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    ABSTRACT

    In the dawn of this millennium where communication technologies have taken new and intriguing dimensions, television programmes have taken communication even to a much fascinating plane. The television has made it possible to receive and send information to and from far flung places with the speed of lightening. This study which centres on the effects of ABS television business link programme on the commercial activities of Awka residents at Awka metropolis examined the negative and positive effects of the television programme on the commercial activities of Awka residents. Research methodology used in gathering data and information for the study is questionnaire, presentation of data analysis, testing of hypotheses along with result discussions. The findings revealed that there is a high level of success by the ABS television business link in impacting the desired change in Awka residents and that Awka residents expose themselves to ABS television business link. It recommended that the Government should ensure that ABS television reach those who outside the state so that they can also benefit from it.

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.3 Background of the Study

    Most people accept the idea the media can influence people but the degree of that influence as well as who is most impacted, how and why, have been the subject of great debate among communication scholars for nearly a century. Media effects refer to the many ways individuals and society maybe influenced by both news and entertainment. Mass media including film, television, radio, newspapers, books magazines, websites, games and music. Although in this study, the medium used is television.
    Media effect has been studied by scholars in communication, psychology, sociology, political, science, anthropology, and education among other fields. Many early communication models designed to explain the process of message dissemination were simple-one-way and linear (Shannon and weaver, 1994), positioning the medium or message as the cause and the behavioural, emotional, or psychological response as the effect (Bryant and Thompson, 2002, pp. 4-5). Morden conceptualization, however, typically illustrate a two-way process that is more transactional or interactive in nature in which the message or the medium affects the recipient(s) , but the audience, in turn, influences and shapes the senders.
    In the early part of the 20th century, concerns about political propaganda, manipulation by

    the elite and the rising popularity of the electronic media led to the so called „cultivation‟ theory, which envisaged media message as strong drugs or potent weapon that could have powerful effect on helpless audience ( LA swell, 1991; Lippmann, 1992). However, while

    these theories explained some behaviour, they did not account for the different responses individual may have to the same media source. In the 1950s and 60s, empirical research began to uncover the moderating power of predispositions and peer group, concluding that the media‟s impact was small often referred to as the „limited effect theory‟ (Klapper, 1960; Lazars Feld Bergeson, 1998 and Gaudet, 1998). In the 1970s and 80s, prominent scholars begins to look more closely again at the media relationship to knowledge, opinion, attitudes and level of violence, concluding that media effect could be significant in some cases even if not all powerful.. Scholars also came to agree that some vulnerable groups such as children may be more heavily influenced by media than others (Bryant and Thompson, 2002; Mc Combs and Shaws 1994; Mc Luhan, 2000).
    The above leads to the medium of communication (ABS television) that will be used to influence the behaviour of Awka residents.
    The word television (TV) is derived from mixed Latin and Greek roots meaning „far sight‟. Greek tele, far and Latin Visio, sight. From video, (vis-to-see, or to view in the first person). It is widely used telecommunication used for transmitting and receiving moving images, either monochromatic (black and white) or colour. Usually accompanied by sound. Television has been regarded as a spontaneous, most effective media that can be used to disseminate information with a lasting impression on the minds of the audience. Television has made tremendous effort in broadcasting to the Awka residents because of its audio/video ability which is appealing to the viewer.
    Awka is a city in Anambra state Nigeria with so many commercial trades. Some of these trades are ignorant of the best method of rendering services to the public. In Nigeria especially in Awka, most ignorant men and women are unaware of the kind of implication

    of the kind of business they engage themselves in, that is why the television from the broadcast media was established to put such people in the right path.
    With the creation of Anambra and Imo state in 1967, Anambra broadcasting service was born. The federal government acquired the television area of the station in 1977, re- baptised it Anambra broadcasting corporation (ABC). The radio wing was left behind, in1982, ABC radio 2 Onitsha was born.
    Gov. Jim Nwobodo in 1981, established another television station. In 1985, the radio merged with the television with appellation, ABS radio/ TV Enugu. In 1991, ABS could boast of ABS radio 1 Enugu, ABS radio 2 Onitsha, ABS radio 3 FM Enugu, ABS TV channel 5-0 Enugu and ABS channel 2-7 Onitsha.
    With the creation of the new AnambraEnugu states in 1991, and the subsequent disengagement of the staff on March 16, 1992, the Anambra broadcasting service (RITV) Awka.
    After the state creation, the first movement was to Ontisha-4 park road- the location of our AM station. From Onitsha, the headquarters moved to St. Paul‟s university college Awka, in January, 1993. The movement continued to party house, okpuno in January 1994. However, Anambra broadcasting service (ABS) moved to its permanent site on the Enugu/Onitsha expressway in Awka in January, 2002.
    There are three other operational areas:

    • The broadcasting house at 4 park road, Onitsha.

    • The television station at Awada.

    • The booster station at Enugwu-Ukwu.

    Anambra broadcasting service transmits on the following frequencies;

    Television- ABS TV channel 27 Onitsha, ABS TV channel 24 Awka.

    With two television and two radio stations, both at Onitsha and Awka, ABS can boast of wide coverage reaching out to neighbouring states e.g. Delta, Edo, Enugu, and Imo and beyond.
    Even with Anambra broadcasting service (ABS) it is not certain the kind of impact it has on these commercial traders. For instance, Janis and Hovland (1959) discussed various factors associated with „persuasive‟ and suggested that „persuasive‟ effects might depend, amongst other things, on the prestige of the source, or on the significance of the message for the receiver, or on the attitude of the receiver to the source.
    Also Kelman (1961) comes closer to this in his analysis of social influence, suggesting that three main processes might be involved in opinion change. One of these „compliance‟ refers to the acceptance of influence in the expectation of some reward or to avoid punishment „identification‟, occurs when an individual wishes to be more like the source and hence imitates or adopt behaviour accordingly. A third „internalization‟, is intended to describe influence guided by the receiver‟s own pre-existing needs and values.
    The television could affect these traders positively or negatively. Therefore, for positive result, it is the job of the media houses to give well programmed and packaged information to the audience (commercial consumers and he consumer at large). These commercial activities of Awka residents are their major means of survival. So the commercial developmental programmes should be well broadcasted so that it will foster the spirit of hard work and high productivity with the view of arising creativity and inquisitiveness in the people.

    Many researcher adopt functional approach to the study of communication process from the perception of the receiver rather than the sender (Wimmer and Dominick, 2003; 407). These researchers base their investigation on the „users and gratification‟. Theory of media effect which posits that audience do not take media messages for granted (Tsao and Sibley, 2004: 788-87) but is at least.
    As active as the sender (Fiske, 1990: 151). Fiske Firther argues that the message is what the audience make of it and not what the sender intends.
    For a successful programme, „programming‟ is needed. Programming and determine where to broadcast such material. Programming means determining the kind of programme to make, the belt or slot in which to bring them out, the target audience, the ratio or mix of other programme types in relations to the ones produced, the general objectives of each programme type.
    In packaging a potent programme, the producer should endeavour to focus more on how the service of the broadcast media are of benefit to the audience rather than concentrating on the product features.
    Media houses in Awka like Anambra broadcasting service (ABS) has its functions steamed from the understanding that it is the source from which the Awka residents choose what commercial trades suit them best and method of doing the business.
    Nevertheless, there is no denying the fact that the effect of the television has on the Awka resident is powerful but sometime ineffective because of the location of some of the commercial traders. A recent study conducted show that some commercial traders especially in the rural areas do not have television sets to watch „ABS business television

    link programme „while other prefer to get ideas for their trade themselves without the help of information from television.
    The adoption of the „modus operandi‟ (mode of operation) by the three commercial traders can be seen in the method they use in approaching their business. One great difficulty for researcher is how to measure media effect. Television consumption may affect a person‟s thought, emotions or behaviour in ways could be direct or indirect, immediate or delayed, fleeting or lasting. It is impossible for scientist to control for all the mediating factors from levels of television consumption to demographics such as age, race, and socio-economic status, to harder to measure variables like environment, upbringing, values and previous experiences.
    It is envisage that at the end of this study the outcome in formulating and packaging of television programmes for commercial traders, business men and women etc. it will give them the knowledge on the effect of ABS television business link programme on their commercial activities. All above, the study will increase existing and good talk shows on how to develop the commercial activity of Awka residents.

    1.4 Statement of Research Problem

    There has been a concerted effort by the Anambra Broadcasting service (ABS) to create a positive impact on the Awka residents concerning their commercial activities for instance, the Awka television station, „Anambra Broadcasting Service‟ has used so many method to increase the growth of the commercial activities of Awka residents. These Awka residents include the sellers and the consumers of the goods and services. This medium communication (television) helps these people positively by giving them the right feel about a business or commercial activity of Awka.

    Broadcasting programming is a problem in a broadcasting media i.e. Television. According to Olugboji (1997), little attention is paid to producing cultural relevant local programmes that could contribute meaningfully to the development of the society. The television station strives to give broadcasting to Awka residents on what suits them best in terms of the commercial activities.
    In view of the effectiveness of television programmes in bringing knowledge and changes to Awka residents, it became evident to discuss its short comings which is to say that in spite of all the efforts made by the television station, it is not known for certain if this medium of communication is making an impact on people‟s lives positively.
    Since research is systematic search for knowledge the primary aim of this study is to find solution to the envisaged problem of Awka traders. This is because proper identification to a problem directs the study.

    1.5 Objectives of the Study

    Needless stressing that everything we do is aimed at achieving some objectives. It is very true and applicable in this study.
    In order to achieve the goals, the Awka residents should be well informed and motivated Anambra Broadcasting service (ABS) should primarily be:
    1. To investigate the extent or level of successes business link programme have impacted on the commercial traders in Awka metropolis.
    2. To monitor trends and development in production process with a view to arousing creativity and inquisitiveness in the people of Awka or the Awka residents.
    3. To review business link programme impact on Awka residents including the traders and consumer i.e. the positive and negative effect on the people.

    4. To know the capacity at which business link programmes affects the Awka residents, whether it attracts large audience or influence opinion and behaviour.
    5. To foster the spirit of hard work and high productivity with the view of raising the quality of the life of the people.

    1.6 Significance of the Study

    In this study, it is imperative to know the significance.

    The Awka commercial traders and consumer will benefit immensely from the research study in terms of gaining knowledge on how best to run their business and make gain. The research study will be an added information material for other electronic media researchers. The research study will also make room for developmental programmes and can create employment to the general public because they have been enlightened. It will make for increase in quality of programme production on how to develop ones occupation.

    1.7 Research Questions

    1. To what level of success does Anambra Broadcasting Service television business link programme impact the desired change in Awka resident/ traders?
    2. Do Awka residents expose themselves to Anambra Broadcasting Service television business link programme?
    3. How do Awka commercial traders react to the Anambra Broadcasting Services developmental programmes?
    4. How does Anambra Broadcasting Service television business link programme influence Awka residents commercially?

    1.8 Research Hypotheses

    H0: There is low level of success by the ABS television business link programme in impacting the desired change in Awka residents/traders.
    H1: There is high level of success by the ABS television business link programme in impacting the desired change in Awka resident/traders.
    H0: The Awka residents do not expose themselves to ABS television business link programmes.
    H2: The Awka residents expose themselves to ABS television business link programmes.
    H0: The Awka commercial traders react negatively to ABS television business link programme.
    H3: The Awka commercial traders react positively to ABS television business link programme.
    H0: The less influence the ABS television business link programme has on Awka resident commercially.
    H4: The more influence the ABS television business link has Awka resident commercially.

    1.9 Operational Definition of Terms.

    1. Impact: the impact of this study refers to any of the consequences of ABS television business link programme operation whether intended or not and its effectiveness in term of its capacity to achieve given objectives, whether this be attracting large audience or influencing opinions and behaviour or influencing opinions and behaviour.

    2. Abs Television: in this study the ABS television which is a station owned by Anambra state government is a major contributor to direct change of individual opinion, attributes or behaviour or to be a direct cause of crime aggression or other disapproved social phenomena.
    3. Commercial Activities: in this study, the commercial activity of Awka resident involves their means of livelihood. The kind of trade they do and are known for.
    4. Business Link Programme: in this study, business link programme is a thirty minute programme that is aired on ABS television. It tries to promote small and medium scale business by going to their business places to interview them and then let the city know about their business.
    5. Awka Residents: these Awka residents are to be studied in this research work.

    There are over a million people within Awka metropolis.

    1.10 Assumptions of the Study

    In assuming the study, the likely are assumed and the action to take or how to go about such problem is assumed.
    1. The television has been assumed to be the best medium to affect or influence the Awka residents. It is seen as the best that can be used to foster the spirit of hard work and productivity with the view of raising the quality of the people in terms of their commercial activities.
    2. It has been assumed that effectiveness of business link programme depends on the presentation of business link i.e. if the programme is well packaged, if the times of the programme tallies with the time commercial traders are at home and if the presentation is perfect.

