teachers in the secondary schools do not make use of appropriate chemistry teaching methods in secondary schools in Kaduna state. 2. It is also assumed that teachers are employed to teach Chemistry without considering their area of specialization, educational qualifications and training. 3. It is assumed that teachers do not use appropriate Chemistry teaching methods. 4. Learning by doing could enhance and motivate students to improve on their performance in chemistry. 1.7 Significance of the Study The findings of this study will help in the following ways: The chemistry teachers will utilize the findings of this study in their chemistry classrooms; helping students’ understanding of chemistry concepts through guided inquiry teaching method. Students at the senior secondary school (SSS) level in Kaduna state and other states can be encouraged and motivated by this research.Active involvement of students helps to develop self-confidence and positive attitude to chemistry through this research.The study will provide information for educational planners and curriculum designers in the Federal Ministry of Education. They will support the use of inquiry teaching method in senior secondary schools by carrying out effective quality assurance for teachers in order to improve teaching/learning situations currently existing in senior secondary schools in Kaduna state.
It is hoped that the students will find Chemistry very interesting as it will equip them for job opportunities in industries in both private and public sectors such as manufacturing and processing industries, industries related to petroleum, chemical,
ceramic, polymer, food, electronics, the environmental, mining, pharmaceuticals and health- related industries, agriculture industries, government agencies, including forensic science and patents, defence, education and research, and areas related to biotechnology. 1.8 Scope of the Study Thisstudy on Effects of guided inquirymethod on academic performance of chemistry studentsis delimited to senior secondary schools in Sabon/gariand Zaria local government areas of Kaduna state, Nigeria. The study involves senior secondary two (SS2) chemistry students with a total population of five thousand, nine hundred and thirteen (5,913).It is delimited to a consideration of the effects of inquiry method on students’ performance in chemistry in Kaduna state.
Estate Agent/property management system is a complete end to end solution to cover all aspects of Estate day to day activity and property buying and selling procedure for large and small organization. The objective of this work is to develop and design an e-property management system that will automate all processes of property management with the aim of making information concerning properties available on demand. I was motivated by the problems associated with the manual property management such as: loss of property documents, sales of property with fake property documents, conspiracy of fraudsters with staff of ministry of lands as well as the numerous litigations and other violent acts associated with manual property management. The software engineering methodology adopted is structured system analysis and design methodology. The expected result is to develop a property management software that will guarantee the effective and efficient management of properties that can reduce illegal practices associated with property management.
Price: 3000 Naira (BSC, MSC)
Formal examination can rightly be defined as the assessment of a person‘s Performance, when confronted with a series of questions, problems, or tasks set him, in order to ascertain the amount of knowledge that he has acquired, the extent to which he is able to utilize it, or the quality and effectiveness of the skills he has developed.
The Jesuits introduced written examination into their schools in the 16th century. The Definitive Ratio Argue Institution Studiorum of 1599, which was not revised until 1932, contains a code of rules for the conduct of school examinations, which were held annually, and determined whether or not children were promoted to a higher class. During the 19th century, formal written examinations became regular in universities, schools, and other educational institutions. Examinations were also increasingly employed for the selection of recruits to the civil service, and the professions, and to posts in industry and commence. Over the ages, standardized testing has been the most common methodology, yet the validity and credibility of the expanded range of contemporary assessment techniques have been called into question.
There are two types of systems that help automatically establish the identity of a person:
1) Authentication (verification) systems and
2) Identification systems. In a verification system, a person desired to be identified submits an identity claim to the system, usually via a magnetic stripe card, login name, smart card, etc., and the system either rejects or accepts the submitted claim of identity (Am I who I claim I am?). In an identification system, the system establishes a subject‘s identity (or fails if the subject is not enrolled in the system data base) without the subject‘s having to claim an identity (Who am I?). The topic of this paper is channel towards the development of examination impersonation elimination system and this system would strictly do with the unique feature of identification by means of finger print. A verification system based on Iris and fingerprints, and the terms verification, authentication, and identification are used in a loose sense and synonymously.
Accurate automatic personal identification is becoming more and more important to the operation of our increasingly electronically interconnected information society. Traditional automatic personal identification technologies to verify the identity of a person, which use ―Something that you know,‖ such as a personal identification number (PIN), or ―something that you have,‖ such as an identification (ID) card, key, etc., are no longer considered reliable enough to satisfy the security requirements of electronic transactions or school management system. All of these techniques suffer from a common problem of inability to differentiate between an authorized person and an impostor who fraudulently acquires the access privilege of the authorized person.
Biometrics is a technology that (uniquely) identifies a person based on his physiological or behavioral characteristics. It relies on ―something that you are‖ to make personal identification and therefore can inherently differentiate between an authorized person and a fraudulent imposter. Although biometrics cannot be used to establish an absolute ―yes/no‖ personal identification like some of the traditional technologies, it can be used to achieve a ―positive identification‖ with a very high level of confidence, such as an error rate of 0.001%. Iris biometric technology using biometrics employ certain advantage of eradicating the problem of examination impersonation by allowing the measure of what you are to perform the security activities of student participation in the exams.
1.1 Background of Study
An examination board is an organization that sets examinations and is responsible for marking them and distributing results. Examination boards have the power to award qualifications, such as SAT scores, to students. Most exam boards are running as non-profit organizations.
The West African Examinations Council (WAEC) is a not-for-profit examination board formed out of the concern for education in Africa. Established in 1952, the council has contributed to education in Anglophonic countries of West Africa (Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, and the Gambia), with the number of examinations they have coordinated, and certificates they have issued. They also formed an endowment fund, to contribute to the education in West Africa, through lectures, and aid to those who cannot afford education.
Dr. Adeyegbe, HNO of WAEC Nigeria (2004) said “the council has developed a team of well-trained and highly motivated staff, and has administered Examinations that are valid and relevant to the educational aspirations of member countries”. In a year, over three million candidates registered for the exams coordinated by WAEC. The council also helps other examination bodies (both local and international) in coordinating Examinations.
The University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate, University of London School Examinations Matriculation Council and West African Departments of Education met in 1948, concerning education in West Africa. The meeting was called to discuss the future policy of education in West Africa. At the meeting, they appointed Dr. George Barker Jeffery (Director of the University Of London Institute Of Education) to visit some West African countries, so as to see the general education level and requirements in West Africa. At the end of Jeffery’s three month visit (December 1949- March 1950) to Ghana, the Gambia, Sierra Leone, and Nigeria, he tendered a report (since known as Jeffery report) strongly supporting the need for a West African Examination Council, and making detailed recommendations on the composition and duties of the Council. Following this report, the groups met with the governments of these countries, and they agreed on establishing a West African Examination council, fully adopting Jeffery’s recommendations.
The legislative assemblies of Nigeria, Ghana, Sierra Leone, and the Gambia passed an ordinance (West African Examinations Council Ordinance NO. 40) approving the West African Examination Council in Dec 1951. The Ordinance agreed to the coordination of exams, and issuing of certificates to students in individual countries by the West African Examination Council. Liberia later issued their ordinance in 1974, at the annual meeting held in Lagos, Nigeria. After the success of forming an examination council, the council called a first meeting in Accra, Ghana on March 1953. In the meeting, the registrar briefed everybody about the progress of the council. In that same meeting, five committees were formed to assist the council. These committees are: Administrative and Finance Committee, School Examinations Committee, Public Service Examinations Committee, The Professional, Technical and Commercial Examinations Committee, and the Local Committee. The total number of people present for this meeting was 26.
1.2 Objective Of The Study
The objective of this study is as follows
To create a system that is capable of tracking impersonators in the examination system using the methodology of IRIS biometrics.
To reduce rate of corruption in the educational sector and increase the rate of self-confidence on students.
To demonstrate the possibility of computer technology in the satisfaction of human needs and also enforce strict security measures that ensure unregistered students do not write exams for other registered students.
The justification for the system is as follows
To add more security measures to the examination processes using Iris biometrics.
To eliminate the possibility of an imposter appearing in an exam.
1.4 Statement of Problem
The problems which are encountered in the previous system are
1. Student impersonation
2. In secured authentication of students
3. Manual verification of student
1.5 Scope Of The Study
This system would be implemented using the vb.net and Microsoft access database and also all necessary method of data collection within my reach to ensure the system meet up to acceptable standard has been put into consideration. Also tables‘graphs for easily analysis and demonstration of development trend of achievement would also be shown. Also this work would be carried out under close supervision for adequate guidance and interpretation of the work as it unfolds.
1.6 Significances of Study
With the increasing rate of exam malpractices in the educational sectors the school management deserve to inculcate a tight security means to ensure that these activities of exam impersonators stop. The activities of these exam impersonators have seen the educational sector suffer some serious form corruption ranging from registered student, to examination supervisor. So it best for the educational body to strategies some certain security means to stop this aspect of corruption in the educational sector.
The system uses an IRIS biometrics this would help ensure that only registered student during registration with their finger prints are allowed into the examination hall.
The system would contribute in the area of stopping any activity of corruption in the educational sector among students, and student to teachers.
Hard work would be encouraged as every registered student knows he/she is going to write the exam by him or herself.
The impersonation which has eating the educational system there by encouraging laziness among students would be eliminated and standard of student educational performance would be increased.
1.7 Definition of Terms/Variables Used
WAEC: A body responsible for conducting and issuing certificate to secondary school graduating student among West Africa.
DATABASE: A collection of related information which can be stored and retrieved.
EXAMINATION: A measure for the test of knowledge.
MALPRACTICES: This refers to negligence or misconduct
IMPERSONATION: General process of acting on behalf of a client.
IMPERSONATOR: A performed skilled at copying the manner or expression of another mime.
IRIS: In humans and most mammals and birds, the iris is a thin, circular structure in the eye, responsible for controlling the diameter and size of the pupil and thus the amount of light reaching the retina.
FINGER PRINT: An impression on a surface of the curves formed by the ridges on a fingertip.
BIOMETRICS: Is the use of measurable, biological characteristics such as fingerprints, or iris patterns to identify a person to an electronic system.
ELIMINATION: To get rid of
DESIGN: Is a creative activity whose aim is to establish the multi faceted qualities of objects processes, service and their systems in whole life cycles.
SECURITY ACCESS: Permission granted to users base on their identification.
AUTHENTI CATION: The process of identifying someone base on users name or password in security system
AUTHORIZATION: Act of granting someone the permission to do or take something.
HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT AND UTILIZATION IN THE NIGERIAN CIVIL SERVICE: A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU STATE CIVIL SERVICE (2000 – 2010)
This Thesis explores human resources development and utilization, in Enugu State civil service,
an activity that has been neglected in the public sector. It presents answers to the following
questions. The intent is to provide a useful basis for change in the human resource management
culture in the civil service of Nigeria. The theoretical framework used in the study is Human
Relations Theory that are in line with human research development and utilization. Most
importantly, its objectives to the government agencies and organizations.
In pursue of the above goals of this study, the researcher distributed and administered
questionnaires to the employees of Enugu State Civil Service. The responses from the
questionnaires were analyzed using simple percentage and frequency tables for proper
clarification. From the analysis and interpretation of hypotheses, the researcher found out that
many problems/factors affected the human resources development and utilization in Enugu State
Civil Service such as: poor coordination among the agencies charged with the responsibility of
human resources development, incompetent professionals and corruption. Based on these
findings, the researcher has made the following recommendations.
