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    CHAPTER ONE

    GENERAL INTRODUCTION

    1.0.0: Introduction
    When a suspect is described as having right, he is acknowledged to be entitled to something to which he has just claim under the law. By virtue of man’s creation, he has certain rights which are common to those of all other men. Most of the fundamental rights are in a sense natural right vested in every individual and to which he is entitled without any obligation or duty on the part of the government to provide facilities for their enjoyment.
    Moreover, all fundamental rights are in the final analysis rights, which impose limitations on executive, legislative or judicial powers of the government and are accordingly easily justifiable. Fundamental Human Right entails universal humanity which men enjoys and shares with his fellow men whether he is a suspect or a freeman. This in its totality has informed the writing of this project.

    1.1.0: Background To The Study
    Based on the adoption of universal declaration of Human Rights and the incorporation of fundamental human rights in our constitution, basic fundamental human rights have been created and which should be respected by all men in the Nigeria society. Unfortunately however, many people in our society face untold hardship day in day out because they are denied their basic rights, which normally the Constitution of Nigeria would enforce even though they are suspects but because they are unaware of these rights they rarely or never claim them. However, those who are saddled with these responsibilities fail to do their work properly. In this respect, this project will discuss some of the rights and the major rights of the suspects and how it could be known, respected and enforced properly by those concerned.

    1.2.0: Statement Of The Problem
    Even though there is a universal declaration of Fundamental Human Rights and Chapter IV of the Nigerian constitution in Fundamental Human Rights, the practicality has not been perfect because of the prevailing situation of unlawful treatment of suspects in the country.
    It is unlawful to treat suspect any how simply because they are being regarded as suspects. This clearly shows that the judiciary is aware of the right of an accused person and that it is sacrosanct and cannot be taken away unlawfully in this country. The violations of these rights have been so rampant in Nigeria.

    1.3.0: Objective Of The Study
    i. To study the relevance of the rule of law as a vital instrument for the protection and enjoyment of Fundamental Human Right and right to bail by the people most especially an accused person, who is the main centre of this work.
    ii. To know the principle of the rule of law, through which the rights of the accused to bail can be respected and recognized by everyone.
    iii. To enable the people know the best way to seek redress in the court of law whenever their rights are being infringed upon.

    1.4.0: Purpose Of The Study
    Ignorance as we all know is a disease, and has been earlier said, Nigerians generally are not well abreast of their legal rights even though it has been boldly written and spelt out in the Constitution of the country. But because every disease has a cure, the cure for the lack of awareness of these rights is the major purpose of this work particularly the right of an accused as stipulated in section 36 of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Which are: Right to silence, Right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty, Right to an interpreter, Right to informed properly the nature and detail of the charge among others

    1.5.0: Methodology
    The method that will be used to carry out this work is descriptive and not analytical. Major primary and secondary sources of law would be considered for the proper
    Overview or appraisal of this topic. The primary sources include the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, mainly Chapter IV and Section 35 and 36; the Criminal Procedure Code; the Criminal Procedure Act; and the Child Rights Act. The secondary source includes the International Articles on pro-bono services.

    1.6.0: Definition Of Terms
    BAIL: can be defined as the process through which an accused person who is arrested on the allegation of committing an offence is released by a constituted authority upon the provision of adequate security guaranteeing that the accused person would report at the police station or in court for his trail whenever his presence is required.
    ACCUSED: One charged with an offence
    AUDI ALTERAM PARTEM: The other party must be heard
    LEGAL AID: Free or inexpensive legal services provided to those who cannot afford to pay full price. Legal Aid is usually administered locally by a specially established organization
    NEMO DEBET ESSE JUDEX IN PROPRIA CAUSA: No one can be a judge in his own case
    PRO BONO: Being or involving uncompensated legal services especially for the public good
    PUBLIC DEFENDER: A lawyer or staff of lawyers, usually publicly appointed and paid, whose duty is to represent indigent criminal defendants
    SUSPECT: A person believed to have committed a crime or offence. To consider wrong doing without certain truth
    UBI JUS IBI REMEDIUM: Where there is a right there is a remedy