    3. It is also assumed that the impact of business link programme on the commercial activities of Awka residents is positive but has its short comings too. These positive impact and shortcoming are studied to get the kind of effects that can influence the Awka residents.

    1.11 Delimitations of the Study

    The scope of this study boarders on the impact of ABS television business link programme on the commercial activities of Awka residents. It borders on the reaction of the residents to the programme.
    This study due to financial constraints did not attempt going beyond Awka for its findings. In essence, this study covers only Awka residents. No consideration was given to other parts of Anambra states. There are some materials which one could not lay hands on during the research due to lack of time.
    These factors were constraints to researcher which affected or influenced the researchers finding and recommendations in some way.

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    ABSTRACT

    Globally, it is expected that banks should play vital roles in financing economic
    activities as their contribution at ensuring sustainable economic growth and
    development. The intermediary role of banks can foster economic growth through
    raising of savings, improving efficiency of loan-able funds and promoting capital
    accumulation. In Nigeria, the banking industry as well as the entire economy assumed
    a new dimension in September 1986 when the then Military government introduced
    the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP). Expectedly, this restructuring brought
    certain changes not only to the banking system but also the entire economy of
    Nigeria. However, whether continuation of policies allied to the programme has
    increased access to loan-able funds through the intermediation functions of banks is
    still contentious. It is against this background that this study examined the impact of
    bank credit on economic growth in Nigeria from 1987 to 2012, and specifically
    sought to evaluate the impact of bank credits advanced to the private sector on
    Nigerian economic growth, ascertain the effect of bank credits extended to the public
    sector on Nigerian economic growth and ascertain the impact of the aggregate bank
    credits to the private and the public sectors on the Nigerian economy. The study
    adopted the ex-post facto research design and times series data were collated from the
    Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin and Annual Reports. The OLS regression
    statistic was used to test the hypotheses stated. The estimated regression results
    indicate that private sector credits, public sector credits and the aggregate bank credits
    to the private and the public sectors impact positively and significantly on economic
    growth over the period of the study. The study concludes that for the Nigerian
    economy to grow, policy frameworks that favour more credits to the private sector of
    the Nigerian economy with minimal interest rate to stimulate economic growth should
    be pursued by government. This will assist in making more loan-able funds available
    for investment into the real sectors of the economy. The study, therefore, recommends
    among others that policies on public sector borrowing and spending should be
    reviewed in order to discourage gross unproductive “white elephant” investments and
    more credits channeled into subsectors with more linkage effects such as agriculture,
    manufacturing, energy and infrastructural development.

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
    Globally, banks in developing countries are expected to play vital and
    effective roles in financing their economic projects and activities as their contribution
    in ensuring sustainable economic growth.
    Theoretical discussions about the importance of credit development and the
    role that the banking industry plays in economic growth have occupied a key position
    in the literature of development finance.
    According to Osada and Saito (2010), financial or credit development can
    foster economic growth by raising savings, improving efficiency of loan-able funds
    and promoting capital accumulation. Banking industry credit in Nigeria assumed a
    new dimension and was transformed by the recapitalization and consolidation of
    banks which restructured them for better performance. Access to bank credit or
    financing can be said to improve commensurately in response to competition and the
    healthy sate of soundness the banks attained. Availability of credit allows firms to
    increase production, output and efficiency and in turn increases the profitability of
    banks through interest earned (Agada, 2010).
    The role of credit in economic growth has been recognized as credits are
    obtained by various economic agents to enable them meet operating expenses
    (Nwanyanwu, 2008). Furthermore, according to Ademu (2006), the provision of
    credit with sufficient consideration for the sector’s volume and price system is a way
    of achieving economic growth through self–employment opportunities. While
    highlighting the role of credit to the growth of any economy, he further explained that
    credit can be used to prevent an economic activity from total collapse in the event of
    unforeseen circumstances.
    The debate on the intermediary role of banks in the economic development has
    dominated many discussions in literature. However, there seem to be general
    consensus that the role of intermediary role of banks helps in boosting economic
    growth and development. Akintola (2004) identifies banks’ traditional roles to include
    financing of agriculture, manufacturing and syndicating of credit to productive sectors
    of the economy. When the banking industry discharges these important functions satisfactorily the outcome would be that the economic growth, as proxied by the
    Gross Domestic Product (GDP), will improve commensurately.
    Akpansung and Babalola (2008) have stated that the central Bank of Nigeria
    has been seen to be playing a leading and catalytic role by using direct control not
    only to control overall credit expansion but also to determine the proportion of bank
    loans and advances to “high priority sector” and “other”. According to them, this
    sectoral distribution of bank credits is often meant to stimulate the productive sectors
    and consequently lead to increased economic growth in the country. Citing Driscoll
    (2004), they opine that financial development can foster economic growth by raising
    savings, improving allocative efficiency of loanable funds and promoting capital
    accumulation. Arguing along this path, Jayaratne and Strahan (1996) maintain that
    well-developed financial markets are necessary for overall economic advancement of
    less developed and emerging economies.
    1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
    There still remains a gap in understanding the causal relationship between
    banking industry credit and economic growth in developing economies. And
    particularly, little studies have been done to find out the impact the various types of
    deposit money bank credits have on the growth of national economies. The influence
    of such types of credit (like those advanced to the public sector and the private sector)
    on economic growth has received little interest from researchers. Tuuli (2002) posits
    that although there have been numerous empirical studies on the determinants of
    growth in transition economies the relationship between bank credits and economic
    growth, however, has largely been ignored. Thus, studying the impact of the deposit
    money bank credits on the growth of the Nigeria economy has become very
    necessary. And until this vacuum is filled, the unavoidable questions on the study will
    remain unanswered.
    Generally, economic growth has long been considered an important goal of
    economic policy with substantial body of research dedicated to explaining how this
    goal can be achieved. But unfortunately, such concerted efforts in both researchers
    and policies have yielded no meaningful result. The questions, therefore, remain why
    is it so? And what practical measures should be taken to plug the situation?
    Central Bank of Nigeria (2009) notes that flow of credit to the priority sectors
    fell short of prescribed targets and failed to impact positively on investment, output and domestic price level. Certainly, these comments have triggered questions on the
    effectiveness and productivity of bank credits on the Nigerian economy. In similar
    perspective, Taiwo and Abayomi (2011) note that the justification of public sector
    credits is for the provision of infrastructural facilities, which will consequently drive
    economic growth. However, they further posit that the effects of such government
    spending on economic growth are still an unresolved issue theoretically as well as
    empirically.
    1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
    The general objective of this study is to ascertain the impact of deposit money
    bank credits on Nigeria’s economic growth. In line with this, the specific objectives of
    the study include the following:
    1. To evaluate the impact of bank credits advanced to the private sector on the
    Nigerian economic growth.
    2. To ascertain the effect of bank credits extended to the public sector on
    Nigerian economic growth.
    3. To ascertain the impact of the aggregate bank credits to the private and public
    sectors on the Nigerian economy.
    1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
    This study is based on the following research questions:
    (1) How far has bank credit to the private Sector influenced Nigeria’s economic
    growth?
    (2) To what extent has bank credit to the public sector affected economic growth
    in Nigeria?
    (3) To what extent have aggregate bank credits to the private and public sectors
    influenced Nigeria’s economic growth?
    1.5 HYPOTHESES OF THE STUDY
    The hypotheses of this study are as follows:
    Hypotheses One
    HO: Bank credits to the private sector do not have a significant positive effect on
    Nigeria’s economic growth.
    Hypotheses Two
    HO: Bank credits to the public sector negatively and significantly affect Nigeria’s
    economic growth.
    Hypotheses Three
    HO: Aggregate bank credits to the private and public sectors do not have a
    significant positive effect on Nigeria’s economic growth.
    1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
    The study will focus on the impact of banking industry credit on economic
    growth in Nigeria over the period 1987-2012. Bank credits as shall be used in this
    study are credits advanced by the deposit money banks in Nigeria.
    Types of bank credits to be captured will include private and public sector
    credits, while economic growth shall be proxied by the real Gross Domestic product
    (RGDP).
    In justification for the choice of the base year, it is worthy to note that in
    Nigeria, the Nigerian economy assumed a new dimension in September 1986 when
    the military government introduce the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP). The
    emphasis of the programme was deregulation of the economy, which was aimed at
    curtailing government participation in the economy. As a result, this restructuring
    brought radical changes not only to the banking system but also the entire economy of
    Nigeria. Therefore, it becomes necessary for our purpose to use 1987 as our base year
    bearing in mind the overwhelming expectations with respect to the anticipated result
    the programme would bring.
    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
    The study will be of immense benefit to the following:
    • Bankers: The study will enhance their understanding of the relationships
    existing between bank credits and economic growth. This will go a long way
    in enabling them carry out efficient financial intermediation function bearing
    in mind how it will impact on economic growth.
    • Regulators of the Financial Industry: When economic growth is of the essence,
    they will find this research relevant in their policy strategies, and regulatory
    prerogatives aimed at fostering sustainable economic growth and building
    efficient financial sector development.
    • Investors: Both foreign and indigenous investors in the Nigerian economy will
    stand to take advantage of the gift of this study to already existing body of
    knowledge. The study will sharpen their understanding of causal relationships
    between financial development and economic growth. When they understand
    the relevance of bank credits to increase in productivity, it will enable them
    make rational decisions in obtaining funds at a price and amount that will
    serve their needs.
    • The Government: different levels of government will find this study useful
    especially policy implementation, enactment of laws and making
    pronouncement that will promote economic growth.
    • Researchers: other researchers will find this study very useful since it will add
    to the existing knowledge. Such researchers and students who wish to carry
    out a related study will have to use it as a research material.

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    ABSTRACT

    This study probes the impact which TV has on the cultural behaviour of idah polytechnic students. It specifically tackles the impact of channel O musical TV programes on the cultural behavior of idah polytechnic students. The research posits that the current trends in cultural behaviour of youths in Nigeria as observed among idah polytechnic students, kogi
    state is significantly associated with their perception of western culture and exposure to channel O musical TV programmes. The assumption that foreign media content has direct powerful effects that is shared by optimistic modernization theory. The research applies the theory of acculturation along with the culturation hypothesis. Acculturation of Nigeria youths take place as a result of exposure to western TV (channel O) which influence the perception of TV reality and alters self-image. From the review of related literature, the following hypotheses emerged for testing HI: More exposure to TV will tend to identification of western television stars as models. H2: The improvement of Local TV movies industries will increase Nigerian youths’ preference for local TV product. Research
    hypotheses 1 and 2 received statistical support from the analysis of collected data using the survey research method for proper analysis, descriptive and inferential statistical tools of measuring data were used in findings of the study, its shows that a positive relationship which means that as television explosive tends to go up, identification with western television stars especially American television stars also tends to go up. It is also confirm that students discard Nigerian norms and values and become manifestly consistently with western behavior in keeping with their perception of cultural values. From the conclusion, the researches of this research problem have shown that youths of Nigeria can confront the problem of channel O musical programmes destroying our cultural values.
    A policy should be formulated to ensure that only professionals take change of the business of films movies production. Recommendations to check the cultural genocide for further research were preferred.

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background of the study

    This study is on Impacts Of Channel O Musical Television Programmes On The Cultural Behavioural Of Federal Polytechnic Students Idah. The term culture has been defined differently by different people. The different definitions attached to culture are based on the differences in the orientation of the people.
    According to Ekeh (1989), culture is construct used in an attempt to analyze and integrate events and ideas in broad spectrum of areas of society. Jekayinka (2002), states that from wider perspective, culture includes the total repertoire of human action which are socially transmitted from generation to generation. Obiora (2002), says the transformation of culture is gradual and not sudden. He contends that culture is a continuous process of change. It changes exactly the same way as the human being change. It is dynamic, learned, acquired, transmitted or diffused through contact or means of communication flow from generation to another. The Nigerian culture is observed to be fading out as a result of the acceptance and adaptation of the modernist’s solution on to underdevelopment. One of such theories which relates to this subtle method of assault international communication is given by Lerner (1956). In his concept of “empathy”, Lerner states that the inhabitants of third world nations must learn to empathize with the West for modern transformation of their societies to be possible. Schramm (1964), on the other hand, developed an interesting model in which he equates the level of social development of communication to various nations. Access to these modern mass media (Radio, Television, films, telephone, and

    newspapers) is linked to individual modernity. Nigeria and other third world countries have reacted to these finding by inventing a substantial amount of their foreign exchange earnings to import radio and television transmitters and sets. The television programmes especially provide many powerful models for children and abundant opportunities for observational learning.
    The television programmes include:

    . Depiction of sex

    . Violence

    . Drug and Alcohol used

    . Vulgar Language – behaviours that most parents do not want their children to imitate.
    Studies (www.encarta.com) have been found by early adolescence that the average Nigerian children have watched thousands of dramatized murders and countless other acts of violence on television. For many years, psychologists have debated the question of whether watching violence on Tv have detrimental effects on children. A number of experiments both inside and outside the laboratory have found evidence that viewing Tv violence is relayed to increased aggression in children. Nigerians as exemplified by trends in Idah Polytechnic, Kogi State where Western exports of television entertainment and information are shown in NTA Idah, ESBS Television, Minaj Channel, Cartoon Network, ESPN – “Expanded Sports programmes Network” channel provided by various satellite transmission operators as DSTV, Multi – Choice, Music television, Euro – sports, etc, have raised Nigerians eyebrows to such Western television programmes. Such exposure make students to behave like them, associate with them and even speak like them. Even our generation that is shown on NTA Enugu and the youth perspective on

    ESBS/TV are presented by youth and replete with music video of Western origin dominated by rape stars as (Late) Tupac, Nicky Minaj, The Game, 50- Cent, Sean Paul, Lil Wayne, Snoop Dogy Dog, etc. It is the researcher’s believe that channel O musical television especially American television exports have a strategic “weapon” aimed to over power the cultural values of Nigerian youths.