1) The agencies charged with the responsibility of human resources planning must
continuously monitor and; evaluate outcomes from the services of workers in order
to know their level of performance/productivity, where changes should be made and
then plan better strategy for improving future performance. These are important
corrective measures. The purpose of evaluating a training programme is to
determine its effectiveness. A training programme is effective only if it has gathered
in the evaluation process will enable the civil service to improve on programme for
future trainees and also enable the trainers appraise themselves in terms of method
2) Another strategy for improving human resource development and utilization is by
providing the agencies involved in human resources development with sufficient fund
to make the process productive. This is because, every aspect of human resource
development requires fund. For example, the training and development of human
resources require money. Therefore, government should allocate sufficient fund to
Enugu State Civil Service to enable them plan effectively for their human resources
development, which in turn will improve the economy of the state.
3) Adequately equipped training centres and facilities should be provided across the
length and breadth of the country, so that different ministries should have easy
access to obtaining training when the need arises. To properly plan and utilize
human resources in Enugu State Civil Service, there should be provision for
adequate training facilities, which will be used in developing human resources for
productive services. There is no doubt that any training programmes is meaningful
only if it enables man to be of great service to his organization. Training has its
cardinal goals of creation of “behavioural change” in a desire direction as
organizational needs dictates. Knowledge and skills should be designed and
imparted on relevant employee(s) so as to affect a significant change in their job
behaviour. According to Chandan (2007), employee training should assume the
following specific form:
(a) Induction and orientation course
(b) On-the-job training
(c) Off-the-job training
(d) Vestibule training
(e) Regular refreshers course in form of seminars, workshops etc.
1.1 Background to the Study
The Human resources of an organization comprise of men and women, young and old who
engage in the production of goods and services and who are the greatest assets of the organization
(Ndiomu, cited in Ezeani, 2002:2). The people, in the words of Gant (1979, are the human
resources for the supply of physical labour, technical and professional skills which are germane
for effective and efficient planning and implementation of development policies, programmes,
projects, and daily activities. There is no doubt that the ability of any organization or society to achieve its goals depends to a large extent on the caliber, organization and motivation of its
human resources. As succinctly captured by Likert in Ezeani (2002:1).
All the activities of any enterprise are initiated and determined by the persons who make up
that institution. Plant, offices, computers, automated equipment, and all else that a modern firm
use are unproductive except for human effort and direction.
Similarly, Harbison cited in Ezeani (2002:1) opined that “human resources and not any other
constitute the ultimate basis for the wealth of nations.” And according to Drucker (1978:273) “…
good organizational structure does not by itself guarantee good performance. Human resources is as
a fact of life of the existence, survival and development of an organization as food is to man”.
However, these and such other statements by human resources management experts and
practitioners alike are pointers to the importance and critical role of the human element in
organization. Indeed, the human resources is a critical factor in the attainment of the goals of any
organization. The ability of the human resources to contribute to the attainment of the goals of an
organization such as the Local government depends to a great extent on how well they are
On the other hand, given the increasing volatile and complex socio-economic structure of our
business organization in Nigeria, two basic factors are crucial for business success: Capital and
Human Resources. According to Nwankwo (cited in Onah, 2007), every organization needs three
main resources to survive. They are: financial, material and human resources. An organization needs
money to pay it staff and to buy the essential materials or equipment for operations. Maximum
production of services offered cannot be achieved unless the essential material resources are
available. Of course, there is no organization without human resources. Capital, whether acquired
through loans or from private sources, can be easier to manage and control, only when there is qualified and quality human resources. Even if an organization has got all the money and materials it
needs, it must still find capable people to put them into effective use. Organizations, whether public
or private, are prone to jeopardy when there is no adequate human resource and manpower planning.
However, it is from the foregoing premise that the compelling need arises for manpower
planning and development as a sine-qua-non for enhanced productivity. Despite available
human/manpower, organizations in Nigeria have not been properly managed nor the available
human resources managed adequately. This calls for strategic ways of improving human
resource/manpower planning and its utilization to improve our economy. When organizations are not
proper managed and are not productive, the economy of the country will be badly affected.
Furthermore, according to the 1974 Udoji report (as quoted by Oshionebo, 2001), the public
service must be changed and strengthened to respond effectively to the demand of development.
They need qualified, skilled and motivated people at the right place and at the right time to achieve
objectives, to transfer paper plan into actual achievement of all aspect of personnel management.
It is pertinent to note that the civil service has continued to accord appreciable attention to
proper strategies for improving manpower planning and staff development. In the wake of the
professionalism introduced or reinforced by the 1988 Civil Service Reform, it was imperative for
very job incumbent (holder) to possess requisite knowledge, skill and attitudinal tendencies in
specific job activity in government service. Accordingly, we are told that in order to improve the
economy and efficiency and raise the performance standard of employers to the minimum possible
level of proficiency, ministries are to establish, operate and maintain programmes or plans for the
training of employees in or under their ministry (FRN 1988).
Government is also experiencing serious revenue shortfalls to meet its development
objectives. Staff rationalization and other downsizing and rightsizing measures have been the consequence of revenue shortfall in both public and private sector as well as across economic subsectors.
According to Banjiko (1996), Human resource/manpower planning, can therefore, be seen as
the overall organization planning process by which the organization tries to ensure that it has the
right number of persons and the right kind of people, at the right time and at the right place
performing functions which are economically useful and which satisfy the needs of the organization
and provide satisfaction for the individual involved.
Well, to have the right number and quality of people requires effective strategies for human
resource planning and sources managerial commitment. It is important for the following reasons:
First, for any organization to achieve a reasonable degree of success, it is
important neither to plan with excess or inadequate manpower. Human resources are
always costly to acquire and retain, thereby making it economically difficult to justify
keeping excess manpower. When we have excess employees, it can cause serious problem
and even redundancy for the organization. Also, the organization cannot keep or afford to
keep too few employees, as over-work by the available employees may retard work
progress and lead a lot of dysfunctional behaviour on the part of employees. Effective
strategic manpower planning and its utilization that takes into account the whole
arrangement of potential planning factor can help to determine the right quality and kind
of employees to keep.
Secondly effective strategies for improving manpower planning can be useful for stabilizing
Third, the need to cope with possible future changes and competitive forces in both product
and labour market, in technology and government regulatory requirement, call for a realistic and
effective manpower planning.
It is pertinent to note that the Nigerian public service is the highest employer of labour in
Nigeria. The civil service commission, both at the federal and state level, has the responsibility of
manpower recruitment, selection and employment. Government programme and projects are
becoming more complex and difficult, thus the necessity to plan manpower in order to meet
challenges. In order to undertake good strategy for improving manpower planning and utilization in
Enugu state civil service, government should, through its personnel managers, analyze from time to
time, the various positions available, anticipate expansion of service and take cognizance of some
factors that influence employment in the public sector. Such factors as quota system, political and
fiscal policies of government.
However, in the face of decreasing productivity in the public sector, the Obasanjo’s
administration in 2006, set up a body to reform the public sector/service, especially in the
employment of only qualified graduates. The Bureau for Public Service, head by Malam El-Rufai,
was empowered to revive the public service to ensure effectiveness. The reform led to the
retrenchment of about thirty thousand workers (unqualified, incompetent and dead wood) and the
employment, training and development of about one thousand, five hundred fresh graduates with
first class and second-class university degree.
In fact, the central focus of this study is to interrogate how manpower training and utilization
affects the Enugu State Civil Service.
Human resources management and employees productivity in Nigeria public sector, a study of Beyelsa state local government system 2008-2018
Price: 6000 Naira (Ph.D)
1.1 Background Of Study
The development of any nation depends to a very large extent on the calibre, organization and motivation of its human resources. In the specific case of Nigeria where diversity exerts tremendous influence on politics and administration, the capacity to increase the benefits and reduce the costs of this diversity constitutes a human resource management challenge of epic proportion in its public sector organizations. Human Resource Management (HRM) is the function within an organization that focuses on recruitment of, management of, and providing direction for the people who work in the organization. Human Resource Management can also be performed by line managers.
Human Resource Management is the organizational function that deals with issues related to people such as compensation, hiring, performance management, organization development, safety, wellness, benefits, employee motivation, communication, administration, and training.
Human Resource Management is also a strategic and comprehensive approach to managing people and the workplace culture and environment. Effective HRM enables employees to contribute effectively and productively to the overall company direction and the accomplishment of the organization’s goals and objectives. Human Resource Management is moving away from traditional personnel, administration, and transactional roles, which are increasingly outsourced. HRM is now expected to add value to the strategic utilization of
employees and that employee programs impact the business in measurable ways. The new role of HRM involves strategic direction and HRM metrics and measurements to demonstrate.
HRM covers a wide range of activities. The main area of study we will focus on will be incentives and work organization. Incentives include remuneration systems (e.g. individuals or group incentive/contingent pay) and also the system of appraisal, promotion and career advancement. By work organization we mean the distribution of decision rights (autonomy/decentralization) between managers and workers, job design (e.g. flexibility of working, job rotation), team-working (e.g. who works with whom) and information provision.
Human resource management encompasses the traditional personnel functions of recruitment, selection, training, motivation, compensation, evaluation, discipline, and termination of employees. Each of those tasks demands particular skills. Increasingly, human resource management is being recognized for its strategic importance to organizations and jurisdictions, and is moving beyond its traditional position as a monitor of compliance. This course is designed to provide you with an understanding of the evolution of human resource management policies and practices, and how changes over time reflect shifting societal values and environmental circumstances. Our emphasis is on improving understanding of the
historical context and current conditions of public sector HRM and developing basic skills necessary to be an effectively manage human resources.
According to Likert (1996:112) the term human resource refers to the talents.” Thus the term connets man in relationship to the world of works. Such work involves producing things and providing services of all kinds in the social political, cultural and economic development of a nation.
“Human resources management is simply described as the management of the human resources in an organization for optimal utilization and attainment of organizational objectives” Banjoko (1996:69) AS opined by Harbinson (1998 :213) man power refers to human beings i.e. human
resources of an organization or nation regardless of their skill. They make
organizations functions”. Karen (1999:89) looks at manpower as a unique
resource. It is an indispensable means of converting all other resources to
mankind use and benefits” How well it is used determines how well an organization performs. Human resources management takes place within
the frame work of an organization in a purpose constrict, deliberately
designed to achieve certain goals. The efficiency with which that organization is operated will depend to a large extent on how utilized. For a manager to be effective, the manager has to design a programme which ensures the selection and training of employees for the jobs that best suit their abilities and motivating them to exert that maximum effort for the attainment of the corporate objective.
In the last ten years, organisations especially in Africa have been hit with the undisputable fact that the creation of competitive advantage lies in people. Organisations have increasingly recognised the potential for their people to be a source of competitive advantage. Not too long ago, so called HR functions was the preserve of „Personnel Managers‟ whose duties were to recruit and select, appraise, promote and demote. These superficial duties could be performed by any manager, it therefore never seemed necessary to employ an expert in the form of a human resource manager let alone create a whole department dedicated to HRM. Little attention was paid to human resource management issues and its impact on organisational performance. The emphasis on traditions and socio-cultural issues injected an element of subjectivity in „personnel manager‟ functions such as recruitment and selection, performance appraisal, promotion, demotion, and compensation.