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    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background To The Study
    The term “Agriculture” is derived from the latin word “Ager” meaning field and culture.
    From a literary point of view, agriculture means field cultivation. Today, the term is now broadly constructed to include production, research and training in the field of crops, forestry livestock e.t.c. Agriculture is concerned with the cultivation of land to produce crops and rearing of animals of direct value to man. It is also concerned with the processing distribution and marketing of agricultural product.
    The Nigeria agriculture sector is still manifesting physical symptoms of peasant agriculture. It is dominated by small scale farmers who are responsible for about 95% of total production i.e the bulk of the source of our food. The livestock is in the hands of nomadic herdsmen; poultry is still essentially the backyard type; though a few commercial units are here and there. The fishing sector is also predominantly artisanal, very few motorized canoes are in use not to talk of fishing crawlers.
    The growth of the agricultural sector to a great extent, is a catalyst a support for the economic growth of developing countries. In emphasizing the importance of agriculture generally, Gunnair Myrdal notes that it is in agricultural sector that the battle for long term economic development will be won or lost.

    Nigeria is endowed with natural resources, large fertile farmland, wide range crops, and river amongst others. Despite its abundant natural resources it is faced with poor food situation. The poor food situation is traceable to the decline in the agricultural sector. The problem of feeding and provision of natural resources is increasing by the day. However several efforts are being made to improve the standard.

    Prior to the discovery of petroleum in Nigeria agriculture used to be the highest foreign exchange resources earner and contribution to gross domestic product GDP has been estimated to about 62.63% in 1960, 48.08% in 1970s, and 20.63% in 1980. Recently due to the growing awareness of the role of agriculture, the various governments have intensified efforts aimed at transforming from its present subsistence level to a market oriented production. One of those efforts was the ban made on importation of agricultural products like palm oil, maize and rice. This was done to encourage improvements on our production standard.

    Due to the fall in the level of production from decade to decade, the country could no longer feed the large population, provide raw material for domestic-industries, engage in export of agricultural produce and employ the labor force of the country despite the abundance of human and material resources.

    In spite of growing urbanization, Nigeria is known to be predominantly rural in natural and majority of population is dependent directly or indirectly on agriculture for their live hood. Credit delivery is perhaps one of the most important roles of banks, as the loans extended are used to expand existing businesses and in some cases to start new ones. According to CBN (2008) loans granted to clients is increasing from 2007 to date and most of it goes to financing micro-enterprises in rural areas.

    Ketu (2008) observed that banks have disbursed more than eight hundred million micro-credits to over 13,000 farmers across the country to empower their productive capacities. As such it is expected that agricultural output will increase with the increase in finding. The entrepreneurial capacity of the farmers we thus improve.

    1.2 Statement Of Research Problem
    According to Anyanwu etal (1997:14) “the agricultural sector has been recognized for a long time as an important sector to Nigeria economy and development is one of the crucial requirements for the overall economic growth.
    He noted further that the declined in agricultural activities might appear natural in any development process, it is obvious that in Nigeria agricultural activities would remain the most important single sector for some time to come. He emphasized that in the past, development planners have introduce programs such as national accelerated food production project (NATPP), green revolution programs (GRP), In search for all appropriate technique in order to increase farm output and productivity and such program have at one time been implemented.

    Based on these, a number of problems one facing the agricultural sector and they are as following. Inadequate finance or credit facilities, inadequate farms input, lack of storage facilities, lack of basic amenities, Lack of technical know-how, lack of research and illiteracy of the farmers.

    The questions to which this research will provide answers to one, is the credit advanced to farmers through adequate to have a significant impact on agriculture? All these problems can be solved or rather reduce when there is adequate financing.

    1.3 Research Questions
    This study revolved around the answering of the following research question.
    What extent does union bank and other commercial bank loans influences the agricultural output in Nigeria economy?
    What policy actions can be implemented to boost the agricultural productivity in Nigeria through does union bank and other commercial bank ?