    1.2 Statement of the research problem

    Impact of channel O musical television programmes on the cultural behaviour of Idah Polytechnic students have been said to be a serious problem facing Nigerians. Some of these problems are:
    . Inadequate policy to guard the youths towards Western Tv programmes.

    . There is an erosion of the cultural values.

    . The imitation of Western cultures especially the American cultures.

    . The Nigerian youths are faced with brain wash.

    Therefore, if the above problems are not been taking care off, it will lead to a total destruction of the Nigerians culture

    1.3 Objectives of the study

    The researcher’s objective is to conduct an in-depth research on the impacts of channel o musical television programmes on the cultural behaviour of federal polytechnic students idah with an insight to determine its implication to the cultural values of Nigerian youths are:
    1. To show how the contents of channel O musical television programme affects Nigerian University students.
    2. To examines its pervasive impact on the cultural behaviour of Nigerian University students.

    3. To know how to isolate Western (channel O) television programmes from Nigeria.

    1.4 Research Questions

    The research question are question posed by the researcher, answers to which would lead to the solution of the problem. Research question are as well structured and constructed questions designed to guide the researcher in other to provide solution to the problem identified. For a researcher to achieve her aim, the following question should be used.
    1. Do Nigerian youths expose themselves more to the contents of channel O Tv programmes than other media?
    2. Do they prefer channel O musical Tv programmes to its impact on the cultural behavior of Nigeria University students?
    3. Do Nigerian youths identify more with locally or foreign Tv stars as models?
    4. Will improvement of local Tv/movies industries improve Nigerian youths preference for local Tv product?

    H1: Research Hypotheses

    1. Hi: More exposure to channel O Tv programmes lead to identification of Western Tv stars as models.
    Ho: More exposure to channel O Tv programmes does not lead to identification of western Tv stars as models.
    2. Hi: The improvement of local Tv /movies industries will increase Nigerian youths preference for local Tv product. Ho: The improvement of local Tv/ movies industries will not increase Nigerian youths preference for local Tv product.

    1.5 Significance Of The Study

    1. The research will help in possible dilution, domination and finally absorption of the African/Nigerian culture which until the present has been characterized with good neighbourliness, respect for elders, virtuousness, community orientation and collectivism.
    2. It will enable the government and policy makers to put adequate measures in place to check the movement of Western (channel o) television programmes into Nigeria.
    3. It will help remove the idea of imitating Western cultures or ways of life from Nigeria.
    4. The conduct of this research will enable the government to know what role the media can play in the development of a country and therefore, harness the mass media especially Tv in the democratic process and development process in general.

    1.6 Delimitation Of The Study

    The scope of this study is to find out how channel o musical Television Programmes affect the Cultural Behaviour of Nigerian Youth using Idah Polytecnic Students as a case study.
    The institution is been noted for a constant influence of channel o musical television programs on their cultural behaviour. Hence, the need for choosing the institution as a case study commenced.
    In the cause of the research, oral interview were consulted on both staffs and students of the institution. But the research depends more on the questionnaire which were distributed to students and staffs and were completed and returned. The researcher also consulted some textbooks, Newspapers and journals which provided a lot of information pertaining to the study.

    1.7 Assumptions Of The Study

    The following were the assumption of this study:

    1. A greater number of Nigerian University Students watch Tv.

    2. Channel o musical Tv programmes have a greater appeal to Nigerian University Students than locally produced programmes.
    3. That the programmes contents of channel o Tv project symbiotic forms of social reality.
    4. The western Tv is having a greater acculturation on Nigerian University Students in particular and on Nigerian youths in general.
    5. That the improvement of local Tv/ movies industries will change Nigerian youths attitudes towards Western Tv programmes.
    1.8 Operational Definition of Terms.

    1. Youth: It is defined as students in various universities in Nigeria and who fall between the ages of 15 -30
    2. Media: The media is operationalised as Tv. Broadcast used to generate or circulate information to the public.
    3. Cultural identify: It is those commonly shares socio-political interpretation and meanings related to the beliefs, norms, values, attitudes and behaviours within Nigeria.
    4. Cultural dominance: it means the conscious and unconscious domination by Western (channel o) Tv media on the media system of Nigeria.

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    ABSTRACT

    The aim of this study was to investigate on company income tax and its effects in the Nigeria economy. One of the objective carried out by the researcher was to examine peoples perception on taxation.
    Taxation is seen as a tool aimed at improving the performance of the national economy by such means as altering the balance between current consumption and capital investment.
    It looked at the work of other authors in order to make the exercise richer. Their different views were seen in different books and other materials (journal) which made this study much better than similar works in this area.
    In carrying out this study, the researcher used both primary and secondary data. Qestionnaries and interviews were used in generating the primary data while the secondarry data were obtained through library researcher and other sources.
    The purposive sample of 147 respondents were randomly selected for the study to avoid numerous errors in the calculation. From the data collected and analysed, it was evident that tax collection plays a great role in the development of the Nigeria economy.
    Conclusively, discussion, summary, conclusion, and recommendations were made to achieve the purpose of this work.

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background Of The Study
    Taxation is the system of raising money in form of taxes paid by the citizens of the country in return for the services rendered by the government.
    It could be recalled that taxation is instituted by God, this is traced back to “Mattew chapter 22 vs. 17-21”, when the Pharisees asked Jesus whether it is lawful to pay taxes or not. The Pharisees were later told render therefore to Caesars the things that are Caesar’s and to God the things that are to God.
    According to Lekan .S. etal (2006), tax was described and not defined in the statues, but according to Cambridge international dictionary of English, it is “an amount of money paid to the government usually a percentage (%) of personal income or company profits”.
    According to Okpe I.I (2000) tax is the transfer of resources and income from the private sector to the public sector in order to achieve some of the nation’s economic and social goals.
    Taxation is universally accepted as a powerful tool in the hands of any government to raise income for its services and to ensure equitable distribution of income among its citizens.
    Therefore, in every modern communities, a large amount of taxation is necessary for a public expenditure increases to promote social progress, taxation which is the main sources of funds also increases.
    The present tax laws in Nigeria emanated from the Raismais commission in 1957. Before this time we only had what was called the income tax ordinance for the colonies and which was rather common in all the colonies and the provisions were very similar. Raim’s recommendation was the basis of provision in the Nigerian constitution order council of 1960 section 70(1) which conferred an exclusive power upon the parliament to make laws for Nigeria or any part thereof with certain uniform principles in respect of personnel and company income tax.
    During 1963 when Nigeria became a republic, the mid-western region was created out of the western region and they adopted the western region tax law accordingly with the amendments, the position under the republican constitution of 1963 and that the regions (now divided into states) assumed jurisdiction over the income tax of person other than companies. While the federal government assumed jurisdiction over the taxation of companies, the uniform principles under the income tax management act and the regional taxes in the federal territory of Lagos.
    Thus, after the creation of former 12 states in 27th may 1967, the state assumed the tax laws of the regions in which they were before the creation of such states. The uniform principle covered by the income tax management act of 1961 was as follows:
    (i) Specifies what income are exempted from tax.
    (ii) What constitute income for tax purposes.
    (iii) Upholds residence on the basis for taxation or in the alternative, the principal place of business.
    (iv) And recently prescribed the rates of tax and personal reliefs.

    1.2: Statement of the Problem
    There is high incidence of tax evasion and avoidance by tax payers. This may affect the amount of revenue collectible by the government for the running of administration. Furthermore, it is hoped that people were wrongly assessed and the assessment sometimes result to regressive taxation.
    1.3 Research Question
    1. Who is a tax payers?
    2 who is a tax defaulter and when caught, he should pay double the amount involved or taken to court.
    3. What are the causes and reasons for high tax evasion and avoidance.
    1.4 Hypothesis
    Hi Tax payers are said to be dishonest
    Hi A tax defaulter when caught, he should pay double the amount involved rather than going to court.
    Hi: Defficiences contribute to fraud and dishonesty in the tax assessment and collection.
    1.5 Objective of The Study
    The purpose of this study include the following:
    (a) To examine the causes and reasons for high tax evasion and avoidance.
    (b) To generate revenue to help the government to finance ever-increasing public sector expenditure.
    (c) To promote social, economic, and good governance through provision of merit goods.
    (d) To examine the effect on economy, the high incidence of tax evasion and avoidance.
    (e) To examine people’s perception on taxation.
    1.6: Significance Of The Study
    The topic “company income tax on economic growth in Nigeria”, will educate the entire public on how the federation could encourage economic development and also how a reduced tax could promote the standard of living of the tax payer and increases his capital formation and investment thereby, resulting in a higher gross National Product (GNP) of the economy (country) and also promote the industrial development of the nation.
    The study will be of immense benefit to the following group of persons.
    (a) Government of the federation of Nigeria.
    (b) The business community for the purpose of companies income tax.
    (c) The tax experts especially the practicing professional accountants.
    (d) Enugu state university community.
    (e) The Nigerian Institute of Management and Nigerian Statisticians.
    (f) The economist and financial analysts or capitalist.
    (g) The students of Accountancy profession and other allied professions.
    (h) The tax-payers, especially the employers of labour and the employees of various organisations.
    (i) Tax researchers.
    1.7: Scope And Delimitation
    This topic company income tax on economic growth in Nigeria we cover all the 36 states of the federation and Abuja and the entire economy but the writer intends to limit this topic to only Lagos and Ogun state due to financial handicap, distance and time constraints.
    Therefore, since the same tax Acts are applied throughout the federation Republic of Nigeria, the study of Lagos and Ogun tax system and economy shall be deemed to serve other states of the federation. Thus, the writer will rely heavily on the board of internal Revenue and state ministry of finance and Economy planning since they have adequate information and data on the government of Lagos and Ogun state of Nigeria, thereby covering all the local government areas of the state.
    Since there are often changes in the tax laws of Acts both at the state and federal level of government, the writer may wish to visit the chief inspector of taxes of some urban and rural local government areas in the state in other to confirm the information or data so collected from the Board of Internal Revenue and the state Ministry of Finance and Economy Planning.
    1.8 Definition Of Terms.
    I.T.M.A: Income tax management Act of 1961, which deals with chargeable income and how they are administered.
    C.I.T.A: Companies income tax Acts of 1979 which deals with profit chargeable in respects to companies.
    P.I.T.D: Personal income tax degree/Act of 1993 as amended deals with profit chargeable in respect of individuals.
    HYPOTHESIS: It is an idea or suggestion put forward for reasoning or explanation .subject to confirmation or rejection.
    LAW OF TERRITORY: This means any enforce in a particular territory example, state, or country.
    METHODOLOGY: It is the science or study of methods or ways to be adopted in a given direction.
    TAX EVASION: This means trying to escape tax liability by an individual.
    DIRECT TAXES: This means that taxes are levied on income and property of individuals or group of individuals who bears their full burden.
    INDIRECT TAXES: These are the taxes levied on goods and services and are paid by individuals by virtue of their associating with the goods and services.
    EARNED INCOME: It is the income which the tax payer actually earned, which may require mental and physical exercise such as salaries, wages, e t c.
    UNEARNED INCOME: This income accrue whether or not the tax payer is there or not, example, rent, interest, royalties, and dividends.
    OTHER INCOMES: It is the income which comes once in a while and they are not regular, thereby undetermined example, gift of windfall income, lottery winnings e t c.