In today‟s competitive and rapidly changing business world, organisations especially in the service industry need to ensure maximum utilisation of their resources to their own advantage; a necessity for organisational survival. Studies have shown that organisations can create and sustain competitive position through management of non-substitutable, rare, valuable, and inimitable internal resources (Barney, 1991). HRM has transcended from policies that gather dust to practices that produce results. Human resource management practices has the ability to create organisations that are more intelligent, flexible and competent than their rivals through the application of policies and practices that concentrate on recruiting, selecting, training skilled employees and directing their best efforts to cooperate within the resource bundle of the organisation. This can potentially consolidate organisation performance and create competitive advantage as a result of the historical sensitivity of human resources and the social complex of policies and practices that rivals may not be able to imitate or replicate their diversity and depth.
Lately, organisations are focused on achieving superior performance through the best use of talented human resources as a strategic asset. HRM policies or strategies must now be aligned to business strategies for organisational success. No matter the amount of technology and mechanisation developed, human resource remains the singular most important resource of any success-oriented organisation. After all, successful businesses are built on the strengths of exceptional people. HRM has now gained significance academically and business wise and can therefore not be relegated to the background or left in the hands of non-experts. Attention must be paid to the human resources organisations spent considerable time and resources to select.
Armstrong (2009) defines Human Resource Management (HRM) as a strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organisation‟s most valued assets; that is, the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of its objectives. Moreover, Human resource management practices can be defined as a set of organisational activities that aims at managing a pool of human capital and ensuring that this capital is employed towards the achievement of organisational objectives (Wright and Boswell, 2002). The adoption of certain bundles of human resource management practices has the ability to positively influence organisation performance by creating powerful connections or to detract from performance when certain combinations of practices are inadvertently placed in the mix (Wagar and Rondeau, 2006). So if we think human resource management as just the services any manager may provide in recruiting and selecting, appraising, training and compensating employees, then we rather would have to take the backseat for those who understand the influence HRM has on corporate performance to take the centre stage. Research has recorded a positive relationship between human resource management practices and corporate performance. Thus in order to stimulate corporate performance, management is required to develop skilled and talented employees who are capable of performing their jobs successfully (Klein, 2004).
Achieving better corporate performance requires successful, effective and efficient exploit of organisation resources and competencies in order to create and sustain competitive position locally and globally. HRM policies on selection, training and development, performance appraisal, compensation, promotion, incentives, work design, participation, involvement, communication, employment security, etc must be formulated and implemented by HRM specialist with the help of line managers to achieve the following outcomes: competence, cooperation with management, cooperation among employees, motivation, commitment, satisfaction, retention, presence, etc
In fact, Ahmad and Schroeder (2003) found a positive influence of human resource management practices (information sharing, extensive training, selective hiring, compensation and incentives, status differences, employment security, and decentralization and use of teams) on organisational performance as operational performance (quality, cost reduction, flexibility, deliverability and commitment). In furtherance of this assertion, Sang (2005) also found a positive influence of human resource management practices (namely, human resource planning, staffing, incentives, appraisal, training, team work, employee participation, status difference, employment security) on organisation performance.
For businesses to survive, HRM should be given its rightful place of relevance in any organisation and not left in the hands of line managers who neither have the expertise nor the time and space to carry out the enormous functions of a human resource manager.
1.2 Statement Of Problem
The management of any organization be it profit or non profit oriented institution or organization is often faced with one common problem. This problem normally has to do with the efficient and effective utilization of resources for the attainment and of organization goals and objectives. The set goals and objectives clearly justify the existence of any organization and therefore its realization or non-realization determines the survival or untimely death of such organization. The need to realize organizational objectives imposed on management a variety of problems which management needs to tackle from time to time. It has often been
discovered that improper and poor management of human resources in organizations usually leads to problems such as.
1. High labour turnover
2. Low employee morale
3. Lack of job satisfaction
4. Reduced creativity and sturned growth on the part of the employee
5. Lack of employee motivation which often result in low employee productivity and
6. Reduce corporate profitability and threatened growth and survival
of the organization.
The effects of these problems on employee productivity and how it
could be reduced or eliminated completely to enhance productivity via
effective human resources management is what the research is set to
HRM has made significant inroads into the Nigerian corporate world. It is common to see large organisations in Nigeria set up a whole department for the sole purpose of managing human resources and hire experts in the field to be in charge of HRM. The enormous benefits of properly managing human resource cannot be over emphasised. However, the majority of the local government in Nigeria are yet to catch the “HRM cold”. Inappropriate HRM policies and practices of some of these banks can be attributed to the non-existence of HRM specialists or HRM departments. Research has established significantly a positive relationship between an organisation‟s HRM practices and performance. Most of these organization do not realise the impact of properly managing its human resource and therefore leave policies in the hands of line managers and board of directors who are non-HRM experts to implement or enforce strategies, policies, processes, programmes and practices. The value of properly managing human resources is lost to such rural banks.
Human Resource Management is extremely important for banks especially because banking is a service industry. Management of people and management of risk are two key challenges facing banks. How you manage the people and how you manage the risks determines your success in the banking business. Efficient risk management may not be possible without efficient and skilled manpower.
Organization has been and will always be a “People Business”. Though pricing is important, there may be other valid reasons why people select and stay with a particular bank. Organization must try to distinguish themselves by creating their own niches or images, especially in transparent situations with a high level of competitiveness. In coming times, the very survival of the Organization would depend on customer satisfaction. Those who do not meet the customer expectations will find survival difficult. Organization must articulate and emphasize the core values to attract and retain certain customer segments. Values such as “sound”, “reliable”, “innovative”, “close”, “socially responsible”, “Nigerian”, etc. need to be emphasized through concrete actions on the ground and it would be the Organization human resource that would deliver this.
1.3 Aim and Objective Of The Study
The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the perceptions of employees towards HRM practices in Beyelsa local government system and to establish the impact of such practices on organizational performance.
The main objectives of the study are to critically assess the productivity and human resource development in Nigeria Organization with a view to:
1) Identifying the importance of HRM to an organization in Nigeria
2) Identifying the need for HRM in an organization
3) Identifying problems associated with HRM in organizations.
4) Examine the trend and techniques of HRM in organizations
5) Reviewing the process of HRM and its impact on organization
6) Identifying the relationship between effective HRM and
7) Identifying the problems associated with HRM and prefer solutions
1.4 Research Questions
1. What is the evidence to prove that work motivation and compensation contributes to the productivity of an organization?
2. What is the evidence to prove that Ethics and Values contribute to poor productivity of an organization?
3. What is the significant relationship to show that work attitude of workers by workers affects the productivity of an organization?
4. What is the evidence to show recruitment and selection process of workers affects the productivity of public sector organization?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following research hypotheses are tested.
The researcher uses hypotheses HO which is a test of no difference
HO1: There is evidence to prove that work motivation and compensation contributes to the productivity of an organization.
HO2: There is evidence to prove that Ethics and Values contribute to poor productivity of an organization.
HO3: There is a significant relationship to show that work attitude of workers by workers affects the productivity of an organization.
HO4: There is evidence to show recruitment and selection process of workers affects the productivity of public sector organization
1.6 Significance Of Study
Human Resource Management is the backbone of any economy production of any nation.
HRM plays a vital role in the productivity of the Nigeria public sector organizations. It is therefore important to identify the significances of the research work which are subdivided as:
1. The findings of this research will serve as a guide in the productivity of other public sector through their human resource.
2. The findings of this study will enable for proper management of human resource
which will lead to effective customer value and productivity in public sector
3. It will also enhance government, private sector and general public participation
contribution in addressing these human resource management in public sector
4. The study will enable me to contribute my own views and ideas on managing human resource and productivity in the civil servant of Nigeria.
5. The study will be of immense help to other people and students who might wish to carry out other researches in the field.
1.7 Scope Of The Study
The work is on Productivity and human resource development in Nigeria, with Civil servant as a case. It will cover the concept of productivity; examine Human Resource Management in Public Sector, the impact of HRM on Productivity in civil servant and also the challenges of Human Resource Management in Public Sector.
1.8 Limitations Of The Study
In carrying out this research many factors served as constraints:
1. The limitation of the research title as just HRM and Productivity in the Nigeria civil servant.
2. Financial Limitation.
3. Inadequate Time: time factor constitutes the major limitation of this research study. It relates to the fact that the time for research work was short because it was combined with lectures, studies and examination.
4. Negative attitude of respondent: the problem facing the researcher with regards to the respondents relates to the non-cooperation and uncompromising attitude some respondents in giving
1.9 Definition Of Terms
(a) Document study: Ikeagwu (1998:89), a document study refers to
the study of any written material that contains information about
the happenings that are being studied.
(b) Manpower: Harbinso (1998:106) refers manpower as human
being i.e. human resources of an organization for optional
utilization and attainment of organizational objectives.
(c) Manpower development: According to Kennedy (1961:57) this is
a process of acquiring and increasing the number of persons who
have educational skills and experience, and motivation which are
critical for economic and social development of an organization. It
includes investment by society in education, investment by
employer’s in training and investment by individual in time and
money in their own development.
(d) Productivity by (Mail, 1978:42) is seen as reaching the highest
level of performance with the least expenditure of resources. It
represents the output of goods and services which can be obtained
from a given input indices as manpower const/unit of output,
manpower cost as a ratio of sales, per employee and contribution
per employee. Internal and external either through reduction in number of mechanization by Bedium (1987:80).
(e) Training: Is defined as discipline and instruction which improve
character through exercises to achieve objectives or goals
efficiently. Rom Herzog (1977:102).
(f) Staff appraisal: Refers to critical performance appraisal it
plays important role in determine who has potential for
development (Banjoko, 1996:46). Each manager or head of
department filling a form over viewing certain areas of
performance of the subordinates normally carries it out. The form
which each manager is expected to complete in respect of the staff
has various columns for recording salient aspects of an employee’s
contribution over a period of twelve months.
(g) Compensation what the employees receive in exchange for their
contribution to the organization Kertk, (1996:8).