    1.4 Objectives of The Study
    In this study therefore, the researcher hope to accomplish the following objectives:
    To determine how does union bank and other commercial bank loans/credit granted to the farmers can influences the agricultural output in Nigeria economy.
    To determine policy actions in which agricultural output can be improved through does union bank and other commercial bank credit.

    1.5 Hypothesis Of The Study
    Does union bank and other commercial bank loans have no significant impact on agricultural development in Nigeria?

    1.6 Significance of Study
    Union bank and other commercial bank services, particularly those sponsored by the government have adopted a traditional supply led subsidized credit approach mainly directed to the agricultural sector and other non-farming activities, but the effect has short lived.

    The Nigerian economy stands to derive lot of benefits if concrete steps are taken to salvage the agricultural sector opinions are divided as the actual benefit of policy, regulatory and supervisory framework and how it can develop economy, most especially the agricultural sector because it has grasps of the challenges facing agriculture.

    To the researcher, this work will serve as an avenue to broaden my knowledge, as it places a challenge that will expand my intellectual horizon by and applying various economic tools analysis draw conclusion for future analysis. It is also expected to serve as an impetus for further researchers in this area of study. It should not be considered as an end to research and policy making but as a guide taking into consideration of its limitation.

    To the government and its agencies, it looks at earlier policies designed and why they failed. Therefore it is hoped that it will provide a useful guide to policy makers in agriculture for steady and consistent policies and programmes in terms of funding.
    To the society, this researcher’s work will create awareness of the services that enables them engage in economic activities to be self-reliant, increase employment opportunities, wealth creation, growth and development. Finally, the salient findings of the study will also make the farmers to be more oriented in agriculture.

    1.7 Scope of the Study
    The scope of this research covers the period from 1998 to 2018. The period is significant because a lot of measures were adopted following the advert of crude oil and its collapse. That is pre-sap and implementation and role in financing the agricultural sector.

    1.8 Definition of Terms
    The following terms as they relate to this study is defined; these are:
    Agricultural development: is a process that involves adoption by farmers of new and better practices (Garba, 1987; Orebiyi, 1999).
    Agricultural Credit: Credit that facilitates the acquisition and application of state of the art technology and enables such enterprise to be in the driving seat in technology application (World Bank, 2000).
    Agricultural Productivity: Increased in agricultural sector contribution to the Gross domestic Product of the nation (Idachaba, 1995)