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    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background of the Study
    The process of creating and disseminating information via electronic means including email and via the Web is electronic publishing. Electronically published materials may originate as traditional paper publishing or may be created specifically for electronic publishing. It is also known as: e-publishing, web publishing and internet publishing Kist (1989) defined electronic publishing as “the application by publishers of a computer aided process, by which they find, capture, shape, store and update information content in order to disseminate it to a chosen audience” From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, electronic publishing includes the digital publication of e-books and electronic articles, and the development of digital libraries and catalogues. A popular electronic encyclopedia, Grolier Electronic Publishing, 1995.
    The information technology has changed the way that information is stored and disseminated and has threatened the traditional approaches to the library and its services. The digital revolution has taken on the world of publishing also. Now paperless publishing or electronic publishing is gaining more prominence.
    In the changing scenario, libraries and librarians will have to play a crucial role in handling conventional and electronic resources. Thus the era of electronic publishing has begun affecting library and information professionals. The ultimate goal of electronic publishing is to provide fast and easy access to the information contained in the objective publications with simple, powerful search and retrieval capabilities.
    Thus, e-publishing can be used effectively in the context of Dr. S.R. Ranganathan’s fourth law “Save the time of user” for many purposes. The U.G.C Infonet E-Jounrnal Consortium is a unique ICT programme for facilitating free electronic access to scholarly academic databases and journals to 100 universities
    is the largest academic network in the world.
    Electronic Publishing
    It is basically a form of publishing in which books, journals and magazines are being produced and stored electronically rather than in print. These publications have all qualities of the normal publishing like the use of colours, graphics and images and they are much convenient also. It is the process for production of typeset quality documents containing text, graphics, pictures, tables, equations etc. it is used to define the production of any that is digitized form.
    Electronic Publishing = Electronic Technology + Computer Technology + Communication Technology + Publishing
    Kist (1989) defined electronic publishing as “the application by publishers of a computer aided process, by which they find, capture, shape, store and update information content in order to disseminate it to a chosen audience” From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, electronic publishing includes the digital publication of e-books and electronic articles, and the development of digital libraries and catalogues.
    A popular electronic encyclopedia,Grolier Electronic Publishing, 1995 defines electronic publishing as:
    l The term E-publishing refers more precisely to the storage and retrieval of information through electronic communications media. It can employ a variety of formats and technologies, some already in widespread use by businesses and
    general consumers and others still being developed. E-publishing technology can be classified into two general categories:
    l. one in which information is stored in a centralized computer source and delivered to the users by a telecommunications system, including online database services and videotext represents the most active area in E publishing today, and,
    2. another in which the data is digitally stored on a disk or other physically deliverable medium.
    1.2 Statement of the Study
    The invention of printing technology in mid- 15th century revolutionized the production of books in printed form. Publication of books and journals on magnetic media microfilms and microfiche- followed suit in the 1930s. In fact, space problems, which the libraries were facing, led to the use of magnetic media publication of books. But this media could not find acceptance of their users due to various factors such as strain on eyes, cumbersome retrieval of information, etc. Meanwhile computing technology was developed in 1960s, and with it, some time later towards the end of 20th century, were invented other media such as optical discs, digital versatile discs for recording of information.
    The 21st Century Electronic Publishing is basically a form of publishing in which books, journals and magazines are being produced and rendering journals a less than ideal format for disseminating current research. In some fields such as astronomy and some parts of physics, the role of the journal in disseminating the latest research has largely been replaced by preprint repositories. However, scholarly journals still play an important role in quality control and establishing scientific credit. In many instances, the electronic materials uploaded to preprint repositories are still intended for eventual publication in a peer-reviewed Journal. There is statistical evidence that electronic publishing provides wider dissemination. A number of journals have, while retaining their peer review process, established electronic versions or even moved entirely to electronic Publication. Electronic publishing is increasingly popular in works of fiction as well as with scientific articles. Electronic publishers are able to provide quick gratification for late-night readers, books that customers might not be able to find in standard book retailers E-Book format and books by new authors that would be unlikely to be profitable for traditional publishers. While the term “electronic publishing” is primarily used today to refer to the current offerings of online and web-based publishers, the term has a history of being used to describe the development of new forms of production, distribution, and user interaction in regard to computer-based production of text and other interactive media. The impact of electronic publishing on library collections, services and administration is complex. There are, however, many good usable solutions that libraries can learn from each other. No one needs to recreate the wheel to cope with e-publications. How the advent and increasing presence of electronic publishing will impact the people who will read them may ultimately be of more importance than what we will do with the machines, the storage media or the delivery mechanism.
    The most recent trend in the book industry is the development of electronic books (or E-Books), which has the potential to be the most for-reaching change since Guntenberg’s invention.
    1.3 Aim and Objective of the Study
    The aim and objective of this study is to analyse the impact of E-publishing in digital era in our society and also examining and investigate how E-publishing improve the publishing of article, journal and other written content by scholar.
    1.4 Significance of the Study
    Projects provide a flexible framework for engaging students in exploring curricular topics and developing important 21st century skills, such as communication, teamwork, and technology skills. In addition, students are motivated by the fun and creative format and the opportunity to make new friends around the world. For this project will help in adding new content to body of knowledge and help others for further study.

    1.5 Research Question
    1. what is the impact of E-publishing in this digital era.
    2. How did E-publishing improve the publishing of journal and other written content.
    1.6 Research Methodology
    This study shall majorly be constituted of articles culled from newspapers, journals, write-ups, opinions of authors and jurists and internet materials. This is due to the newness of this topic. However, some textbooks from some notable authors will also be considered.
    1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study
    The scope of this study is centred on the impact of E-publishing in digital era. In pursing this investigation and study, lots of impediments and obstruction were encountered as the research progressed. All these impediments brought about a conspicuous clause with the research work. They include, time constraint and financial conditions. Time was also limited to the researcher in carrying out the study effectively and efficiently. Financial condition prevailing within the economic system was a serious impediment. This includes transportation fare to and from school to get material. Also that of extracting the essential information either through printing or photocopying of relevant materials. Finance, thus contributed immensely to limit the entire scope of the research.
    Although all these obstructions were envisaged and experienced, efforts were made to carry on with the research to achieve the expected and desired result.

    1.8 Definition of Terms
    Electronic Books (E-Books): The book is quiet popular document to meet the academic needs of user community. Publishing a book electronically is to achieve quick publishing and dissemination of information. A book may not have contemporary value that a journal has but it certainly has an archival and reference value.

    Electronic Periodicals: Electronic Periodicals are accessible to all users regardless of geographic location. Anyone in the world with services and the proper computer software and browser services can access online journals.

    Electronic Database: With the emergence of computers and communication technologies the strength of academic information system in the development of modern database has taken new shape. The holding of the academic library database consisting of books, periodicals, reports and theses can be converted to electronic form that allows access for public use through digital networks. The online electronic library card catalog (OPAC) shows how information could be published and that enable user to search the document with various access points like author, title, subjects.

    Electronic Publishing on CD-ROM: CD-ROM has provided new dimension for information storage and retrieval. Publishing information mainly abstracting sources are quiet common in CD-ROM. Although much of the work on e-journals has concentrated on distribution via the Internet, there has been some work on CD-ROM as well.

    Print-on-Demand (POD): Print-on-Demand is a new method for printing books. It is a mix of electronic and print publishing. The book is held by the publisher in electronic form and is printed out in the hard copy form only on order. This method helps free publishers from the process of doing a traditional print run of several thousand books at a time.

    Digital Content: Digital Content Generally refers to the electronic delivery of fiction that is shorter than book-length, nonfiction, and other written works of shorter length.

    Email Publishing: Email publishing is designed specifically for delivering regular content-based email messages. Email publishing, or newsletter publishing, is a popular choice among readers who enjoy the ease of receiving news items, articles and short newsletters in their email box.

    Web Publishing: Web publishing is not a novel practice any longer, but it continues to change and develop with the introduction of new programming languages. HTML is still the most widely used web programming language, but XML is also making headway. XML is valuable because it allows publishers to create content and data that is portable to other devices. Nearly every company in the world has some type of website, and most media companies provide a large amount of web- based content.

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    ABSTRACT

    The aim of this study was to analyze the “Impact of Ekiti Radio campaign against human trafficking in Ido community of Ido-Osi Local government area. The study made use of survey research method. The study answered three research questions. From the research findings, it was observed that the programmes aired on Ekiti Radio helps in discouraging the practice of human trafficking. Survey research method was used because of its convenience, while Chi- square formular was used to test the formulated hypothesis. The study recommend that the government should embark on putting effort to ending human trafficking especially among women and children.

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

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    ABSTRACT

    This research work examined the impact of radio on voters mobilization with Enugu North municipality as a case study. The survey method was used for the study, this method was done to enable the researcher discuss findings especially as there is a widespread variables. In this research, the random sampling technique was used to draw a sample of 100 respondents from ten(10) wards in Enugu North municipality and 12 items questionnaire were used for data collection. Data was analyzed based on 100 returned copies of the questionnaire. Finding has revealed that radio has effectively mobilized voters based on the findings in table 7 reveal that at of 100 respondents 84 percentage of the sample population agreed that radio message gas great impact on them while 16 respondents disagreed that radio has no impact on them. Findings also shows in table 9 that 20 percent of the total sample population agreed that the radio has not been alive to the responsibility. In the conclusion from findings, radio is supposed to be a very effective tool for voters mobilization but until radio become alive to its social responsibility to the public by adopting better and effective strategies that will enhance effective mobilization of voters during election.

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background of the Study

    The electronic media began with radio transmission services. According to Agba (2006), radio began between 1887 and 1888, a German scientist Heinrich Hertz (1857-1894) and a scientific breakthrough to demonstrate the liberation of electric curren6t into space in the form of waves like beams. He was laying the foundation for the transmission of sound through radio waves.
    Marconi successfully proved Hertz’s theory of electromagnetic waves by making a compass needle turn at the same time a spark jumped between two wires on the other side of the room, constructing a more elaborate transmitter, Marconi sent signals across the hillside outside the family home near Bologna (Bitnner 1989:93). So in 1906 it was possible for the Canadian immigrant to USA, Reginald Hessenden to broadcasr human voice and music over the air waves, which could pick up by crystal set receiver, (Agba, 2006) thus the birth of radio station in the world.
    Radio as a means of mass communication has become one of the most effective means of communication in the world since its discovery, especially because of its reach as its transcends geographical linguistic and traditional barriers Odo(2008). Radio is part of the mass media and so outside its traditional role of educating, informing and entertaining

    the public it has other salient responsibility to the society. One of which is to mobilize the populace in the times of need. Today, Nigeria is among the third world countries with practicing democracy.
    Elections in the country have always been married with irregularities which have gone a long way to vote for candidates of their choice during elections as they believe that whether they vote or not, a predetermined winner will still emerge and so this has given greater responsibility to the mass media as an agent of social change to double its efforts in mobilizing and sensitizing voters on the need to come out massively to vote for candidates of their choice, which would help in strengthening democracy and bring development to the society.
    The social responsibility theory of the mass media as propounded by Siebet, Peterson and Scram (1963) propose a functional model for the analysis of the function of media in political evolution and maintenance of a genuine democracy. They are as follows:
    a) Enlightening the people on the need and importance of democracy.
    b) Creating an enabling environment for the economy to grow strong especially through advertising.
    c) Adhering strictly to the code of ethics laid down by the press council of Nigeria as this will motivate the journalist sufficiently enough to withstand the pressures of government interest and other special interest.

    d) Entertaining the public with information and other well packaged programmes.
    This responsibility has placed on the shoulders of the media, an enormous task in democratic regime as ours and efficient mobilization of voters is part of that responsibility.
    1.2 Statement of the Problem

    The electronic media as part of the mass media has a role to play in any democratic process. Part of its function includes mobilizing effectively the Nigeria populace to come out and vote massively for the candidate of their choice who will be accountable to them. This role makes the radio a key player in any democratic process and so it is expected that it carries out this responsibility with all amount of dedication so as to strengthen and entrench democracy in the country. Especially the 2011 general elections in most polling units, only twenty or thirty percent of the registered voters actually came out to vote.
    This situation has forced many to ask if actually the media especially the electronic media has actually performed its function of mobilization.
    1.3 Objectives of the Study

    The objectives of the study are to:

    i. Ascertain the impact of radio messages on voters especially for the purpose of political mobilization.
    ii. Examine the role of radio as a tool for social mobilization.

    iii. Establish strategies that will effectively help in improving voter mobilization during elections using radio.
    iv. This work is set out to study this development.

    This project therefore seeks to find out how effective has (E.S.B.S) radio carried out this responsibility of mobilizing the electorates during election especially in Enugu North municipality where it signals are received by most of the residents.
    1.4 Research Questions

    For the purpose of carrying out this research, the following questions have been formulated to serve as guide to this study.
    i) What impact does E.S.B.S radio message have on voters especially for the purpose of political mobilization.
    ii) How does radio serve as a tool for social mobilization.

    iii) What strategies is ESBS radio using to mobilize voters?