(h) Manpower Plan: Is action steps to meet manpower need. It is
specific action plan or blue prints for bridging the gap between the
forecast and the inventory to be met as a result of changes in the
existing workforce. Specific plans will have to be developed for the
recruitment training and transfer of the necessary personnel. Karek,
Price: 4000 Naira (BSC, MSC)
Globally, it is expected that banks should play vital roles in financing economic
activities as their contribution at ensuring sustainable economic growth and
development. The intermediary role of banks can foster economic growth through
raising of savings, improving efficiency of loan-able funds and promoting capital
accumulation. In Nigeria, the banking industry as well as the entire economy assumed
a new dimension in September 1986 when the then Military government introduced
the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP). Expectedly, this restructuring brought
certain changes not only to the banking system but also the entire economy of
Nigeria. However, whether continuation of policies allied to the programme has
increased access to loan-able funds through the intermediation functions of banks is
still contentious. It is against this background that this study examined the impact of
bank credit on economic growth in Nigeria from 1987 to 2012, and specifically
sought to evaluate the impact of bank credits advanced to the private sector on
Nigerian economic growth, ascertain the effect of bank credits extended to the public
sector on Nigerian economic growth and ascertain the impact of the aggregate bank
credits to the private and the public sectors on the Nigerian economy. The study
adopted the ex-post facto research design and times series data were collated from the
Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin and Annual Reports. The OLS regression
statistic was used to test the hypotheses stated. The estimated regression results
indicate that private sector credits, public sector credits and the aggregate bank credits
to the private and the public sectors impact positively and significantly on economic
growth over the period of the study. The study concludes that for the Nigerian
economy to grow, policy frameworks that favour more credits to the private sector of
the Nigerian economy with minimal interest rate to stimulate economic growth should
be pursued by government. This will assist in making more loan-able funds available
for investment into the real sectors of the economy. The study, therefore, recommends
among others that policies on public sector borrowing and spending should be
reviewed in order to discourage gross unproductive “white elephant” investments and
more credits channeled into subsectors with more linkage effects such as agriculture,
manufacturing, energy and infrastructural development.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Globally, banks in developing countries are expected to play vital and
effective roles in financing their economic projects and activities as their contribution
in ensuring sustainable economic growth.
Theoretical discussions about the importance of credit development and the
role that the banking industry plays in economic growth have occupied a key position
in the literature of development finance.
According to Osada and Saito (2010), financial or credit development can
foster economic growth by raising savings, improving efficiency of loan-able funds
and promoting capital accumulation. Banking industry credit in Nigeria assumed a
new dimension and was transformed by the recapitalization and consolidation of
banks which restructured them for better performance. Access to bank credit or
financing can be said to improve commensurately in response to competition and the
healthy sate of soundness the banks attained. Availability of credit allows firms to
increase production, output and efficiency and in turn increases the profitability of
banks through interest earned (Agada, 2010).
The role of credit in economic growth has been recognized as credits are
obtained by various economic agents to enable them meet operating expenses
(Nwanyanwu, 2008). Furthermore, according to Ademu (2006), the provision of
credit with sufficient consideration for the sector’s volume and price system is a way
of achieving economic growth through self–employment opportunities. While
highlighting the role of credit to the growth of any economy, he further explained that
credit can be used to prevent an economic activity from total collapse in the event of
The debate on the intermediary role of banks in the economic development has
dominated many discussions in literature. However, there seem to be general
consensus that the role of intermediary role of banks helps in boosting economic
growth and development. Akintola (2004) identifies banks’ traditional roles to include
financing of agriculture, manufacturing and syndicating of credit to productive sectors
of the economy. When the banking industry discharges these important functions satisfactorily the outcome would be that the economic growth, as proxied by the
Gross Domestic Product (GDP), will improve commensurately.
Akpansung and Babalola (2008) have stated that the central Bank of Nigeria
has been seen to be playing a leading and catalytic role by using direct control not
only to control overall credit expansion but also to determine the proportion of bank
loans and advances to “high priority sector” and “other”. According to them, this
sectoral distribution of bank credits is often meant to stimulate the productive sectors
and consequently lead to increased economic growth in the country. Citing Driscoll
(2004), they opine that financial development can foster economic growth by raising
savings, improving allocative efficiency of loanable funds and promoting capital
accumulation. Arguing along this path, Jayaratne and Strahan (1996) maintain that
well-developed financial markets are necessary for overall economic advancement of
less developed and emerging economies.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
There still remains a gap in understanding the causal relationship between
banking industry credit and economic growth in developing economies. And
particularly, little studies have been done to find out the impact the various types of
deposit money bank credits have on the growth of national economies. The influence
of such types of credit (like those advanced to the public sector and the private sector)
on economic growth has received little interest from researchers. Tuuli (2002) posits
that although there have been numerous empirical studies on the determinants of
growth in transition economies the relationship between bank credits and economic
growth, however, has largely been ignored. Thus, studying the impact of the deposit
money bank credits on the growth of the Nigeria economy has become very
necessary. And until this vacuum is filled, the unavoidable questions on the study will
Generally, economic growth has long been considered an important goal of
economic policy with substantial body of research dedicated to explaining how this
goal can be achieved. But unfortunately, such concerted efforts in both researchers
and policies have yielded no meaningful result. The questions, therefore, remain why
is it so? And what practical measures should be taken to plug the situation?
Central Bank of Nigeria (2009) notes that flow of credit to the priority sectors
fell short of prescribed targets and failed to impact positively on investment, output and domestic price level. Certainly, these comments have triggered questions on the
effectiveness and productivity of bank credits on the Nigerian economy. In similar
perspective, Taiwo and Abayomi (2011) note that the justification of public sector
credits is for the provision of infrastructural facilities, which will consequently drive
economic growth. However, they further posit that the effects of such government
spending on economic growth are still an unresolved issue theoretically as well as
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The general objective of this study is to ascertain the impact of deposit money
bank credits on Nigeria’s economic growth. In line with this, the specific objectives of
the study include the following:
1. To evaluate the impact of bank credits advanced to the private sector on the
Nigerian economic growth.
2. To ascertain the effect of bank credits extended to the public sector on
Nigerian economic growth.
3. To ascertain the impact of the aggregate bank credits to the private and public
sectors on the Nigerian economy.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
This study is based on the following research questions:
(1) How far has bank credit to the private Sector influenced Nigeria’s economic
(2) To what extent has bank credit to the public sector affected economic growth
(3) To what extent have aggregate bank credits to the private and public sectors
influenced Nigeria’s economic growth?
1.5 HYPOTHESES OF THE STUDY
The hypotheses of this study are as follows:
HO: Bank credits to the private sector do not have a significant positive effect on
Nigeria’s economic growth.
HO: Bank credits to the public sector negatively and significantly affect Nigeria’s
HO: Aggregate bank credits to the private and public sectors do not have a
significant positive effect on Nigeria’s economic growth.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study will focus on the impact of banking industry credit on economic
growth in Nigeria over the period 1987-2012. Bank credits as shall be used in this
study are credits advanced by the deposit money banks in Nigeria.
Types of bank credits to be captured will include private and public sector
credits, while economic growth shall be proxied by the real Gross Domestic product
In justification for the choice of the base year, it is worthy to note that in
Nigeria, the Nigerian economy assumed a new dimension in September 1986 when
the military government introduce the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP). The
emphasis of the programme was deregulation of the economy, which was aimed at
curtailing government participation in the economy. As a result, this restructuring
brought radical changes not only to the banking system but also the entire economy of
Nigeria. Therefore, it becomes necessary for our purpose to use 1987 as our base year
bearing in mind the overwhelming expectations with respect to the anticipated result
the programme would bring.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study will be of immense benefit to the following:
• Bankers: The study will enhance their understanding of the relationships
existing between bank credits and economic growth. This will go a long way
in enabling them carry out efficient financial intermediation function bearing
in mind how it will impact on economic growth.
• Regulators of the Financial Industry: When economic growth is of the essence,
they will find this research relevant in their policy strategies, and regulatory
prerogatives aimed at fostering sustainable economic growth and building
efficient financial sector development.
• Investors: Both foreign and indigenous investors in the Nigerian economy will
stand to take advantage of the gift of this study to already existing body of
knowledge. The study will sharpen their understanding of causal relationships
between financial development and economic growth. When they understand
the relevance of bank credits to increase in productivity, it will enable them
make rational decisions in obtaining funds at a price and amount that will
serve their needs.
• The Government: different levels of government will find this study useful
especially policy implementation, enactment of laws and making
pronouncement that will promote economic growth.
• Researchers: other researchers will find this study very useful since it will add
to the existing knowledge. Such researchers and students who wish to carry
out a related study will have to use it as a research material.
Price: 6000 Naira
1.1 Background of the Study
The process of creating and disseminating information via electronic means including email and via the Web is electronic publishing. Electronically published materials may originate as traditional paper publishing or may be created specifically for electronic publishing. It is also known as: e-publishing, web publishing and internet publishing Kist (1989) defined electronic publishing as “the application by publishers of a computer aided process, by which they find, capture, shape, store and update information content in order to disseminate it to a chosen audience” From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, electronic publishing includes the digital publication of e-books and electronic articles, and the development of digital libraries and catalogues. A popular electronic encyclopedia, Grolier Electronic Publishing, 1995.
The information technology has changed the way that information is stored and disseminated and has threatened the traditional approaches to the library and its services. The digital revolution has taken on the world of publishing also. Now paperless publishing or electronic publishing is gaining more prominence.
In the changing scenario, libraries and librarians will have to play a crucial role in handling conventional and electronic resources. Thus the era of electronic publishing has begun affecting library and information professionals. The ultimate goal of electronic publishing is to provide fast and easy access to the information contained in the objective publications with simple, powerful search and retrieval capabilities.
Thus, e-publishing can be used effectively in the context of Dr. S.R. Ranganathan’s fourth law “Save the time of user” for many purposes. The U.G.C Infonet E-Jounrnal Consortium is a unique ICT programme for facilitating free electronic access to scholarly academic databases and journals to 100 universities
is the largest academic network in the world.
It is basically a form of publishing in which books, journals and magazines are being produced and stored electronically rather than in print. These publications have all qualities of the normal publishing like the use of colours, graphics and images and they are much convenient also. It is the process for production of typeset quality documents containing text, graphics, pictures, tables, equations etc. it is used to define the production of any that is digitized form.
Electronic Publishing = Electronic Technology + Computer Technology + Communication Technology + Publishing
Kist (1989) defined electronic publishing as “the application by publishers of a computer aided process, by which they find, capture, shape, store and update information content in order to disseminate it to a chosen audience” From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, electronic publishing includes the digital publication of e-books and electronic articles, and the development of digital libraries and catalogues.
A popular electronic encyclopedia,Grolier Electronic Publishing, 1995 defines electronic publishing as:
l The term E-publishing refers more precisely to the storage and retrieval of information through electronic communications media. It can employ a variety of formats and technologies, some already in widespread use by businesses and
general consumers and others still being developed. E-publishing technology can be classified into two general categories:
l. one in which information is stored in a centralized computer source and delivered to the users by a telecommunications system, including online database services and videotext represents the most active area in E publishing today, and,
2. another in which the data is digitally stored on a disk or other physically deliverable medium.
1.2 Statement of the Study
The invention of printing technology in mid- 15th century revolutionized the production of books in printed form. Publication of books and journals on magnetic media microfilms and microfiche- followed suit in the 1930s. In fact, space problems, which the libraries were facing, led to the use of magnetic media publication of books. But this media could not find acceptance of their users due to various factors such as strain on eyes, cumbersome retrieval of information, etc. Meanwhile computing technology was developed in 1960s, and with it, some time later towards the end of 20th century, were invented other media such as optical discs, digital versatile discs for recording of information.