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    CHAPTER ONE

    introduction

    1.1 Background to the Study
    Transportation and property are important in physical and economic development of
    towns and cities all over the world. Property and land values tend to increase in areas
    with expanding transportation networks, and increase less rapidly in areas without
    such improvements. Rapid and continued rise in housing and land prices are expected
    in cities with transportation improvements and rapid economic and population growth
    (Goldberg, 1970).
    Man, nations, regions and the world would be severely limited in development
    without transportation, which is a key factor for physical and economic growth
    (Oyesiku, 2002). Transportation systems and land use are interdependent. Indeed
    findings of earlier studies indicate compelling and consistent connections amongst
    them (Ewing and Cervero, 2001; Polzin, 2004). According to Bailey, Mokhtarian, and
    Littlel (2008), transportation route is part of distinct development pattern or road
    network and mostly described by regular street patterns as an indispensable factor of
    human existence, development and civilization. The route network coupled with
    increased transport investment result in changed levels of accessibility reflected
    through Cost Benefit Analysis, savings in travel time, and other benefits. These
    benefits are noticeable in increased catchment areas for services and facilities like
    shops, schools, offices, banks, and leisure activities.
    Road networks are observed in terms of its components of accessibility,
    connectivity, traffic density, level of service, compactness, and density of particular
    roads. Level of service is a measure by which the quality of service on transportation
    devices or infrastructure is determined, and it is a holistic approach considering
    several factors regarded as measures of traffic density and congestion rather than
    overall speed of the journey (Mannering, Walter, and Scott, 2004).
    Access to major roads provides relative advantages consequent upon which
    commercial users locate to enjoy the advantages. Modern businesses, industries,
    trades and general activities depend on transport and transport infrastructure, with
    movement of goods and services from place to place becoming vital and inseparable
    aspects of global and urban economic survival. Developments of various
    transportation modes have become pivotal to physical and economic developments.
    Such modes include human porterage, railways, ropeways and cableways, pipelines,
    inland waterways, sea, air, and roads (Said and Shah, 2008).
    According to Oyesiku (2002), urbanization in Nigeria has a long history in its
    growth and development. Extensive development being a feature of the 19th and 20th
    centuries, with concentration of economic and administrative decision-making in
    Lagos, Ibadan, Kaduna, Jos, and Enugu, and high degree of specialization and larger
    population associated with greater specialization of goods and services. Wyatt (1997)
    states that urban areas have tendency to develop at nodal points in transport network
    and places with good road network will possess relative advantage over locations
    having poor network. Urban locations with such relative advantage are found where
    different transport routes converge with high degree of compactness, connectivity,
    density, length and accessibility exhibited within the intra- and inter- urban road
    networks.
    Ikeja is a typical example in the history of growth and development of cities in
    Nigeria. The city became capital of Lagos State in 1976 with improved road networks
    developed to cater for increase in concentration of pedestrian and vehicular
    movements. Similarly, commercial activities like banking, retail/wholesale
    businesses, and professional services congregated to take advantage of nearness to
    seat of governance. Concentration of activities attracted consumers and ancillary
    service providers. This partly caused increase in demand for commercial space and its
    concomitant effects on commercial property values along arterial roads in the
    metropolis.
    The present position concerning commercial properties in Ikeja is that
    majority are located along arterial roads that deliver much of the vehicular and
    pedestrian movements. There have been increases in rental values along the individual
    arterial roads although not at equal rates. It is against this background that this
    research analyzed the arterial roads, determined the levels of accessibility,
    connectivity, traffic density of the individual arterial roads, examined the pattern of commercial property values and the relationship between the explanatory variables of
    the road network in Ikeja Nigeria.
    1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
    The relationship between transportation and urban property values has been the focus
    of many studies (for example, Dewees, 1976; Damm et al, 1980; Wolf, 1992; Singh,
    2005). Some of the earlier studies returned positive relationship between transport and
    property values while others showed negative relationship. For instance, in a study on
    the relationship between rail travel cost and residential property values, a replacement
    of streetcar with subway increased site rent at a location that is perpendicular to the
    facility within a one-third mile walk to the station (Dewees, 1976); and there was
    positive influence of permanent transportation improvements on land values (Wolf,
    1992). It was established that there was statistically significant relationship between
    distance of a parcel of land to the nearest Metro station and land price (Damm,