    1.5 Significance of the Study

    In a country with a nascent democracy like Nigeria this study is significant because it will reawaken the consciousness of media practitioners to their responsibility to the public which will in turn help to strengthen the democratic system in our country, Nigeria. This work will also help in the formulation of policy recommendations that will help the ESBS radio and other radio stations to have sustainable impact on their listeners especially as it concerns mobilization during elections.
    1.6 Limitations of the Study

    This work will explore thoroughly the impact of the electronic media on voters’ mobilization in Enugu North and the radio station selected is ESBS radio Enugu, it was selected because of its proximity to the researcher which helped to save cost and time. ESBS radio is a government owned media which broadcasts twenty four hours everyday and the 2011 and Enugu North municipal council was used as a case study because of its population proximity to the station. The major limitations in the course of carrying out this research were finance, time and high demand of other academic work.
    Also, the seeming difficulty of some respondents to give adequate and relevant information to help in carrying the research was also a major limitation to the study. Finally the difficulty that encountered in getting relevant materials to elicit information was also a major limitation.
    1.7 Definition of Terms

    To aid proper understanding, the following definition of terms were undertaken in the work.
    i. Radio

    ii. Impact

    iii. Voters

    iv. Mobilization

    Radio: Radio can be defined as the process of sending and receiving message through the air using electromagnetic waves. It is also a cheap, portable device that can be carried around.
    Voters: Voter can also be defined as a person who votes or has the right to vote especially in a political election. It is also a group of individuals that elect their representative.
    Mobilization: Simply means the process in which people work together in order to achieve a particular aim.
    Impact: According to chambers dictionary, impact means strong effect or influence. It also means the striking of one body against another collision.
    ESBS: Enugu State Broadcasting Service “an electronic media that transmits message through airwaves based in Enugu State, Nigeria.

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    ABSTRACT

    This study was informed by the necessity of research in the impact of integrated marketing communication on brand building. A study of the transition of Zain to Airtel. The theory that was used during this research is the learning theory which postulates that exposure of certain models or message to a particular audience which was applied to this study. It was also observed that the audiences of Airtel were able to imitate or act in accordance to the message in which they are exposed to Airtel. Survey method was used in this study. Three hundred and ninety nine questionnaires were also administered to respondents during this research. The data collected were analyzed using the chi-square analysis. Research hypotheses findings reveal that integrated marketing communication is an effective tool for brand building even during brand transition. The respondents from the sample population size were randomly selected audience in which it has created a platform for recommendations to be made. Based on the findings in this research, the researcher recommends that IMC messages should be carefully put together, in terms of central theme, media planning and usage. Also, recommended that an integrated marketing communications should be applied in brand building, a combination of Advertising, Public relation, direct marketing, event sponsorship, sales promotion and personal selling is required in brand building.

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1. Background of the Study

    A critical part of brand building is communication and the most effective and productive way of managing this effort is through a concept called Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC).
    Due to societal changes over the past fifty years, today’s organizations are being forced to adjust their brand/marketing strategies. Not surprisingly, many have turned to integrated marketing communications (IMC). Why? Old assumptions about the role of advertising promotion and media have fallen by the way side because change remains the only constant thing in the world. Thoughts about how branding and promotion should be organized have been upside-down. And organizations, marketing executives and the media are scrambling to accommodate their new roles, ever since, integrated marketing communication (IMC) has been part of business. Clow & Baack (2004) define IMC as “the coordination and integration of all marketing communication tools, avenues and sources within a company into a seamless programme that maximizes the impact on consumers and other end users at a minimal cost”.
    In addition, Arens (2004) defines integrated marketing communications (IMC) as: The process of building and reinforcing mutually profitable relationship with employees, customers, other stakeholders, and the general public by developing and coordinating a strategic communications programme that enables them to make constructive contact with the company/brand through a variety of media or other contacts…

    From the above definitions, it can be deduced that IMC unifies all communication effort from an organization to produce an identifiable source (brand) in the minds of its audience while some observers think that so long as a company is involved in a variety of promotional activities (e.g., advertising sponsorships, public relations etc), it is practicing IMC. But this is not the case using IMC means looking at the whole where there were once only parts. If calls for re-aligning communications and seeing constant flow of information from a single and identifiable source. An effective IMC process comprises the following steps:
    • Identify the target audiences: This requires a well throughout market segmentation and targeting process which may includes secondary and/or primary market research.
    • Determine the communication objectives: This can range from generating brand awareness to countering the competition.
    • Design the message content: This is an absolutely critical component. Effective messages can make or break a promotional effort.
    • Select the means for communications, whether advertising, public relations, direct marketing sponsorship etc.
    • Define the mix of media, budget and priorities

    • Measure the effectiveness of the efforts.

    IMC and Brand Building

    Based on the foregoing, the brand building aspects are the focus of this study. As consumers are bombarded with a variety of products to meet the same need, branding provides a way for consumers to reduce their decision making to consider only those

    products that they feel are relevant to them or that have met their needs acceptably in the past.
    There is no question that a strong brand is an important corporate asset. Spaeth (1993) asserts that “Brand equity cannot be measured in Naira and kobo but rather, it is a direct result of how consumers value a brand based on their experiences and perceptions”. It is these experiences and perceptions that permit the brand to earn greater volume or margins than it could without the brand name. The most basic function of integrated marketing communication (IMC) is to identify brands, their sources and products, and differentiates them from others. For example, Airtel and Glo may offer the same function as a GSM service provider with similar services to a consumer. Integrated marketing communication (IMC), through sales promotion, appeal and logo (branding) differentiates one product from the other. Therefore, it can be argued that IMC helps create brand awareness and brand loyalty.
    Integrated marketing communication encourages brand loyalty and helps nurture good customer/stakeholder relationship with brands Airtel formally Zain was not the first GSM operator in Nigeria. Through integrated marketing communication, it encouraged and created awareness to its customers about its transition from Zain international to Airtel. This enabled it to retain and add considerably to its market share in the telecommunication industry in Nigeria.
    Integrated marketing communication (IMC) builds brand value, preference and loyalty. Airtel, through its exciting advertisements, intuitive sales promotion and public relations have created strong brand awareness in affirming its transition from Zain to Airtel. When people think of GSM in Nigeria today, Airtel will likely come to mind. It has

    top-of-mind awareness. It is noted worthy that other factor may have contributed to this brands acceptance despite its recent transition. For instance, the fact that it’s one of the fastest growing networks in Africa (especially in Nigeria), and its unalloyed customer relationship and compensation through various promotions and event sponsorship. Branding Defined
    A brand is a distinguishing name or symbol designed or identify a product’s origin differentiate from others or competitors and protest its customers against imitation. Speath (1993) went on to define branding as “a process of creating an association between symbol, object emotion, perception and a product/company with the goal of deriving loyalty and creating differentiation”.
    Branding builds emotional responses thus, when a brand is thought of, it evokes certain emotions. For example, in the auto-mobile, industry, it can be argued that Ferrari, Mercedes, Benz and Lexus brand evokes prestige in the minds of the users and on the lookers.
    Consumers are bombarded with variety of products and brands meeting the same need or functions. Branding provides a way for consumers to reduce their decisions to products or services they is relevant or have met their need before.

    1.2. Statement of the Problem

    With increased competition and saturation in the market, coupled with the growth of other promotional channels such as event sponsorship and advertising, the budget share of other relevant tools of integrated marketing communication (IMC) has continued to dwindle.

    In a recession, some tools of integrated marketing communication (IMC) are the first to feel the burn. Most financial managers believe that integrated marketing communication (IMC) activities cannot be measured in profits; therefore, it is a waste.
    Also, some critics believe that integrated marketing communication is not effective in brand building. Ries and Ries (2002) asserts that “advertising (which is one of the tools of IMC) may not be effective in brand building they posit that it lacks credibility to build brands”.
    This study therefore, intends to evaluate the impact of integrated marketing communication in the branding of Airtel and to measure the effectiveness of that campaign.

    13. Objectives of the Study

    The objective of this is to assess how integrated marketing communication has been effective in branding and transition of Zain to Airtel. The specific objectives are:
    1. To explore how much awareness Airte, has been able to create due to integrated marketing communication (IMC).
    2. To examine the public’s perception of the Airtel brand.

    3. To explain in what ways, has integrated marketing communication (IMC) been able to impact on people’s attitude towards Airtel.

    1.4. Significance of the Study

    Integrated marketing communication (IMC) is one of the areas in mass- communication in Nigeria. The findings from this study can provide an example of the role played by integrated marketing communication (IMC) in creating brand awareness and

    identify. It can also add to the literature in the area of integrated marketing communication (IMC) effectiveness in building brands.
    Integrated marketing communication (IMC) is a major activity in an economic system. This research provides a feedback through which integrated marketing communication (IMC) organization and clients can assess IMC effectiveness.

    1.5. Research Questions

    In conducting this research, the following research questions will enable us provide meaningful answers to the impact of Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC) on brand building.
    1. Is integrated marketing communication (IMC) effective in creating brand awareness of Airtel?
    2. Can a consumer’s exposure to integrated marketing communication (IMC) bring about brand preference?
    3. Can integrated marketing communication (IMC) help retain brand loyalty despite brand transition?

    1.6. Research Hypotheses

    H1: Integrated marketing communication (IMC) is effective in creating brand awareness of Airtel?
    H0: Integrated marketing communication (IMC) cannot be effective in creating brand awareness of Airtel?
    H2: A consumer’s exposure to integrated marketing communication (IMC) can bring about brand preference

    H0: A consumer’s exposure to integrated marketing communication IIMC) cannot bring about brand preference?
    H3: Integrated marketing communication (IMC) can help brand loyalty despite brand transition?
    H0: Integrated marketing communication (IMC) cannot help retain brand loyalty despite brand transition?

    1.7. Scope of the Study

    This research will be restricted to Onitsha, Nnewi and Ihiala in Anambra State, Nigeria. Emphasis is on testing consumer brand awareness and perception as a result of exposure to integrated marketing communication from Airtel formally Zain especially during its brand transition.

    1.8. Limitation of the Study

    As the researcher carries out this study as a research there are some vital things which may tend to limit the researcher on the study some of which are:
    Time: Time is a factor which limits an individual to do what you want. The researcher has a lot to carry on with little time.
    Finance: During the course of this study, the researcher tends to spend money more than he bargained for at the end of the day.
    Information: At times, the information being disclosed to the researcher is little or not sufficient-enough and the researcher is to strive and source for information from all directions.

    1.9. Definition of Terms (Operational)

    Impact: The impact of this study refers to any of the consequence of integrated marketing communication IMC on brand building whether intended or not and its effectiveness in terms of its capacity to achieve given objectives, weather this can be attracting larger audience or influencing opinion and behavior
    IMC: in this study, integrated marketing communication IMC was taken to mean a management concept that is designed or fashioned to make all aspect of marketing communication such as advertising, sale promotion, public relations, and direct marketing work together as a unified force, rather than allowing each to work on its own.
    Brand building: in this study brand building was taken to mean a process of convincing your prospective customers to see you as the only provider of solution to their problem through a consistent and effective communication effort.
    Transition: here transition means the period within which Zain changed to Airtel.

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    ABSTRACT

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

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    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background of the Study

    This study “Impact of Pornographic Materials on Youths” aims at identifying the influence of pornographic materials on the youth, with particular emphasis on the youths in University of Nigeria Nsukka. The study will help to ascertain whether pornographic materials have adverse effect on the moral behaviour of youths. However, this study will be narrowed down to pornographic films only.
    In view of the foregoing, films began in the minds of people who came long before the film pioneers themselves. The attempt to capture and recreate motion can be traced to when civilization began. The cave drawing which showed a horse with eight legs, the fleeting arrow from a hunter‟s bow and even carefully detailed drawing of kings with one foot outstretched suggest motion.
    Bittner (1989) said that history is somewhat not clear as to who deserved the glory of inventing still motion pictures, but that William Dickson and Thomas Edison were associated with the efforts to create motion pictures.
    The earliest forms of pornographic films were seen in France during the 1920s. The development in France brought about fun and all sorts of condemnation from the public. For instance, Dellu cinema owner and also French man said that the exhibition of such pornographic films contributed to melancholy, fatal condition, social and other negative attitudes among the people.