The 21st Century Electronic Publishing is basically a form of publishing in which books, journals and magazines are being produced and rendering journals a less than ideal format for disseminating current research. In some fields such as astronomy and some parts of physics, the role of the journal in disseminating the latest research has largely been replaced by preprint repositories. However, scholarly journals still play an important role in quality control and establishing scientific credit. In many instances, the electronic materials uploaded to preprint repositories are still intended for eventual publication in a peer-reviewed Journal. There is statistical evidence that electronic publishing provides wider dissemination. A number of journals have, while retaining their peer review process, established electronic versions or even moved entirely to electronic Publication. Electronic publishing is increasingly popular in works of fiction as well as with scientific articles. Electronic publishers are able to provide quick gratification for late-night readers, books that customers might not be able to find in standard book retailers E-Book format and books by new authors that would be unlikely to be profitable for traditional publishers. While the term “electronic publishing” is primarily used today to refer to the current offerings of online and web-based publishers, the term has a history of being used to describe the development of new forms of production, distribution, and user interaction in regard to computer-based production of text and other interactive media. The impact of electronic publishing on library collections, services and administration is complex. There are, however, many good usable solutions that libraries can learn from each other. No one needs to recreate the wheel to cope with e-publications. How the advent and increasing presence of electronic publishing will impact the people who will read them may ultimately be of more importance than what we will do with the machines, the storage media or the delivery mechanism.
The most recent trend in the book industry is the development of electronic books (or E-Books), which has the potential to be the most for-reaching change since Guntenberg’s invention.
1.3 Aim and Objective of the Study
The aim and objective of this study is to analyse the impact of E-publishing in digital era in our society and also examining and investigate how E-publishing improve the publishing of article, journal and other written content by scholar.
1.4 Significance of the Study
Projects provide a flexible framework for engaging students in exploring curricular topics and developing important 21st century skills, such as communication, teamwork, and technology skills. In addition, students are motivated by the fun and creative format and the opportunity to make new friends around the world. For this project will help in adding new content to body of knowledge and help others for further study.
1.5 Research Question
1. what is the impact of E-publishing in this digital era.
2. How did E-publishing improve the publishing of journal and other written content.
1.6 Research Methodology
This study shall majorly be constituted of articles culled from newspapers, journals, write-ups, opinions of authors and jurists and internet materials. This is due to the newness of this topic. However, some textbooks from some notable authors will also be considered.
1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The scope of this study is centred on the impact of E-publishing in digital era. In pursing this investigation and study, lots of impediments and obstruction were encountered as the research progressed. All these impediments brought about a conspicuous clause with the research work. They include, time constraint and financial conditions. Time was also limited to the researcher in carrying out the study effectively and efficiently. Financial condition prevailing within the economic system was a serious impediment. This includes transportation fare to and from school to get material. Also that of extracting the essential information either through printing or photocopying of relevant materials. Finance, thus contributed immensely to limit the entire scope of the research.
Although all these obstructions were envisaged and experienced, efforts were made to carry on with the research to achieve the expected and desired result.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Electronic Books (E-Books): The book is quiet popular document to meet the academic needs of user community. Publishing a book electronically is to achieve quick publishing and dissemination of information. A book may not have contemporary value that a journal has but it certainly has an archival and reference value.
Electronic Periodicals: Electronic Periodicals are accessible to all users regardless of geographic location. Anyone in the world with services and the proper computer software and browser services can access online journals.
Electronic Database: With the emergence of computers and communication technologies the strength of academic information system in the development of modern database has taken new shape. The holding of the academic library database consisting of books, periodicals, reports and theses can be converted to electronic form that allows access for public use through digital networks. The online electronic library card catalog (OPAC) shows how information could be published and that enable user to search the document with various access points like author, title, subjects.
Electronic Publishing on CD-ROM: CD-ROM has provided new dimension for information storage and retrieval. Publishing information mainly abstracting sources are quiet common in CD-ROM. Although much of the work on e-journals has concentrated on distribution via the Internet, there has been some work on CD-ROM as well.
Print-on-Demand (POD): Print-on-Demand is a new method for printing books. It is a mix of electronic and print publishing. The book is held by the publisher in electronic form and is printed out in the hard copy form only on order. This method helps free publishers from the process of doing a traditional print run of several thousand books at a time.
Digital Content: Digital Content Generally refers to the electronic delivery of fiction that is shorter than book-length, nonfiction, and other written works of shorter length.
Email Publishing: Email publishing is designed specifically for delivering regular content-based email messages. Email publishing, or newsletter publishing, is a popular choice among readers who enjoy the ease of receiving news items, articles and short newsletters in their email box.
Web Publishing: Web publishing is not a novel practice any longer, but it continues to change and develop with the introduction of new programming languages. HTML is still the most widely used web programming language, but XML is also making headway. XML is valuable because it allows publishers to create content and data that is portable to other devices. Nearly every company in the world has some type of website, and most media companies provide a large amount of web- based content.
Price: 2000 Naira (BSC, MSC)
From the title of this work, it will be seen that the work is geared towards
finding out the impact of small scale firms on industrial development of
Enugu Urban. The aim of the this study is to examine and identify in detail
the problems, prospects effect and the importance of the development of
small scale firms towards industrial development of Enugu Urban. This work
has five chapters, with each chapter focusing in a specific objective. Chapter
one tells us the history of small scale firms, chapter two examine other
people’s work on small scale firms under these sub-headings characteristics
of small scale firms, availability of resource, the impacts or importance,
financing the small scale firms, Government and its agencies, and so on.
Chapter three examines the type of research design and methodology used by
the researcher. Chapter four, the researcher used two techniques of data
analysis the percentages and chi-square at 0.05 level of significance. Chapter
five summarizes the findings, making some conclusion and some
recommendation as to how the problems of the small scale firms will be
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Development of firms has been a matter of great concern and priority
to many nations of the world. It could be understood from economic history
that many advanced countries of the world which has attained the height of
industrialization started as a more small and medium scale enterprises which
later metamorphosed into giant cooperation. In the past, industrial
development process were slow and painful and the advancement in
technology in developed countries resulted from the survival of the cottage
firms which were nurtured, pampered and breastfed to grow up as big
industrial corporations today.
Since the early, 1990’s a number of initiatives have come to dominate
the economic growth agenda of many donors and public agencies. These
initiatives arose as a response to, or an interpretation of, the increasing effects
of market globalization on the economies of developing countries. Analyses
that only looked at domestic markets were no longer adequate to
understanding the dynamics that affected the incomes and livelihoods of poor
households almost anywhere in the world. With the increase in globalization,
resource-driven comparative advent-age diminished in importance, while
competitive advantage, created by private and public stakeholders, rises. And
with its rise, the importance of theories that could help us understand and
manipulate the dynamics affecting economic growth including competitiveness, value chain analysis, and economic cluster theory.
As a result of increased globalization and a shift in jobs from
developed to developing economies ethical issues emerged. These were
largely in response to labour and environmental concerns.
Since then, competitiveness initiatives, value chain analysis, and
cluster development approach have proved to be quite effective at increasing
micro, small and medium enterprises productivity and competitiveness into
global markets, as well as national and local markets.
Developing countries as a whole have now realized that they lag much
behind than the developed nations of the world, not only in industrial base but
also in national standard of living. As a result, these countries now seem to
have hastened up the pace of their industrial development process in other to
increase their living standard and thus reduce the present rate of
unemployment, (Klatt 1973).
Nigerian’s desire to concentrate on developing the small and medium
scale enterprises (SME) have always been buttressed by and reflected in a
wide range of economic policies. In-fact, the present consciousness on the
part of the every segment of the society including the government for small
and medium scale industrial growth cannot be under emphasized and the
delay in appreciating this sector as an economic catalyst is frustrating. (Ani
B.N. and Nwandu E.C. 2001).
Yearly, government initiate policies that will not only help the
development of small scale firms but also bring legislations for small and
medium scale firms protection. Most government economic policies on
imported goods have been targeted at discouraging such importation and
protect the establishment, existence and survival of cottage firms. The
essence of the protection is not to allow it face the competition posed by
foreign goods in the market.
It is true that we are operating in a system where savings and
investment are quite low; this is as a result of low capital base, mass
unemployment and low per capital income. But government has not relented
on its effort to ensure the success of small and medium scale firms. Tax
holidays and tax concessions are many at times being offered by government
to small and medium scale firms to enable them survive. Grants and loan
facilities are another key ways of assisting small and medium scale (SME)
industries so that funds needed for current operations and investments may
not be an impediment.
If critically viewed, more efforts of government were geared towards
the establishment of industries which would provide employment to the
teaming populations, provide earnings to the country through export profiles,
enhance standard of living of the citizenry and in turn results to provisions of
It is equally of important to note at this juncture that small and medium scale
enterprises means different thing to different people, group, society and
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
The under-development of Nigerian economy is as a result of
inadequate industries in Nigeria and manufacturing of the existing one’s
owing to poor implementation, supervision and execution of government
policies and programmes, subject to corruption and lack of appropriate
machineries for later implementation.
The government (both at state and federal level) at various intervals
have initiated policies measures to encourage the development of the small
scale industries. Some of these policies included the operation feed the nation
(OFN) of 1973, the Green Revolution of 1977, the National Directorate of
Employment (NDE) of 1986 and others. All these geared towards assisting
the firms technically, financially and managerially.
Given that industrial development has been so slowly generally in
Nigeria, and that government has been doing something positive to increase
the industrial base of the country; the researcher therefore is challenged to
prove whether or not a small and medium firm will lead to quick industrial
development in Enugu Urban and Nigeria in general.
The researcher will find out why most government industrialization
and mobilization policies inaugurated in the past, failed to achieve grass root
industrialization and mobilization among Nigerians and also how to address
the problems of entrepreneurship facing small scale industries in Nigeria and
Enugu State in particular.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The impact of small and medium scale enterprise towards industrial
development have been a controversial issue owing to its significant to
Nigerian economy. In view of this, the researcher intends to present the
(1) What are the factors militating against the growth and development of
small and medium scale enterprises in Enugu Urban?
(2) Do Government and its agencies fund small scale firm adequately in
relation to its promises and policies as to industrializing in Enugu
(3) Do government give financial assistance to small scale firms?
(4) Do good management contribute to the success of small scale firms in
(5) How much loan do government give to small scale firms?
(6) Do small and medium scale enterprises contribute in waste
management disposal and extended usage of by-product that may not
haven been useful without the existence of SME’s?
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This study intends to investigate various problems associated with
establishment and growth of small and medium scale enterprises towards the
development of industrialization in Enugu State. This research will attempt to
(1) To discover and determine the factors militating against the growth and
development of scale and medium enterprises in Enugu Urban.
(2) To discover if government and its agencies fund small scale firms
adequately in relation to its promises and policies as to industrializing
in Enugu Urban.
(3) To find out if government render financial assistance to small scale
firm in Enugu Urban.
(4) To find out if good management contribute to the success of small
scale firms in Enugu Urban.
(5) To find out if government give loans to the small scale firms.
(6) To discover whether small and mediums scale enterprise contributes in
waste management disposal and extended usage of by-product that
may not have been useful without the existence of SME’s.
1.5 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
The hypothesis to be tested against their alternatives will be formulated
from the statement or problem to serve as an effective guide:
Ho Small and medium scale enterprises does not have any factor militating against its growth and development in Enugu State.
Hi Small and medium scale enterprises does have any factor militating
against its growth and development in Enugu State.