    Lerner-Lam, and Young, 1980), while there was evidence that residential property
    prices decrease immediately around the transport investment or station value uplift
    through changes in land values (Singh, 2005).
    The urban areas all over the world offer a number of advantages in terms of
    concentration of people followed by demand for commercial properties and
    transportation. Ikeja is a classical example of a city that has developed rapidly since
    1976 when it became the Lagos State capital. Construction of roads increased
    substantially with the opening up of residential precincts that also benefitted from
    increasing demand for lettable spaces in commercial properties. Many private
    companies, retail stores, commercial banks aggregate in the metropolis to take
    advantage of opportunities afforded by locations near the seat of governance thus
    attracting complimentary services. This led to high concentration of vehicular and
    pedestrian movements especially along the access roads.
    The roads exhibit a number of nodes and linkages to form networks of both
    arterial and minor routes along which commercial properties locate. Commercial
    users displaced residential users, causing sites to be at highest and best uses with
    concomitant increases in the values of commercial properties. Accessibility within the
    road network is affected by the compact nature of various routes that sometimes impede volume of traffic. The road network is made up of nodal points and links that
    determine the degree of connectivity and accessibility in the network.
    A number of factors affect values of properties. These factors may be intrinsic
    or extrinsic. The extrinsic factors include increase in demand for lettable space,
    location, condition of adjoining properties, nearness to park and leisure, local and
    national economic conditions. External factors are due to natural characteristics of the
    property which affect the city where the property is located. Intrinsic factors arise
    from within the nature of the property itself and relate to the physical attributes,
    including size of room, state of repair, decoration, and facilities. Other attributes that
    increase or decrease the amount that users are willing and able to pay in an open
    market transaction include physical characteristics of the structure, change in taste and
    demand, effect of adjacent activities, economic activities, inflation, and changes in
    legislation. The demand for commercial properties itself is affected by changes in
    population, planning and development schemes, legislation, and availability of good
    road networks (Hendon, 1971; William, Davies, and Johnson, 1980; Richmond, 1982;
    Millington, 1982; Olayiwola, Adeleye and Oduwaye, 2006).
    Earlier theorists (Burgess, 1925; Hoyt, 1939; Harris and Ullman, 1951; Lean
    and Goodall, 1977) generally believe that sites adjacent to main transport routes have
    relative advantages over those located some distance away, and other sites located at
    route intersections possess relative advantage with greater advantages belonging to
    sites located at focus of transport system. These advantages are determined in relation
    to accessibility, which has different characteristics in relation to individual sites thus
    differentiating between sites in terms of accessibility advantages.
    Many of the aforementioned studies emphasized the effects of the factors on
    values of properties generally with little consideration given to road network pattern
    and its effects on values of commercial properties. Possible relationships between
    road networks, location attribute, demand and supply, and accessibility and
    commercial property values have therefore elicited the interest of the researcher in
    this direction. The relationship cannot be determined without due consideration given
    to the explanatory variables on one hand and commercial property values on the other.
    The use of roads leads to a study of urban areas in relation to land uses, especially
    commercial properties. It is against this background that this study was conceived.
    1.3 Research Questions
    The foregoing has elicited a number of questions in terms of road network analysis
    and values of commercial properties in Ikeja, Nigeria to which answers are to be
    proffered. The relationship between arterial road network and commercial property
    values cannot be determined without due consideration given to variables that make
    up the network, especially those that relate to arterial roads and other explanatory
    variables and values of commercial properties. Some pertinent questions to enable the
    study attain its stated objectives are as follows:
    1. What is the pattern of arterial roads in Ikeja?
    2. What are the spatial pattern and trend of commercial property values in the study
    area?
    3. What are the relationships between commercial property values and arterial road
    network in the presence or absence of other explanatory variables?
    4. What are the individual contributions of the explanatory variables to variability in
    commercial property values?
    5. What are the models to explain and predict the relationship between the
    explanatory variables and commercial property values?
    1.4 Aim and Objectives of the Research
    The aim of this research is to analyze the network of arterial roads and other
    explanatory variables and commercial property values in Ikeja, while the specific
    objectives are to:
    a. Analyze the arterial road network pattern in the study area;
    b. Examine the spatial pattern and trend of demand, supply and values of
    commercial properties in the study area;
    c. Determine the relationships between commercial property values and road