    Down here in Nigeria, pornographic films started pervading our country in the late 1960s and became more rampant in the 1970s. Today, pornographic films have become so prevalent that access to them is easy.
    “Film, according to Black African greatest film producer Ousmene Senibene is tool or communicator of social change and culture.” He went further to stress that “a film is but a driving belt, a vehicle that conveys an idea and by this we will see that communication and ideas help people make their own decisions about the environment they live in.
    Film as a genre of mass communication is therefore, associated with the enormous influence of the mass media. To buttress this, Walter Lippman (1922, p. 588), also said that the media do not only tell the people what to think, but what to think about. That is to say the media shape the picture in our heads. There is no consensus of opinion on the power of the media to propagate sexual abuse, crime, violence etc, among youths by way of projecting such message to them.
    The stand which one takes on this issue depends on individual perception towards the controversial topic. But the aim of this research is to investigate this issue scientifically keeping emotion aloof, that is, to find out if there is any relationship between youth exposure to media portrayals of pornographic and sexual perversion among the youth.

    1.2 Statement of the problem

    Undoubtedly, social scientists who are interested in the study of mass media particularly film effects have been involved in the efforts to find out the relationship

    between media and anti-social behaviour like crime, violence, sexual behaviour perversion, abuse and rape. There has been series of research works which show that audio-visual media can be described as an all powerful, all pervasive and all manipulative medium capable of producing the most effective emotional reaction through the portrayal of pornography, violence and other immoral acts.
    This project is geared towards ascertaining if sexual crimes, perversion and abuse among the youths could be attributed to their exposure to pornographic films. Therefore, in which way can the viewing of pornographic materials be stopped?

    1.3 Objectives of the study

    This study is aimed at the following:

    a. To find out the reasons why youths watch pornographic films.

    b. To assess the extent youths practice behaviors acquired from viewing pornographic film.
    c. To make suggestions and recommendations on what can be done to stem the viewing of pornographic materials.

    1.4 Research questions

    1. What are the reasons why youths watch pornographic films?

    2. To what extent do youths practise behaviours acquired from viewing pornographic films?
    3. Should the Nigerian government ban pornographic films because of its negative influence on the youths?

    1.5 Scope of the Study

    This study is limited to youths in University of Nigeria Nsukka. But since the characteristics of youths are generally similar in many ways, the findings of the study would therefore be generalized to include all youths in Enugu.

    1.6 Significance of the study

    This study will be of great benefit to Nigerian students in the tertiary level. This study will be of significance to the students because it will help them to know the effects of pornographic films.
    Furthermore, it will be of benefit to both governments because it will help the government to understand ways in which they can control and eradicate this social vice.

    1.7 Operational definition of terms

    The variables for this study, “Impact of Pornographic Materials on Youths” are operationally defined as follows:
    The Impact Operationally Defined

    The operational definition of impact as the powerful effect that something has on somebody.
    Pornographic Materials Operational Defined

    The operational definition of pornographic materials are films that are made solely for sexual arousal and featuring nudity and explicit sexual acts.

    Youths Operational Defined

    The operational definition of youths is the time of life when a person is young having the characteristics of the young.

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    ABSTRACT

    The aim of embarking on this study was to provide a well detailed account on the Impact of Radio Nigeria Enugu‟s awareness campaign on global warming using Emene community as the study area. The researcher used survey research design in the collection of data because it is easier to sought people‟s opinion using questionnaire. Stratified sampling method was used to get the sample size for this study which is 150. Data gathered from the study were analyzed, tested and interpreted using simple percentage, frequency tables and chi- square goodness of fit test which is used to test the hypothesis. The researcher was able to find out that majority of the respondents own radio set and listen to Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report. It also influence them positively. The theory that led support to this work is the agenda setting theory. The researcher therefore recommends that programmes on global warming report should be aired with local languages so as to make the message more effective and understandable by people of such communities. This will go a long to enhancing the campaign on global warming. And also more airtime should be allocated to the broadcast or report on global warming by Radio Nigeria Enugu.

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1. Background of the Study

    Global warming has become the most pertinent and most significant contemporary issue in the entire globe. Today, the world is currently under the threat of global warming. Its challenging nature can never be over emphasized neither can the world‟s vulnerability to its effect be argued. Experts contend that the various manifestations of climate change occur in many ways than one. These include average global temperatures, which have increased by 0.8 centigrade since 1990; the last decade was the warmest year on record in the southern hemisphere.
    Effects of climate change are numerous including declining agricultural productivity, insecure harvest, rising product prices, reduced productivity of farm labour, increasing

    tendency of feeding on spoiled food items, increasing risk of dehydration, reducing milk yield in dairy farms and these short comings have far- reaching negative effects on human health and existence.
    Global warming could be referred to an increase in the average temperature of the earth‟s atmosphere especially a sustained increase sufficient to cause climate change. It can also be caused by gaseous discharges from industries, indiscriminate and open burning of waste, bush burning, burning of fossil fuels, use of defoliants, crude oil spillage, gas flaring, indoor cooking, emissions from generators, mining activities, exploitation of energy for domestic(use of charcoal, fuel, wood, pole). Major air pollutants include Cox, Nox, particulates H2s, CFCs, Hcfcs, Dixons and furans. As a result of these emissions from generators, mining activities, the ozone layer is gradually losing its potency and this has led to an increase heat of radiations from the sun on the earth, which is called global warming. Other results of these emissions apart from dangerous changes in weather patterns including flooding, which has become unprecedented in history, persistent rise in sea level, alarming rate of desertification, gully erosion, crop failure and a number of other negative impacts.
    These are the modern day plagues threatening the very existence of humanity unless Government and the people address them squarely urgently institute drastic and urgent measures, except that all humans will eventually become vagabonds. In a keynote address on the ministry of environment‟s 2nd summit on climate change.
    Fashola states that:

    “There will be threat to global food supply and even the legal order as we know it today about immigration control and border securities may give way to anxious, displaced and angry millions of refugees who will be in an uncontrollable race in search of safety and survival.”

    Climate change model projection summarized I the latest intergovernmental panel of climate change (IPCC) reports indicates that global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 1.1 to 6.40 centigrade (2.0- 11.50f) during the 21st century. However, warming is expected to continue beyond year 2100 even if emissions stop; because of the large heat capacity of the ocean and long life time of carbon- dioxide (Co2) in the atmosphere. Today, most National Governments have signed and ratified the Kyoto protocol aimed at reducing greenhouse gases.
    Radio help to enhance people‟s general knowledge by providing them with information from all over the world. It is also the fastest means of passing information. Its portability cannot be over emphasized. Radio serves as the best means of speedy spread of news about important incidents or events taking place. What has happened in the remotest corner of the world can reach within minutes. Hence, there is need for this research to find out the impact of Radio Nigeria Enugu awareness campaign on the people of Emene Community. Climate Change
    The history of the scientific discovery of climate change began in the early 19th century

    when ice ages and other natural changes in pale climate were first suspected and the natural greenhouse effect first identified. In the late 19th century, scientists first argued that human emissions of greenhouse gases could change the climate, but the calculations were disputed. Many other theories of climate change were advanced, involving forces from volcanism to solar variation.
    In the 1960‟s the warming effect of carbon dioxide gas became increasingly convincing, although some scientists also pointed out that human activities, in the form of atmospheric aerosols (example “pollution”), could have cooling effects as well. During the 1970‟s,

    scientist opinion increasingly favored the warming viewpoint. By the 1990s, as a result of improving fidelity of computer models and observational work confirming the Milankovitch theory of the ice ages, a consensus position formed: greenhouse gases were deeply involved in most climate change and human emissions were bringing serious global warming.
    Since 1990s, scientific research on climate change has included multiple disciplines and has expanded, significantly increasing our understanding of casual relations, links with historic data and ability to numerically model climate change. The most recent work has been summarized in the assessment reports by the intergovernmental panel on the climate change.
    Regional changes, antiquity through 19th century from ancient times, people suspected that

    the climate of a region could change over the course of centuries. For example, Theophrastus, a pupil of Aristotle, told how the draining of marshes had made a particular locality more susceptible to freezing, and he speculated that land became warmer when the clearing of forests exposed them to sunlight. Renaissance and later scholars saw that deforestation, irrigation, and grazing had altered the lands around the Mediterranean since ancient times; they thought it plausible that these human interventions had affected the local weather.
    The most striking change came in the 18th and 19th centuries, obvious within a single

    lifetime. The conversion of eastern North America from forest to crop lands. By the early 19th century many believed the transformation was altering the region‟s climate probably for the better. When sodbusters took over the Great Plains they were told that “rain follows the plough”. Not everyone agreed. Some experts reported that deforestation not only

    caused rainwater to run off rapidly in useless floods, but reduced rainfall itself. European professors, alert to any proof that their Nations were wiser than others, claimed that the Orientals of the Ancient near east had heedlessly converted their once lush lands into impoverished deserts.
    Meanwhile, national weather agencies had begun to compile masses of reliable observations of temperature, rainfall and the like. When the figures were analyzed they showed many rises and dips, but no steady long term change. By the end of the 19th century, scientific opinion had turned decisively against any belief in a human influence on climate. And whatever the regional effects, few imagined that humans could affect the climate of the planet as a whole.

    Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria

    The Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria was originally founded in 1933 by the British colonial Government, named the diffusion service; it allowed the public to hear the British Broadcasting Corporation‟s foreign radio service broadcasts in certain public locations over loudspeakers.
    In April 1950, the RDS became the Nigerian Broadcasting service and introduced radio stations in Lagos, Kaduna, Enugu, Ibadan and Kano. This service was re-organized into the Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation (NBC) on April 1, 1957 by Act of Parliament. Its mission was to provide, as a public service, independent and impartial broadcasting services.
    By 1962 the NBC had expanded its broadcast stations into Sokoto, Maiduguri, Ilorin, Zaria, Jos and Katsina in the North; Port Harcourt, Calabar and Onitsha in the East, and Abeokuta, Warri, and Ijebu- Ode in the west. Each of these stations was considered a

    subsidiary station of a regional station. The subsidiary stations broadcast local interest programmes during part of the day, and then relayed programming from their regional station during the rest of the broadcast day. National programs were broadcast from two shortwave transmitters and one medium wave transmitter located in Sogunie, near Lagos. In the late 1960, the federal parliament amended the NBC ordinance to allow the sale of commercial advertisements. The first adverts ran on October 31, 1961 and were broadcast from Lagos. By 1962 regional and provincial broadcasters began selling adverts to local businesses. The goal of allowing radio advertisements was to help provide additional funding to NBC stations beyond that received from the Government.
    The federal parliament approved the creation of Voice of Nigeria (VON) external shortwave service in 1961. Broadcasts began on January 1, 1961 from Lagos State. Its initial operations were limited to two hours a day to West Africa, but by 1963 VON had expanded both its coverage and transmission times with the addition of five additional transmitters.
    In April 1961, with financial assistance from the ford foundation and technical assistance from the British Broadcasting Corporation, NBC began National school broadcasting service in April 1961. The NBC schools unit broadcast lessons in various school subjects for primary and secondary schools as well as special programs for teachers training college. The schools unit was based in Ibadan. The NBC and the Broadcasting Corporation of Northern Nigeria (BCNN) were merged in 1978 to become the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN).

    Medium wave transmitters previously owned by the NBC were transferred to the individual state Government where the transmitters were located. At the same time, the State transferred short wave transmitters to the FRCN.
    IN 1996, VON installed three high power transmitters at its Ikorodu transmitter site, allowing worldwide transmissions for the first time.
    FRCN TODAY

    FRCN medium wave service, Radio Nigeria, has 25 stations located throughout the country and together with voice of Nigeria considers itself to have the largest Radio network in Africa.
    In 2007, FRCN began introducing FM transmitters in some locations and plan to begin upgrading and modernizing its shortwave and medium wave transmitters in the coming year.

    1.2. Statement of the Research Problem

    For many year now, series of human activities such as industrial and other economic activities of man on the surface of the earth have been going on ignorantly without putting into consideration the adverse or negative effect of all these activities on the planet in particular and the environment in general.
    Today, these human activities on earth or environment have degenerated to what is now called global warming which has now posed a serious challenge to the survival of man in the whole world.
    The problems therefore are as follows;

    To determine the extent Emene community has been exposed to Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report.
    To know the level of acceptance of these reports by Emene community.

    To determine the level of application of the Radio Nigeria weather reports by Emene community.

    1.3 Objectives of the Study

    The objectives of the study are;

    1. To identify how Radio Nigeria Enugu has been able to influence people‟s attitude towards information on weather change.
    2. To identify whether Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report has played any role in changing the perception of the people of Emene community on information on Global warming.
    3. To understand the economic advantages of Radio Nigeria Enugu‟s awareness campaign on global warming on the people of Emene community.

    1.4 Research Questions

    The following research questions were used by the researcher as a guide.

    1. To what extent has Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report influence the attitude of the people of Emene community towards environmental management?
    2. To what extent has Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report been able to change people‟s perception on information on Global warming?
    3. What is the level of awareness on global warming created by Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report?