Ho Small scale and medium enterprises does not have any effect to the
development and growth of industrialization in Enugu State.
Hi Small scale and medium enterprises does have any effect to the
development and growth of industrialization in Enugu State.
Ho Individuals does not have roles to play towards promoting government
policy to achieve industrialization and stability in the economy of the
Hi Individuals have roles to play towards promoting government policy to
achieve value chain of industrialization and stability in the economy of
Ho Small and medium scale enterprises (SME) does not contribute in
waste management disposal and extended usage of by-product that
may not have been useful without the existence of small and medium
Hi Small and medium scale enterprises (SME) does contribute in waste
management disposal and extended usage of by-product that may not
have been useful without the existence of small and medium scale
Ho Government does not have any position towards assisting, promoting and stabilizing small and medium scale enterprises (SME) in other to
unlock value chain approaches to our economic boom.
Hi Government does have any position towards assisting, promoting and
stabilizing small and medium scale enterprises (SME) in other to
unlock value chain approaches to our economic boom.
Ho Environmental factors does not have influence in the establishment,
growth and stability of small scale enterprises (SME)
Hi Environmental factors does have influence in the establishment,
growth and stability of small scale enterprises (SME)
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
No matter the amount of resources committed in this study, its
importance as to the resources imputed cannot be compared. This is true
because it is a study that deals with rudiments and fundamentals of economic
growth and stability. Its centered on business prosperity, which if achieved
will reduce the personal problem of unemployment and poor standard of
living. It deals with the production of goods and services, provision of
necessary tools for infrastructural facilities and this helps to enhance
industrial development. It creates earning sources to the government and for
the general administration. Above all,
1. This research will give an insight into the natural implications of
existence of small and mediums scale enterprises in Enugu Urban.
2. This research work will also assist researchers, scholars and future
managers on the above subject matter.
3. This research work will expose any short comings that has been
militating against the establishment, growth and development of
industrialization in Enugu Urban
4. This research will expose opportunities that have not been exploited to
intending investors and entrepreneurs in search of opportunities.
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This research work has been limited to a reasonable researchable scope
considering a lot of constraints during the time of the study. The study aims
at identifying the problems and prospects of firm using selected small scale
firms in Enugu as a case study.
A lot of problems are likely to be encountered during the process of
putting this work together. These problems include:
(1) Finance: A lot of money is required at all stages of the study, as a civil
servant, it is a big problem.
(2) Time constraint: As a civil servant, I have a limited time to put this
work together due to other numerous engagements.
Price: 2000 Naira (BSC, MSC)
The industrial sector remains a strong sector of any economy, be it developed or developing. The developed countries are noted for their high industrial performance. The effect of the industrial activities on the economy of underdeveloped or developing nation si still under contention. It’s a fact that the economy will not grow without its industrial activities. These activities include: agriculture, manufacturing, mining and mineral processing and export opportunities for manufacturers. This study specifically analyze the impact of industrialization to economic development. It postulate that inspite of the effort of Nigerian government, Nigeria still show a stunted growth because of some constraints. In order to redress these problems, it was suggested that government should ensure policy consistency by allowing fiscal and monetary policies to work themselves out before a counter policy is introduced, also, industrial policy must be designed, reviewed and implemented in such a way that it will facilitate and not discourage investment in the sector. Based on the above, the prosperity of the nation to a large extent dependents on the development and sustenance of the industrial sector.
1.1 Background Of The Study
Industrialization is regarded as a central object of economic policy in most developing economies. They see industrialization and agriculture as an integral part of development and structural change. Some economic analysts are of the view that industries play a vital role in the economic growth and development of any country. In this research work, effort is made to analyze the impact of the industrial sector to the economic development of Nigeria.
Generally, the industrial revolution which took place in Britain between the late 18th and 19th centuries has gotten much to do with the present set back on industrial development led to the factory process that metamorphosis into industrial production. Thus, history recorded that the industrial sector performance in Nigeria’s economic growth is as old as the nation itself. It dates back to the amalgamation of the southern parts of the country in 1914 to for the geographical land mass called Nigeria. By a representative of the colonial administration of Britain Lord, Fr. Fredrick Lugard.
As soon as independence was over, the government of Nigeria embarked on import substitution as an industrial strategy in order to reverse the problem of deficit balance of trade and fasten industrialization among other reasons.
Right from the first national development plan (1962-1968) to the fourth national development plan (1981-1985) rapid industrialization received priority in Nigeria’s development objectives. The government sector for instance, the allocation of 16.2 percent of the budget plan to the manufacturing sector during the third national development plan (1975-1980) was the highest. The industrial policies and strategies of development were adoption of import substitution strategy, expansion of indigenous equity participation in foreign owned enterprises, provision of integration, linkages and diversification of industrial increased domestic resources content of industrial product and provision of financial and manpower resources to promote research and adoption of technology to encourage the small and medium scale industries and public sector participation and control of some large industrial products such as iron.
To withstand the rising problems of the sector and economy in general, Nigeria embarked on structural adjustment programme (SAP) in 1986 on the assumption that structural adjustment programme (SAP) would corrects these problems. It has important implication on both the government and industry. It has brought government re-appraised of the regulatory environment, the structure of protection for local industries and the package of incentives available. For the private sector and industrialist in particular, SAP presented a new challenge which reported a more serious effort to control costs, increase production efficiency and remain competitive.
In the spirit of SAP, the second tier foreign exchange market (SFEM) was introduced in 1987 to allow market forces determine the foreign exchange rate, remove price distortions and thereby effect a more efficient allocation of resources.
Because of inability of the existing policies to live up to expectation, government therefore in 1988 adopted a new approach to industrial development, which gave prominence to the role of the private sector. To give effect to this management approach, government, in August 1988, established the national committee on industrial development (NCID). The strategic management of industrial development (SMID) or industrial master plan (IMP) is predicted on the need to organize a network of sectors (referred to as strategic consultative groups) around on industrial activities with the aim of having a comprehensive and perception view of the investment problems in particular line of industrial activity. The (IMP) seeks to minimize the problems of policy and programme consistency in the development of the nations industries.
A number of fiscal and monetary policies together with institutional reform measures have been undertaken by the Olusegun Obasanjo administration since transition in May 1999. With these measures, it is envisioned that Nigeria will be transformed into a major industrialized nation and an economic power.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
The industrial sector is known to be the strength of the value-added processes in many economies. Nigeria is wanting to industrialize must encounter some problems which are militating against industrialization for the purpose of this study; it is pertinent to survey those problems which are forming obstacles to industrialization.
Industrial sector encountered the problem of low price elasticity of export and lack of comparative advantage. This means that Nigeria share of foreign exchange market cannot appreciate despite the numerous incentives granted to the industrial sector.
The absence of an indigenous entrepreneurship class couple with other problems of multinational corporation affect the structure and influence the nature of utilization of scientific and technological labour for national development.
Realizing that industrialization can indeed have some adverse effect on the economic growth and development of the country, one will logically ask low effective are the industrialization policies in Nigeria?
1.3 Objectives Of The Study
It has been observed that most industries in Nigeria have not realized their economic development goal even with the existence of manufacturing industries within the economy. Therefore this work researches the following objectives.
i. To determine the role of manufacturing industry in the economic development of Nigerian economy.
ii. To examine ways in which industrial sector in Nigeria can be made to play a better role towards high productivity for economic growth of Nigeria.
1.4 Significant Of The Study
The significant of this study lies in the fact that it will expose the extent to which industrialization has contributed to economic development of Nigeria. It will highlight some obstacles hindering increase in industrialization and industrial output in Nigeria.
This work will be relevant to entrepreneurs and government by directing them on the easiest means of embarking on industrial development plan. The relevance of this work also lies in the fact that it adds to the already existing literature on industrial output.
Furthermore, this research work will assist students of economics, government and real potential industrialist, investors and other related coursed. Other researchers will see this work veritable material in their field of study .
Finally, since no knowledge is a waste, readers of this work will find it interesting to know that high industrialization is the shortest route to economic development.
1.5 Hypotheses Of The Study
The following hypotheses are tested on this study:
H0: The industrial sector contribution has no significant impact to economic development of Nigeria.
Hi: The industrial sector contribution has significant impact to the economic development of Nigeria.
1.6 Scope Of The Study
This research work deals on the impact of industrialization on Nigeria’s economic development. The date used is a secondary data, which was obtained from the publication of the central bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin and the amial report of accounts. The analytical tools employed on this research include t-test and regression analysis.
1.7 Limitations Of The Study
A study of this nature cannot be done without some problems and as such it was constrained by many factors namely:
TIME: While embarking on this detailed research work, the researcher was having lectures, preparing for examinations, engaging in such activities and domestic work as well. So time was not enough for the researcher to perfect the work.
FINANCE: Financial inadequacy was the major limitation of this work. The researcher was financially dependent as a student. The need for materials, trips and logistics needed for this research was not adequately provided. 16
DATA: The controversial nature of the Nigeria data delayed this work. It took the researcher a lot of time before the harmonization of the data used in this research work.
1.8 Definition Of Terms
Industrialisation or industrialization: is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial one, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.
Economic development is the process by which a nation improves the economic, political, and social well-being of its people. The term has been used frequently by economists, politicians, and others in the 20th and 21st centuries. The concept, however, has been in existence in the West for centuries. Modernization, Westernization, and especially Industrialization are other terms people have used while discussing economic development. Economic development has a direct relationship with the environment and environmental issues.
Price: 4000 Naira (BSC, MSC)
In this study we explored the link between political leadership and persisting economic
problems in sub- Saharan Africa. Primarily, we interrogated the following questions: Is
there a link between persisting economic crises and incompetence on the part of political
leadership in sub- Saharan Africa between 1960 and 2009? Do leadership problems in
sub – Saharan Africa lead to poor integration of the region’s economies into the global
economy in the period under study? Is leadership failure responsible for poor interstate
relation in sub- Saharan Africa ? This study was discussed under the perspective
prism of Marxian political economy as expounded by Karl Marx. In this study we put
forward the following hypotheses for testing: There is a link between incompetence on
the part of political leadership and persisting economic crises in sub- Saharan Africa
between 1960 and 2009. Leadership problems in sub – Saharan Africa lead to poor
integration of the region’s economies into the global economy in the period under study.
Leadership failure is responsible for the poor inter- state relation in sub- Saharan Africa.
These hypotheses were tested in chapters two, three and four respectively. The chapter
five contains the summary and conclusion
Sub-Saharan Africa also known as black Africa covers an area of 24.3 million
square kilometers. The region is obviously one of the poorest as it contains most of the
Least Developed States in the world. It forms bulk of ACP counties where diseases like
malaria is a chronic impediment to economic development. According to the World
Bank, the region’s GDP would have been 32% higher in 2003 if the disease had been
eradicated in 1960. The population of sub-Saharan Africa was 800 million in 2007 while
the current growth rate is 2.3% (www.subsaharanafricapolitical.com). The United
Nations (UN) prediction for the population of the region stands at nearly 1.5 billion in
2050. Figures for life expectancy, malnourishment, and infant mortality and HIV/AIDS
infections are also dramatic. More than 40% of the populations in sub-Saharan countries
are younger than 15 years old. Sub-Saharan Africa has very high child mortality rate. In
2002, one in six (17%) children died before the age of five, by 2007 this rate had declined
16%, to one in seven (15%) while it has increased to 24% since 2008 but with the
exception of South Africa (www. development .com).