    network, in the presence or absence of other variables, in the study area;
    d. Determine the contributions of individual explanatory variables to variability in
    commercial property values in the study area;
    e. Derive models for predicting variability in commercial property values in
    relation to the explanatory variables.
    1.5 Research Hypotheses
    Consequently, the following hypotheses were postulated:
    1. There is no significant relationship between commercial property values and
    independent explanatory variables in the study area.
    2. There are no differences in individual contributions of explanatory variables to
    variability in commercial property values in the study area.
    1.6 Justification and Rationale for the Research
    It is trite amongst earlier studies on accessibility in relation to property values that
    profitability and utility are determined by accessibility. The greater the accessibility of
    a location the greater the comparative advantage, and the greater the comparative
    advantages the greater the demand for property at the location. Lean and Goodall
    (1977), for instance, stated that urban areas naturally develop at nodal points in the
    transport network and those locations with good transport access to other areas have
    relative advantage over locations with poorer transport facilities and that urban
    locations having such relative advantages are likely to be where transport routes
    converge. Similarly, Estate Surveyors/Valuers and Planners believe that accessibility
    has great impacts on property values, with properties along major roads and at nodal
    points having greater values (Ogunsanya, 1986; Oduwaye, 2004; Omoogun, 2006).
    However, accessibility discussed in these studies was based on intuition without
    empirical basis to justify what relative accessibility advantages the locations have.
    This study borrows techniques found useful in other fields like operational
    research, geography, transportation and urban planning to explain and analyze road
    network for purpose of determining the relative accessibility of each of the arterial
    roads. It is believed that the techniques used in these fields can be extended to studies
    in estate management, thereby making cross-fertilization of research ideas across
    various fields possible. In this regard, this research has become relevant in
    determining the relationship between arterial road network and values of commercial
    properties in Ikeja.
    In addition, it is essential to establish a technique that may be useful for
    determining relative accessibility of locations in the network of arterial roads. Even
    when relative advantages are determined, there is need to develop models that will be
    useful for predicting commercial property values in Nigeria. The model may become tool for professional Estate Surveyors and Valuers to change their practice of using
    intuition to determine relative accessibility of locations in a road network. Similarly,
    there is the need to predict the supply of, demand for, and fair market values of
    commercial properties by developers, Estate Surveyors and Valuers, and feasibility
    and viability appraisers in present day’s risks and uncertainty in property
    development. This has underscored the importance of this study.
    Based on complexity of commercial, industrial, real estate activities and
    degree of urbanization exemplified by the study area, deductions and findings from
    the study may be applicable to other cities in Nigeria. The study will also arouse the
    interest of researchers in estate surveying and valuation particularly along
    transportation valuation, an aspect that probably has not been explored in Nigeria.
    A review of literature showed that studies on Nigerian intra-urban road
    network using the graph-theoretic concept to determine accessibility effects on
    commercial property values are scanty, available ones were on USA and U.K. This
    study will therefore contribute to empirical studies on intra-urban road network and its
    influence on commercial property values in Ikeja, Nigeria.
    1.7 Scope of the Study
    Roads may be classified as international, inter-city or intra-city. International and
    inter-city roads are usually major or arterial roads, while intra-city roads are routes
    within a city and may be minor or major (arterial). The study focused on arterial roads
    in the intra-urban network of Ikeja. There are ninety roads in Ikeja out which thirtyseven
    are arterial. From the thirty-seven arterial roads in the study area, only twenty
    traverse the commercial axes while others serve institutional, industrial, and
    residential neighbourhoods. This study therefore covered all major roads serving the
    commercial axis and inner areas of Ikeja to the exclusion of inter-city roads such as
    Lagos/Abeokuta Expressway, Oworonsoki/Apapa Expressway, Ikorodu Road, and
    Lagos/Ibadan Expressway that form rings around the study area.
    Preliminary study revealed that there are five types of commercial properties
    in the study area. These are retail shop premises, banking spaces, office properties,
    warehouses, and non-specific commercial properties. In respect of this research, focus
    was on offices, shops, banking spaces and other types of commercial users along the
    arterial routes to the exclusion of residential, industrial, and non-specific type of
    commercial properties.
    Due to the magnitude, terrain and complex nature of Lagos State roads, the
    study was limited to Ikeja intra-city roads. Ikeja is the predominant component of
    Ikeja Local Government, which itself is one of four zones identified within the larger
    Lagos metropolis. The four zones (Lagos Island, Apapa, Lagos Mainland, and Ikeja)