    1.5 Research Hypotheses

    Hi: Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report has influence on the attitude of Emene residence on their environmental management.
    Ho: Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report has no influence on the attitude of Emene residence on their environmental management.
    H2: Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report has been able to change people‟s perception on information on global warming.
    Ho: Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report has not been able to change people‟s perception on information on global warming.
    H3: Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report has created high level of awareness on global warming.
    Ho: Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report has not created high level of awareness on global warming.
    1.6 Scope of the Study

    This research is focused on the challenges and possibility of creating awareness of the dangers which human activities pose on the environment using Radio Nigeria Enugu as a study Area. The study is limited to Emene community in Enugu East Local Government Area, Enugu State. That is those who are exposed to Radio Nigeria Enugu news programme from January to June 2014.

    1.7 Significance of the Study

    This study is justified by the need to highlight the importance of Radio involvement in the campaign on global warming. It would be a reference material to students and other researchers who carryout studies in the same field.
    The study will provide information on how to control global warming.

    The result of the study will sensitize media managers on the importance of weather report. The study will help to determine the rate at which the programme changes perception of Emene community about global warming.
    It highlights how Radio Nigeria Enugu awareness campaign on global warming encourages a forestation among Emene community.

    1. 8 Operational Definition of Terms

    Impact: The feelings of the people of Emene community after been exposed to Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report from January to June 2014.
    Radio: Electromagnetic wave carrying information from Radio Nigeria Enugu to the people of Emene community.
    Awareness: The level of information about global warming by the people of Emene community.
    Campaign: Series of Radio Nigeria Enugu weather reports exposed before Emene community.
    Global warming: The rise in temperature of Emene Community from 37c to 39c from January to June 2014.

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    ABSTRACT

    From the title of this work, it will be seen that the work is geared towards
    finding out the impact of small scale firms on industrial development of
    Enugu Urban. The aim of the this study is to examine and identify in detail
    the problems, prospects effect and the importance of the development of
    small scale firms towards industrial development of Enugu Urban. This work
    has five chapters, with each chapter focusing in a specific objective. Chapter
    one tells us the history of small scale firms, chapter two examine other
    people’s work on small scale firms under these sub-headings characteristics
    of small scale firms, availability of resource, the impacts or importance,
    financing the small scale firms, Government and its agencies, and so on.
    Chapter three examines the type of research design and methodology used by
    the researcher. Chapter four, the researcher used two techniques of data
    analysis the percentages and chi-square at 0.05 level of significance. Chapter
    five summarizes the findings, making some conclusion and some
    recommendation as to how the problems of the small scale firms will be
    solved.

    CHAPTER ONE

    1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
    Development of firms has been a matter of great concern and priority
    to many nations of the world. It could be understood from economic history
    that many advanced countries of the world which has attained the height of
    industrialization started as a more small and medium scale enterprises which
    later metamorphosed into giant cooperation. In the past, industrial
    development process were slow and painful and the advancement in
    technology in developed countries resulted from the survival of the cottage
    firms which were nurtured, pampered and breastfed to grow up as big
    industrial corporations today.
    Since the early, 1990’s a number of initiatives have come to dominate
    the economic growth agenda of many donors and public agencies. These
    initiatives arose as a response to, or an interpretation of, the increasing effects
    of market globalization on the economies of developing countries. Analyses
    that only looked at domestic markets were no longer adequate to
    understanding the dynamics that affected the incomes and livelihoods of poor
    households almost anywhere in the world. With the increase in globalization,
    resource-driven comparative advent-age diminished in importance, while
    competitive advantage, created by private and public stakeholders, rises. And
    with its rise, the importance of theories that could help us understand and
    manipulate the dynamics affecting economic growth including competitiveness, value chain analysis, and economic cluster theory.
    As a result of increased globalization and a shift in jobs from
    developed to developing economies ethical issues emerged. These were
    largely in response to labour and environmental concerns.
    Since then, competitiveness initiatives, value chain analysis, and
    cluster development approach have proved to be quite effective at increasing
    micro, small and medium enterprises productivity and competitiveness into
    global markets, as well as national and local markets.
    Developing countries as a whole have now realized that they lag much
    behind than the developed nations of the world, not only in industrial base but
    also in national standard of living. As a result, these countries now seem to
    have hastened up the pace of their industrial development process in other to
    increase their living standard and thus reduce the present rate of
    unemployment, (Klatt 1973).
    Nigerian’s desire to concentrate on developing the small and medium
    scale enterprises (SME) have always been buttressed by and reflected in a
    wide range of economic policies. In-fact, the present consciousness on the
    part of the every segment of the society including the government for small
    and medium scale industrial growth cannot be under emphasized and the
    delay in appreciating this sector as an economic catalyst is frustrating. (Ani
    B.N. and Nwandu E.C. 2001).
    Yearly, government initiate policies that will not only help the
    development of small scale firms but also bring legislations for small and
    medium scale firms protection. Most government economic policies on
    imported goods have been targeted at discouraging such importation and
    protect the establishment, existence and survival of cottage firms. The
    essence of the protection is not to allow it face the competition posed by
    foreign goods in the market.
    It is true that we are operating in a system where savings and
    investment are quite low; this is as a result of low capital base, mass
    unemployment and low per capital income. But government has not relented
    on its effort to ensure the success of small and medium scale firms. Tax
    holidays and tax concessions are many at times being offered by government
    to small and medium scale firms to enable them survive. Grants and loan
    facilities are another key ways of assisting small and medium scale (SME)
    industries so that funds needed for current operations and investments may
    not be an impediment.
    If critically viewed, more efforts of government were geared towards
    the establishment of industries which would provide employment to the
    teaming populations, provide earnings to the country through export profiles,
    enhance standard of living of the citizenry and in turn results to provisions of
    infrastructural facilities.
    It is equally of important to note at this juncture that small and medium scale
    enterprises means different thing to different people, group, society and
    government hence.
    1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
    The under-development of Nigerian economy is as a result of
    inadequate industries in Nigeria and manufacturing of the existing one’s
    owing to poor implementation, supervision and execution of government
    policies and programmes, subject to corruption and lack of appropriate
    machineries for later implementation.
    The government (both at state and federal level) at various intervals
    have initiated policies measures to encourage the development of the small
    scale industries. Some of these policies included the operation feed the nation
    (OFN) of 1973, the Green Revolution of 1977, the National Directorate of
    Employment (NDE) of 1986 and others. All these geared towards assisting
    the firms technically, financially and managerially.
    Given that industrial development has been so slowly generally in
    Nigeria, and that government has been doing something positive to increase
    the industrial base of the country; the researcher therefore is challenged to
    prove whether or not a small and medium firm will lead to quick industrial
    development in Enugu Urban and Nigeria in general.
    The researcher will find out why most government industrialization
    and mobilization policies inaugurated in the past, failed to achieve grass root
    industrialization and mobilization among Nigerians and also how to address
    the problems of entrepreneurship facing small scale industries in Nigeria and
    Enugu State in particular.
    1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
    The impact of small and medium scale enterprise towards industrial
    development have been a controversial issue owing to its significant to
    Nigerian economy. In view of this, the researcher intends to present the
    following questions.
    (1) What are the factors militating against the growth and development of
    small and medium scale enterprises in Enugu Urban?
    (2) Do Government and its agencies fund small scale firm adequately in
    relation to its promises and policies as to industrializing in Enugu
    Urban?
    (3) Do government give financial assistance to small scale firms?
    (4) Do good management contribute to the success of small scale firms in
    Enugu Urban?
    (5) How much loan do government give to small scale firms?
    (6) Do small and medium scale enterprises contribute in waste
    management disposal and extended usage of by-product that may not
    haven been useful without the existence of SME’s?
    1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
    This study intends to investigate various problems associated with
    establishment and growth of small and medium scale enterprises towards the
    development of industrialization in Enugu State. This research will attempt to
    (1) To discover and determine the factors militating against the growth and
    development of scale and medium enterprises in Enugu Urban.
    (2) To discover if government and its agencies fund small scale firms
    adequately in relation to its promises and policies as to industrializing
    in Enugu Urban.
    (3) To find out if government render financial assistance to small scale
    firm in Enugu Urban.
    (4) To find out if good management contribute to the success of small
    scale firms in Enugu Urban.
    (5) To find out if government give loans to the small scale firms.
    (6) To discover whether small and mediums scale enterprise contributes in
    waste management disposal and extended usage of by-product that
    may not have been useful without the existence of SME’s.
    1.5 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
    The hypothesis to be tested against their alternatives will be formulated
    from the statement or problem to serve as an effective guide:
    Ho Small and medium scale enterprises does not have any factor militating against its growth and development in Enugu State.
    Hi Small and medium scale enterprises does have any factor militating
    against its growth and development in Enugu State.
    Ho Small scale and medium enterprises does not have any effect to the
    development and growth of industrialization in Enugu State.
    Hi Small scale and medium enterprises does have any effect to the
    development and growth of industrialization in Enugu State.
    Ho Individuals does not have roles to play towards promoting government
    policy to achieve industrialization and stability in the economy of the
    state.
    Hi Individuals have roles to play towards promoting government policy to
    achieve value chain of industrialization and stability in the economy of
    the state.
    Ho Small and medium scale enterprises (SME) does not contribute in
    waste management disposal and extended usage of by-product that
    may not have been useful without the existence of small and medium
    scale enterprises.
    Hi Small and medium scale enterprises (SME) does contribute in waste
    management disposal and extended usage of by-product that may not
    have been useful without the existence of small and medium scale
    enterprises.
    Ho Government does not have any position towards assisting, promoting and stabilizing small and medium scale enterprises (SME) in other to
    unlock value chain approaches to our economic boom.
    Hi Government does have any position towards assisting, promoting and
    stabilizing small and medium scale enterprises (SME) in other to
    unlock value chain approaches to our economic boom.
    Ho Environmental factors does not have influence in the establishment,
    growth and stability of small scale enterprises (SME)
    Hi Environmental factors does have influence in the establishment,
    growth and stability of small scale enterprises (SME)
    1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
    No matter the amount of resources committed in this study, its
    importance as to the resources imputed cannot be compared. This is true
    because it is a study that deals with rudiments and fundamentals of economic
    growth and stability. Its centered on business prosperity, which if achieved
    will reduce the personal problem of unemployment and poor standard of
    living. It deals with the production of goods and services, provision of
    necessary tools for infrastructural facilities and this helps to enhance
    industrial development. It creates earning sources to the government and for
    the general administration. Above all,
    1. This research will give an insight into the natural implications of
    existence of small and mediums scale enterprises in Enugu Urban.
    2. This research work will also assist researchers, scholars and future
    managers on the above subject matter.
    3. This research work will expose any short comings that has been
    militating against the establishment, growth and development of
    industrialization in Enugu Urban
    4. This research will expose opportunities that have not been exploited to
    intending investors and entrepreneurs in search of opportunities.
    1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
    This research work has been limited to a reasonable researchable scope
    considering a lot of constraints during the time of the study. The study aims
    at identifying the problems and prospects of firm using selected small scale
    firms in Enugu as a case study.
    A lot of problems are likely to be encountered during the process of
    putting this work together. These problems include:
    (1) Finance: A lot of money is required at all stages of the study, as a civil
    servant, it is a big problem.
    (2) Time constraint: As a civil servant, I have a limited time to put this
    work together due to other numerous engagements.

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    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background of the Study

    That the mass media plays a vital role in the development process of a country is not again saying. The mass media generally regarded as a channel of communication that are capable of reaching heterogeneous audience simultaneously with uniform message. They regularly cover all sorts of issues such as health, music, fine art, crime, sport, entertainment, political events among others (Meyer, 2002, Soela 2004). The mass media transmits ideas and new information to target audience in the society. Tosanisunmi (2004) has observed that the mass media educate, inform and entertain beyond these functions as they also persuade and catalyze for social mobilization. In other words, the mass media can be regarded as powerful service of information because they have the capability to penetrate every segment of society. They have the ability to disseminate messages about issue, ideas and product.

    Furthermore, the mass media has that capability to create awareness and knowledge about issues of national interest. The traditional mass media usually consist of radio, television, newspaper and magazine while the news media involves the internet technologies. Contextually, these media have the responsibility to mobilize for national development. In other words, social mobilization for development largely depends on the media for success. Crusade for change and dissemination of useful information against corruption, bad governance and terrorism depend on the mass media. Ogwezzy (2010) states that it is a common knowledge that the media is the engine of mass communication and the avenue through which the public could be reached.