The region has remained in lockstep with violence and instability since their
independence from late 1950s to 1960s, mainly due to the failure of past and present
leaders to effectively manage and/or reduce conflict drivers within the region. To surmount
this problem and prevent the region from careening towards the vortex of failed state,
scholars have advocated that leaders that are honest, sincere and committed to social
justice, equity, rule of law and other democratic values that help to bond society and
promote stability is unavoidably the answer.
Decades after decolonization in Africa especially from 1990, many sub-Saharan
Africa states were immersed in seeming intractable leadership crisis. The fruits of
peaceful co-existence and harmony which include stability and socio-economic
development have remained largely illusive in the region. Echezona (1998:57) rightly
observed that “…the crisis which bestride each and every African country… are at the
same time ethnic, economic, social and environmental”.
Truly, the period spanning from 1960 to the present christened the Post colonial/
neo-colonial era witnessed an upsurge of development failure in developing countries
especially Africa. In Liberia Samuel Doe, Prince Yormie Johnson, and Charles Taylor
were the night mares of Liberian as they struggled for seizure of state power consecutively
or simultaneously and thereby inflicted economic hardship on the people of Liberia and the
sub-Saharan region at large (Echezona, 1993:99). This was not an exception as it was the
case across Africa. In Sierra Leone, Paul Koroma, Ahmed Tejan kabbah, John Karafa
Smart etc. were interlocked in intensive crisis for the capture of the state (Hassan, 2002). In
Somalia, Hussen Mohammed Aideed, Hassan Mohammed Nur Shatigudud, Abdiaji Yusuf
Ahmed and Sallad Hanssan were rivals (Hassan, 2002). In Burundi, and Rwanda, the Tutsi
and Hutu were engaged in a frontal blood bizarre. Conflict looks every part of Africa as
political leaderships fail to manage economic production justly. The states therefore do not
appear as the bank of interest of the generality of the people. A monopolistic capitalism,
crises drives away the few foreign investors in sub-Saharan Africa to more stable third
world countries in Asia, Latin America, North and South Africa
About five decades after political independent in sub- Saharan Africa, the impact of
political leadership on economic development in sub- Saharan Africa is adverse as the full scope of the danger becomes clear. In Sub-Saharan Africa, what appeared as mere ethnic
cleansing has turned into a long and brutal civil war in most cases. The consequences of
violent conflict on the African continent have been devastating. Similarly, there appears an
intensifying economic hardship in the region which seems to account for the declining
legitimacy to make authoritative decision for the majority of the citizenry at all levels of
governance. In the absence of peace and stability, government legitimacy, and economic
growth and development, most states in the region under study are described as failed or
While this study does not dispute this supra argument that is mainly associated
with Chinua Achebe (1983) and many other sub Saharan scholars, this study seeks to
explore the interlinks between the style of leadership and the intensifying crises of
economic development in the sub- Saharan Africa with a view to deciphering brighter
prospects for African economic development. In this study, we shall explore the following
countries for emphases: Zimbabwe, Sudan, Somali, Liberia, Rwanda, Burundi, Gambia,
Ivory Coast, Niger, Chad, Nigeria and Tanzania.
1.1 Statement of Problem
Liberal democracy proposed by the West as the political model for economic
development appears to have proven incongruent with African experiences especially the
sub Saharan region that continue to be listed by UN, her agencies and other international
organization’s ‘bad books’ as the poorest, diseases- ridden and home to most ignorant
people in the world. Nonetheless, the US first black President Barrack Obama, in his
speech in Ghana reiterated that Africa has remained backward on account of the corrupt leadership since their various independents. He urged Africans to evolve strong institutions
and not strong men. Obama also restated that America would no longer dictate to nations
the path to political and economic development. The implication is that the US had done so
in the past probably through the activities of IMF and World Bank whose conditionalities
for loan to the poor regions of the world are at worst described as harsh on the economies
of the recipient countries (Echezona, 1993:99).
It is abundantly clear that due to differences in culture, geography, political and
socio-economic factors that there are no manuals or handouts on political leadership that a
nation should apply to achieve their economic end. We have countless prognosis of action
that unwittingly did not work in other places but generated internal upheaval here and
there. For example, to a large extent, while Western style democracy has worked perfectly
well in North America and Western Europe, it is yet to produce the desired results in
Nigeria, Sudan, Zimbabwe, Somalia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Liberia and many other
countries that have so far experimented with it.
On the socio-economic front, the story is worse as the economies of most sub-
Saharan African states are mono- cultural. Governments of these states underpay and over
-tax citizens. Not only that, the region has one of the highest unemployment rates in the
world, the manufacturing and other allied industries are either dead or performing below
capacity. In addition, social infrastructures and services that would have helped to promote
socio-economic development are in deplorable conditions. Sustainable economic
opportunity in the region is at an average of 58% and human development at about 50 %.
This is in contrast with the 80% and 92% rate 85% and 90 % rate found in North America
and in Europe respectively (www.moibrahimfoundation .org). The roads are death traps, while electricity supply is erratic and people in urban areas often live in crowded squalor
from Abidjan to Abuja.
In the light of the above, we understand why the environment of lawlessness and its
consequences are fertile seedbeds for the flourishing of area boys, ethnic militias, child
labour, industrial disputes, religious crisis and many other socio-economic predicaments
across Africa. It is in connection with these political, economic and social crises that
various ethnic groups and civil society organisations in Africa are calling for either
National Conference or Constitutional Conference to address what they have tagged the
“Nigerian question, Somalia question, Sudanese question, Gabonese question,
Zimbabwean question Congolese question etc”. It is also against this background that the
recent US intelligent report on sub- Saharan Africa ranks it as one of the most unsafe
places to do business in the world.
The leadership problem connects with building core state institutions like the
police, civil service, the legislature, the judiciary and the executives. Without a good and
committed leadership, these institutions cannot function properly. For instance, if you have
leaders who have no respect for the rule of law, human rights, minority rights and other
values that help to tie and make society stable, you cannot expect the judiciary to function
properly. In other words, if leaders desecrate their core institutions, those institutions
cannot work creditably. This is the situation in most states in Africa.
However, inquiries on relationship between problems of leadership and economic
developments either concentrate in one country especially Nigeria, Liberia and Zimbabwe
or are carried out with the immediate post colonial Africa in mind (see, Echezona,
1993:99; Hassan, 2002; Hazeley, 2002 and Achebe, 1983). This does not help us to understand the contemporary link between leadership problems and development crises
hence this forms the lacuna in literature that we seek to bridge. This study therefore span a
period from 1960-2009 with emphasis on the major sub- Saharan African states. Most
states in the region are characterized by immanent crises of development; the tendency for
the US failed States Index to rank states in the region among the first 20 – 30 states at the
risk of violent internal conflict that can erupt like a volcano any moment; and the tendency
for apparent shabby scholarly articulation of interlinks of leadership problems and
development crises in the region. In the context of the foregoing discourse we pose the
1) Is there a link between persisting economic crises and incompetence on the part of
political leadership in sub- Saharan Africa?
2) Do leadership problems in sub – Saharan Africa account for poor integration of the
region’s economies into the global economy?
3) Is leadership failure responsible for poor inter- state relation in sub- Saharan
1.2 Objectives of Study
The broad objective of this study is to examine the linkage between the method of
political leadership and crises of development in sub- Saharan Africa between 1960 and
2009. Specifically, this study has the following objectives
1) To ascertain if there is any link between persisting economic crises and
incompetence on the part of political leadership in sub- Saharan Africa.
2) To examine if leadership problems in sub – Saharan Africa account for poor
integration of the region’s economies into the global economy in the period under
3) To determine whether leadership failure is responsible for poor inter- state relation
in sub- Saharan Africa.
1.3 Significance of the Study
The study has both practical and theoretical significance. Practically, the study
will inform and guide policy makers of sub-Saharan African states in policy process in
relation with their external environment and in their domestic policy making and
implementation process to develop their various economies. It will also guide investors to
determine the direction of policies of leadership class and the degree of political stability
in sub-Saharan African while considering investment friendly sites and also to other
business ventures within the region. This study will also serve as a manual for every
peace chart in the region between rival groups and provide guide to aid agencies in
delivering aid to achieve economic growth and development.
Theoretically, this study furnishes both students and staff of Political Science in
particular and Social Sciences in general with new knowledge of leadership failure and
crises of development in the region. The study will also serve as the theoretical base for
the socio- economic and political transformation of the sub- Saharan African economies.
It will also aid the political leadership in preparing development projects and programmes
for the region. Finally, this study will serve as a source of secondary data for future researcher in the areas of leadership studies, development crisis and state failure in
1.4 Literature Review
Literature on political leadership is much but has not received enough attention in the
recent past, and there are several criticisms of political leadership in Africa and other
developing economies. The study is narrowed to the following sub themes deriving from
our research questions.
A) Leadership problem and economic crises
B) Integration of Saharan African Economies into the global economy
C) Leadership and Inter- state relations in sub- Saharan Africa.
Leadership Problems and Economic Crises
Echezona (1998) quoting Claude Ake examined the state in capitalist society and
related it to the states in Africa. According to him, what distinguishes a capitalist society
from other societies is the pervasiveness of commoditization and autonomization.
Inherent in this assessment of state in capitalist societies in relation of capitalist states in
Africa is the fact that the way capitalism or capitalist state operates in Africa is different
from the way it operates in the Western world that hoisted it on Africa. Thus, it was
observed that in Africa, there has been willfully wrong placement of emphasis
(pervasiveness) on the acquisition of material wealth i.e. (commoditization) and the result
of which there emerged the autonomy of dominance by the wealthy ones over the poor ones i.e. autonomization of domination. These were the flaws of capitalist states in Africa
and these flaws are invisible in the western capitalist states.
To complicate and worsen the situation Anene and Brown (1981:47) noted that
the colonialist did not stop at merging of incompatible ethnic nations but also went on to
sensitizing and fuelling of ethnic division and differences so as to forestall any possible
integration and unity of the people in the state-colonies. In a very closely related
observation, Anene and Brown stressed on the excess ethnic awareness as one of the
complex legacies of colonial administration in Africa. Moron-Browne rightly observed
that one of the injurious legacies of colonial era in Africa was the intensification of ethnic
awareness either by altering the demographic balance or by introducing a new political
Similarly, Vicker (1993) observes that ethnic conflicts occur as a result of
colonial power’s arbitrarily drawn frontiers following the 1884/1885 Berlin colonial
partition of Africa. This stems from the fact that most African states are but
amalgamation of different ethnic/national groups who have differences in their historical
background, cultural language, ideology and religion.