    In the other hand, election is an important element of democracy; elections enable the individual to express a sense of belonging to a political system. Elections provide forum for the discussion of public opinion on important issue. Elections allow an exchange of influence between leaders and the electorate (Nwaozuzu 1999:18-22). This statement captures the relevant functions of the broadcast media in elections which serves as a mobilizing of all the different people in society and at the same time to co-ordinate the activities as they are made to express their views about candidates who are contesting for political position. The broadcast media through their programmes create avenue through which the people express their views about candidates. There may be phone calls in programmes like radio link, state of the Nation, or debate programmer responsible or

    otherwise and has made people pass on topical political issues. Also the broadcast media (Radio and Television) provide platforms through which individuals or member of society contribute on issues of public interest. They may be based on stewardship of political offices holders wishing to recontest for elections or it may have to do with electoral law that are perceived to be capable of fermenting violence. Ebo (1997:132) maintain that: the broadcast media play decisive roles in the lives of the citizens no matter where they are located and whatever their stage of development. The broadcast media are the most potent and sensitive sector of the communication industry considering the reach and influence they have on their viewers and listeners.

    This statement succinctly explains which relevance the broadcast media is to all the components of the society, a power it acquired from its inception and not only during political campaigns. It is this power that grants it the ability to mobilize people and make them participate in mass in political processes. To further explain the power of the broadcast media in mobilizing the citizens towards conforming to expected behavior and participation in electoral processes. The media force attends to certain issues, they build up images of political figures, they are constantly presenting objects, suggesting what individuals should think about, know about, having feelings about. Clang an Lang 1959:103- 112).

    This means the dominant thought that the people carry about, is influenced by the media‟s constant projection of what they should be thinking especially concerning the electoral process. This comment conforms to the agenda setting thereby which provides explanation to what or how the media can sway the behavior of the people in the society. Given this power therefore, it will not be out of place to say that, the failure of success of any electoral process lies largely in the hands of the mass media, to which the broadcast media is a strong component. Innis (2003:298) in support of this state that; while an unbiased and responsible system can contribute to the success of the electoral process, a bias and irresponsible media contributes to the failure of elections.

    On the same power of the media, Orhewere‟s (2003:140) argues; the Nigerian media in the past did not show enough commitment to professional ethic there by contributing to electoral crisis in Western Nigerian in 1965 and subsequent elections. The relevance of Orhewere‟s comment is that not only does the Nigerian Broadcast media posses‟ enormous powers, but its role as an instrument of mobilization dates back to as far as 1965. In other words, the media has been a very active instrument in democratic processes in Nigeria over a stretch of time, until the military dictatorship took the shine from it. However, with the re-entry of civilian rule in 1999, the media viz the broadcast media have resumed its active role of mobilizing the populace for elections. The media or

    broadcast media played very important role in elections written 1999 and 2003, Therefore, to print out that, the roles the media often plays is either responsible or otherwise and has made people pass judgment or often ascribed to failed outcome of elections ascribed to failed outcome of elections to it. That is the success or failure of elections are often judged by the role of the media for instance, Chinua Achebe (1993:78) allege that; the two previous at conducting election under civilian rule generated crisis, which culminated to the collapse of the republics due to several electoral frauds some of which allegedly were aided and abetted by the media. Chinua Achebe‟s comment however begs for serious questions at to, how does a watch dog become a conspirator. In other words, how does a media aid and abet fraud, perhaps they will form another basis for a study. However, it is important to note that, indeed the broadcast media has very strong roles to play in elections. To this Burns (1977:45) state that; The media in a civilized society occupy a very important and powerful position with capacity that can easily influence the opinion of the masses. While Rivers (1971) state that, it is expected to be the condolence of the people where divergent views are expressed in order to serve as a check against autocratic and totalitarian rule

    Therefore, it is against the above background that this project seeks to examine the impact of television broadcasting on electioneering campaigns using 2011 presidential campaigns on NTA Abeokuta.

    1.2 Statement of Research Problem

    The role of media in every society is often to educate, inform and enlighten. It is assumed that, where those roles are adequately carried out, elections are bound to be free and fair. However, in Nigeria, several elections have been marred the question is how the mass media has mobilized the Nigerian populace. How come electoral processes have not been successful? Is the broadcast media system not commensurate to other media systems elsewhere? These and many others are questions that this study hopes to identify.

    1.3 Objectives of the Study

    1. To ascertain the level of equal media coverage given to political parties to candidates.

    2. To ascertain the significant relationship between mass media & electioneering campaign.

    3. To ascertain the significant level of mobilization of mass media towards elections.

    4. To determine the significant level of agenda setting programme of mass media town elections.

    1.4 Research Questions

    The following research questions were considered:

    i. What is the significant level of equal media coverage given to political parties?
    ii. What is the significant relationship between media coverage and a free & fair election?
    iii. What is the significant level of media expose of electoral misconduct?
    iv. How does the media play the role of agenda-setting during election?
    v. What is the significant level of media mobilization during electoral process?

    1.5 Significance of the study

    On the completion of this project the end result will benefit academics, students of communication studies and other researchers that may want to carry out further research on this study.

    1.6 Scope of the Study

    The scope of this research work will only cover the people within Abeokuta metropolis. This focus will be on the people living around Oke-Ilewo, Post- Office and Panseke axis of the city.

    1.7 Limitations of the Study

    The research work may be faced with time & fund constraints being an academic based research. The time allocated for this study is not enough as in combining the work on this study with daily academics routine. Also, the study will be limited to some areas due to the problems of funds,, shortage of texts, journals and information relevant to the study.

    1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

    1. Impact: This refers to a significant or strong influence on massmedia towards election.

    2. Television broadcasting: This can be defined as the dissemination of information, idea, opinion, before, among others through the use of television medium.

    3. Electioneering Campaign: This refers to the act or process of soliciting for support or votes for a given political party or candidate during election.

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    ABSTRACT

    This research work is aimed at analyzing the impact of village square meeting on
    agricultural development in Gakem, Bekwarra Local Government Area of Cross River State. The research method used was survey, and questionnaire the instrument. The researcher adopted the systematic random sampling technique to select a sample size of 200 which was used in the study. The findings gotten from the questionnaire shows that the people of Gakem, Bekwarra Local Government are exposed to agricultural messages passed through the village square meeting and that it was as a result of adherence to such messages that they advanced in agricultural practice. It is therefore recommended that the village square medium should advance in the dissemination of agricultural messages in Gakem.

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background of the Study

    The village square meeting is one o f the mediums of traditional media of communication in the rural communities. It channels a lot of information on day to day activities which takes place in the rural communities. Village square meeting takes place in the village square, where a lot of issues that affects the community are being discussed. Such information includes; Agricultural innovation programmes, burial ceremony or burial arrangement, coronation, naming ceremony, market days and product available for sales, visit of a prominent member of the community such as; a member representing the community in the state and Federal housing, local government chairman, party aspirant and party manifestos to mention a few. For the purpose of this study, Agricultural innovation or development programmes as affected by the village square meeting as a medium of traditional media will be the focus.

    The village square meeting is one of the mediums of traditional communication that helps to service the society or the rural communities through proper information that help the community in their daily interactions.
    Ever before the emergence of modern mass media, viz, print and broadcast and their introduction to Africa, people in African societies or communities did not live in isolation from one another, there exist many other mediums and channels viz the family, market place, town crier, visits, religious association, gun shot, bush burning, dance display etc. which makes it easier for people to interact and exchange opinions, ideas thoughts and feelings in their local communities. Acknowledging this facts, Ebeze (2002), write that “before the introduction of modern mass media in Africa, there exist other channels of communication that enable people in ancient African communities to interact and maintain a stable system of living. These channels as mentioned earlier has helped in shaping African communities, the channels are used as a medium for inculcating the norms and values of the community social mobilization, political mobilization, economic mobilization, cultural mobilization, and the transfer of cultural heritage from generation to generation or from old members of the community to new comers. All these information carried by the mediums which the village square is one, has helped in rapid development of rural communities in Africa.
    The village square meeting for instance brings people from different kindred, clans, sub-communities, families and dynasty together in the village square to discuss pressing issues.

    Meeting days are communicated to the members of the communities through various medium such as the town crier, gunshot, family, dance, bush burning, market place, visits, religious association and youth association.
    According to Eluwa (2010) “The village square is a special square, set aside for communal meetings and activities”. People converge here to discuss topical issues and events that affect their lives. Here important messages are passed to the members of the community.
    Messages being passed in the village square include; agricultural innovation messages, which will be critically looked into in this study to be able to ascertain how effective is the village square meeting in disseminating agricultural development programmers in the rural communities.
    Agriculture is said to be the art and science of crop and animal production. Development to an economist is all about economic change that realistically enhances people’s earnings in addition to raising their living standards via large scale of production of goods and services.
    In the perspective of the philosopher’s development is conceptualized as the attainment of a meaningful degree of mental alertness and the sophistication of human faculties to the level the individual can not only reason well but also, adopt a logical approach to issues arising from human society.
    Agricultural development is therefore, all about agricultural change that realistically enhances the ruralites earnings in addition to raising their living standard via large scale production of crops and animals. It is also the attainment of meaningful degree of mental alertness, and the sophistication of human faculties to

    the level that the individual in the society or rural community cannot only reason well but adopt a logical approach to agricultural problems or issues arising in the rural community.
    Agricultural development as been affected positively by the village square meeting will be properly looked into in this study.

    1.2 Statement of the Research Problem

    Agriculture has from time immemorial remained the major sources of income and revenue generation in the rural area. The production of crops such as yam, cassava, beans, rice vegetable, tree crops like cocoa, banana, plantain palm produce, rubber etc. and animal such as; cattle’s, goats domestic fowls, Snails, fish, Agric fowls, duck, turkey, guinea fowl, pigs to mention a few, has remain the base for economic advancement in the rural communities in Nigeria. In spits the enormous contributions of various media both traditional (old media) and the mass media (new media) of communication, viz the village square as a medium of traditional media, some rural communities are still lagging behind in agricultural advancement. Though, a lot of agricultural innovation programmes have been initiated by the federal, state, and local government, poor planting methods, poor method of pesticide, herbicide application etc. have been constraint to agricultural development in the rural area.
    This research work strives to investigates if the village square meeting as a medium of traditional communication has really contributed in mobilization and

    sensitization of the ruralites on agricultural innovations, if not, it will be of important to suggest a vibrant medium that will be more effective for agricultural development in the rural area since it is statistically proven that about 75% of Nigerians reside in the rural area and often rely on agricultural productivity to be able to contribute to national development.

    1.3 Objectives of the Study

    The objectives of this study are;

    (1) To determine the role of village square meetings in promoting effective agricultural development in the rural area.
    (2) To find out how people react to agricultural messages received in the village square meetings.
    (3) To determine the influence of agricultural messages passed in the village square meetings on the attitude of farmers in Gakem, Bekwarra L.G.A.

    1.4 Research Questions

    The research questions are as follows:

    (1) To what extent has village square meeting helped in enhancing agricultural development in Gakem?
    (2) How has the people of Gakem reacted to agricultural development messages passed to them through village square meeting?

    (3) How has the agricultural development messages disseminated in the village square influenced your farming attitude?

    1.5 Research Hypotheses

    The research hypotheses include;

    H1: Village square meeting has helped in enhancing agricultural development in Gakem.
    H2: Agricultural messages passed in the village square meeting influenced the attitude of the farmers in Gakem?

    1.6 Scope of the Study

    This study is based on effective use of village square meeting for agricultural development in rural area. The method and techniques of disseminating information in the rural area using the village square meeting, remains the base of this study.
    The study covers Gakem community of Bekwarra North L. G.A in Cross River State.

    1.7 Significance of the Study

    This study will be relevant to national and rural agricultural development agencies such as the National Agricultural Development Agencies (NADA) at the national level, and State Agricultural Development Agencies (SADA) at the state level. The study will also help environmental activist, bankers, educators, economist, politicians, teachers, media practitioners etc. to be able to ascertain and evaluate the

    strength and weakness of the traditional media and to device the best means or channels of disseminating information in the rural area, since findings from these study will reveal new trends on the impact of village square meeting in the rural area.
    The study will also contribute immensely to all academic fields whose activities are affiliated with the rural communities. The study will help government, NGOs and other bodies who are interested in agricultural development in the rural area to identify the village square meeting as an important medium of packaging agricultural development programmes, that will lead to high agricultural productivity and rural development.
    The study will to a very large extent be of benefit to future researchers who wish to carryout study in this area, since this study when completed is subject to replication as criteria in research.
    Findings from this study will also help the Government (Federal state and local government) to device a means of enhancing agricultural innovation programmes through the village square meeting and other viable mediums of traditional media.

    1.8 Definition of Terms

    The following terms in this study where operationally defined thus;
    (1) Impact

    (2) Village square meeting

    (3) Agricultural Development

    (4) Rural Development.

     Impact: Impact in this study has to do with how village square meeting has contributed to agricultural development.
     Village Square Meeting: Village square meeting in this study is a gathering of the rural dwellers which gives them the opportunity to discuss issues affecting them.
     Agricultural Development: It is an improvement in the method or style of agricultural practice to enhance high productivity.
     Rural Development: This has to do with the positive transformation that enhances the living standard of the ruralites.

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