Nonetheless, Ake (1985) viewed leadership in Africa as one of the injurious
imports of the capitalist system of production in Africa. He argued that the capitalist
system of production brought into Africa a very serious antagonism between and among
leaders in different states of Africa, and consequent upon which there ensued crises
among them. Hence, Patrice Lumumba, Kwame Nkrumah, Julius Nyerere and Claude
Ake etc had argued that these conflicts are squarely the products of the emergence of
capitalism in Africa. They contended that the dynamic interplay of issues in capitalist system of production created antagonistic tendencies among the people since the relations
of production are mostly the relations of conflict and crises among different competing
interest struggling over the surplus that accrue in the production of goods and services.
Ezema (2001:51) cited some other case illustrations on where the schemes of
deprivation or alienation cause leadership crises especially in the period of post cold war
years in Africa. These include: the Liberian crises of twentieth century and beyond, the
Sierra Leone crises of twentieth century and beyond, also the crises in former Zaire now
Democratic Republic of Congo and the several years of apartheid crises in South African
etc. In fact, virtually all the leadership crises that have occurred in many Africa states
possess the traces of one deprivation or the other. While, this position of relativedeprivation
may appear attractive it fails to tell us why deprivation leads to aggression in
some areas and not the other. It did not account for the leaders influence in the crises of
development and why it has persisted.
Integration of Saharan African Economies into the Global Economy
Ntuli (2004) stated that the phenomenon of globalization appears to be a product
of renewed belief and contestations in a global process, which has drawn the international
community at the threshold of a global village. These range from politics, economy,
communication and education to even agriculture and food. National economies are all
dissolving and distinct management of national economies are all becoming irrelevant
and giving way to globalized strategies characterized by powerful market forces. All
forms of integration have also been a logical consequence of globalization. These include economic and monetary integration. He observed that these formations have affected not
only domestic policies of states but also led to compromise of sovereignty and autonomy
in domestic policy making and implementation. According to Ntuli, this process is not
new to sub-Saharan African region as a part of global community, events and activities in
the region have had their own logical outcomes, which could be attributed to the global
evolution. Part of this is found in the renewed vigor and efforts at coming together in
addressing regional problems ranging from harmonization of serenity efforts, health
legislative activities and process of adjudication. Over and above all is economic and
monetary integration, which is believed to be basis for rejuvenation and extractive
capabilities of member states. According to Ntuli, despite the effort to integrate the
Africa states appear very unlikely to be left behind in emerging global process, since
activities by states in the sub-regions demonstrate reinvigorated desires to become active
players in the “new deal” in the interest of their citizens.
Ntuli concluded that the emerging globalization process had incorporated
adequately economies of African state. While answering in the affirmative, he insisted
that it is not only that globalization has promoted greater developments in the region but
also that the globalization process has facilitated the implementation of treaties of
economic relation. However, Ntuli’s analysis has not helped us to ascertain the rationale
behind the continued problem of integrating African sub-Saharan economies in a world
that is increasingly becoming a global village with capitalism as its fulcrum or the effect
of leadership in the process. It however gave an insight into the status of African
economic integration in to the global economy in positive terms.
Browne (1998) noted that regionalism is not new to the global agenda and that is
more and more frequently bracketed with globalization. All forms of political and
economic cooperation are receiving a higher priority among countries in all regions and
at all levels of development. While stating that regionalism is now in vogue, he noted that
there are a few examples of long established regional groupings that have become
stronger over time. Notably the European Union and the Association of South-East Asia
Nations have but many of those established over the last three decades have been shortlived
or have retained mainly symbolic political significance. The author stated that for a
number of reasons, there has been a growing commitment to regionalism since the late
1980s. Some of the reasons include increased understanding of the importance of trade
and economic openness. Inward-oriented development and self-sufficiency are terms
disappearing from the development lexicon.
He equally observed in many parts of the world, there is a more conciliatory
political climate. The cold war kept many neighbours at political odds. In its after math,
old ideological enemies and political rivals are more willing than before to collaborate.
For instance, countries of the Warsaw pact are now joining the North Atlantic Treaty
Organization (NATO) and seeking membership of the European Union. The same thing
is happening in West and Central Asia. The arrival of full democracy in South Africa also
gave a new lease of life to the Southern Africa Development Coordination Conference,
renamed a Development Community in 1992. There have also been examples of stronger
regionalism in East and South Asia.
Browne concluded that regionalism is an important manifestation of greater
economic openness being witnessed on a global scale. However, regionalism in the context of a process of global trade liberalization led by the World Trade Organization is
ultimately contributory rather than inimical to free trade. By bringing more countries into
the fold of liberal and outward – looking economies moreover, regionalism also
contribute to continuing reform, especially in countries in a transitional phase away from
central planning and management. Finally while noting that regional bodies also
undertake important security and peace-keeping initiative, trade provides the driving
force for most regional initiatives. While Browne was elaborated on regionalism and
interstates relations, he was not emphatic in sub-Saharan Africa and he did not link
leadership to this poor interstate relation in the region.
Nwanegbo (2005) briefly interrogated the existing concepts of globalization and
regional integration and explored their interconnections in the context of global order. He
was more interested in exploring how the recent craze towards the formation of regional
bodies could give room to, or enhance globalization; hence of little importance for our
review. The author noted that integration entails the building up of a stronger and virile
body that will among other things seek to enhance the people’s way of life and to live. It
denotes the bringing together of hitherto autonomous regions or centres into a whole. It is
the combining of two or more things so that they work together effectively, like the closer
integration of the countries economies.
Using African Union as case study of regional integration, the author remarked
that globalization is not going to get the friendly cooperation to succeed. This is because
some of these regional bodies were established to serve as a center of negotiation,
primarily to cover up for the weakness of its constituting countries, in the face of others
(the bigger body). The author was equally interested in exploring how the formation of regional bodies could enhance the process of globalization. Notwithstanding the close
relationship this has with out task, it did not explore the link between political leadership
and interstate relation in the region under study hence, the questions we posed still beg
Garcia (1998) studied Latin American patterns of globalization and regionalism.
She conceptualized globalization to imply changes in the way production is organized as
required by the general dismantling of trade barriers and the free mobility of accelerated
technological change. Rapid integration of national economies into the global market is
another especially conspicuous feature of the process. Garcia remarked that Latin
America has been forced to enter the process of globalization. The results of this process
in the economic sphere, is the repositioning of Latin America in the world economy,
measured by its international competitiveness and in social aspects, have not been
encouraging. According to the author, globalization protects the interest of some people
more than others. Because of this, the best approach towards joining this process of
globalization seems to be through globalization. Although, Garcia analysis was logical, it
was interested in globalization and rationalization in Latin America and this will not help
us to understand the effect of leadership on global integration of sub-Saharan African
Oyejide (1998) examined globalization and its implications for Africa trade policy
and reviewed the trade and patterns of African exports in the context of the regions
perceived marginalization in world trade. He started by conceptualizing globalization as
increased integration, across countries, of markets for good, services and capital. This in
turn implies accelerated expansion of economic activities globally and sharp increases in the movement of tangible and intangible goods across national and regional boundaries.
With that movement, individual countries are becoming more closely integrated into the
global economy. Their trade linkages and investment flows grow more complex, and
cross-border financial movements are more volatile. Deepening integration of trade,
markets and finance all mean increasing independence.
The author argued that Africa’s poor export and overall economic growth
performance predated and therefore, not directly ascribable to the current wave of
globalization. Oyejide was more interested in the marginalization of Africa in world trade
and the way to reverse this trend. He did not see leadership as an impediment towards
this goal or as a willing ally. In fact, his work did not address the issue of political
leadership and economic crises in sub-Saharan Africa.
Similarly Nnanna (2006) took a look at economic and monetary integration in
Africa. He opined that the ultimate goal of regional integration is to create a common
economic space among the participating countries. The process entails the harmonization
of macroeconomic politics, legal frameworks and real convergence. Some other
objectives include the enlargement and diversification of market size, the promotion of
intra-regional trade and the strengthening of member countries bargaining power in the
global economy. Other characteristics include factor, especially, capital and labour, and
the integration of the goods market. The author opines that based on available qualitative
and quantitative assessments the monetary union arrangement, Africa does not satisfy the
OCA conditions when measuring against the following criteria; income structure, product
market flexibility, labour market mobility, degree of opening, intra-trade relations and
asymmetric terms of trade shocks. With regard to income structure, he noted that African
This research was aimed at evaluating the potentials of soil bacteria to elaborate L-asparaginase; an important therapeutic enzyme involved in the treatment of lymphoblastic leukemia. Fourteen soil samples were collected but pooled into seven composite samples to represent their various locations. The samples were analyzed using standard microbiological protocols. A total of 125 bacterial species were isolated by pour plate technique. Marian market dump-site soil (MMDS) sample harboured 26 (20.8%) of the isolated bacteria while Satellite Town dump-site soil (STDS) sample harboured 6 (4.8%) of the total bacteria. Results of the primary screening tests revealed that only 35 (28%) of total bacteria could elaborate L-asparaginase production potential by the rapid plate technique. However, only 6 (17.1%) of the positive bacteria could demonstrate such potentials in liquid medium. The six bacteria were preliminarily identified as species of the genera Pseudomonas, Corynebacterium, Bacillus, Erwinia and Escherichia. These results demonstrate the potentials of dumpsite bacteria to produce value-added biopharmaceutical products for applications in health care.
L-asparaginase (EC 18.104.22.168) belongs to a group of homologues amidohydrolases family, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of amino acid L-asparagine to L-aspartate and ammonia. They are naturally occurring enzymes expressed and produced by animal tissues, bacteria, plants and in the serum of certain rodents, but not in mankind (Muthusivaramapandian et al., 2008). Large number of microorganisms that include Erwinia carotovora, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Abdel-Fatteh et al., 2002) and Escherichia coli (Qin et al., 2003) has been known to produce L-asparaginase. Different types of asparaginase can be used for different industrial and pharmaceutical purposes.
Asparaginases are used to reduce the formation of acrylamide, a suspected carcinogen in starchy food products such as snacks and biscuit (Bansal et al., 2010). By adding asparaginase before baking or frying the food, asparagine is converted into another common amino acid, aspartic acid and ammonia (Lalitha and Ramanjaneyulu, 2016). L-asparagine is an essential amino acid used for nutritional requirement of both normal cells and cancer cells. Since several type of tumor cell requires l-asparagine for protein synthesis, they are deprived of an essential factor in the presence of L-asparaginase. This enzyme is widely used in the treatment of acute lymphatic leukemia. Lymphatic tumor cells require huge amount of L-asparaginase for malignant growth.
L-asparaginase + H2O L-asparaginase Aspartic acid + Ammonia (NH3).
L-asparaginase was produced by wide range of bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, algae and plants (Prasad et al., 2013). Microbes are better source for the production of L-asparaginase, because they can easily be cultured, extracted and purified.
L-asparaginase has lots of medical and industrial applications. Ever since, L-asparaginase anti-tumor activity was first demonstrated, its production using microbial systems has attracted considerable attention owing to their cost effective and eco-friendly nature.
1.2 Objectives of study
The overall aim of the proposed study is the production of L-asparaginase (anti-cancerous) enzyme from bacteria.
Isolation of pure cultures of bacteria from .soil samples
Primary screening of purified isolates for L-asparaginase production
Secondary screening of positive bacteria for L-asparaginase production in liquid medium.
Price: 6000 Naira (BSC, MSC)