    represent commercial hubs of Lagos metropolis, which as revealed by preliminary
    observation, shows activity areas where employment, commercial, transportation
    terminals, and other businesses are concentrated (Oni, 2008).
    Road network analysis was carried out to determine the levels of accessibility
    and connectivity of nodal points as well as road and traffic densities in the hope of
    predicting commercial property values along each arterial road. In doing so, only the
    arterial roads identified as commercial axes in the study area were the focus of the
    research to the exclusion of secondary connector roads, while the relationship
    between arterial roads and commercial properties in the study area were examined.
    Many factors have dictated the choice of Ikeja. First, it is the capital of Lagos
    State of Nigeria and a socially heterogeneous city with variety of local, state and
    federal government roads. Second, the property market in the study area is well
    developed and it is possible to identify and analyze variations. Comprehensive data
    are available on commercial property values in Ikeja, which is one of the few cities in
    Nigeria offering opportunity for comprehensive survey of its commercial properties,
    with enlightened occupiers of commercial premises thereby making data collection
    possible. Third, a number of property magazines are in circulation in the city where
    professional Estate Surveyors and Valuers advertise commercial properties available
    for sale or letting. This makes the property market very active and up-to-date with
    stakeholders, prospective tenants, property owners, and investors versatile and
    knowledgeable about the goings-on in the market. Fourth, judging from what is
    applicable in Nigeria, the Ikeja road network is one of the most complex in terms of
    linkages, human and vehicular movements with availability of computerized and upto-
    date data and satellite images of the road network.
    1.8 Limitations of the Study
    The study focused on analysis of arterial roads and commercial property values in
    Ikeja. It did not attempt to investigate the structural stability of the arterial road
    network or assess the methods and accuracy of methods adopted by respondents in
    fixing the values of commercial properties in the study area. It simply analyzed accessibility, connectivity, arterial road network, distance to most central place in the
    study area, demand and supply of commercial properties in relation to commercial
    property values in the study area. Graph theoretic technique was used to analyze the
    arterial road network while opinions of Estate Surveyors and Valuers practicing in the
    study area were relied upon. The accuracy, or otherwise, of such opinions although
    not in doubt was not investigated.
    Some challenges were encountered during the study. By virtue of the busy
    nature of Estate Surveying and Valuation practitioners and “carefulness” of occupiers
    of the sampled commercial properties, there was considerable reluctance on their parts
    to volunteer information. Some of the respondents, especially Estate Surveyors and
    Valuers, delayed in completing the questionnaires and it took personal influence of
    the researcher (as their colleague) and assistance of the Lagos State Branch Chairman
    of the Nigerian Institution of Estate Surveyors and Valuers to obtain their eventual
    impressive responses. In addition, the researcher took time to allay the fears of
    Occupiers by educating them about the essence of the research, that it would in no
    way expose them to imposition of levies or charges or any liability to the Lagos State
    Government.
    The populations of commercial properties and occupiers in the study area were
    indeterminate. The study population was too large and there was no census available
    to ascertain them thereby making determination of their number somewhat tasking.
    The researcher however found a way out of the challenge by using a form of sampling
    based on estimated population of occupiers and adopting direct observation of the
    sampled properties to determine the average number of occupiers. These limitations
    however neither affected the quality of data collected nor the conclusions drawn from
    it.
    The various opinions of Estate Surveyors and Valuers were relied upon, in
    some cases, to the exclusion of those of occupiers especially in respect of questions
    that required a form of professional opinion. This was consequent upon the findings
    from the pilot tests earlier conducted which showed that the occupiers found such
    questions too technical. Hence, questions like rating of the roads in the study area in
    terms of accessibility, supply and demand of commercial properties were
    subsequently limited to the Estate Surveyors and Valuers.
    1.9 The Study Area
    Ikeja city is a large component of the Lagos metropolis. Lagos itself is the largest city
    in Nigeria, located at 6°34′60″N, 3°19′59″E along the West African coast and was the
    capital city of the country before it was replaced with Abuja on 12th December, 1991.
    However, Lagos remains the commercial nerve centre of Nigeria. The city is a typical
    example in the history of growth and development of urban areas in Nigeria. The
    Western Region administered the city along with Agege, Mushin, Ikorodu, Epe, and
    Badagry until Lagos State took off as an administrative entity, and in 1976 Ikeja
    replaced Lagos Island as the capital of Lagos State; consequently, more roads were
    constructed.
    In the general context, Lagos State is made up of twenty local government
    council areas out of which sixteen form the metropolitan Lagos and Ikeja Local
    Government area is one of them. Ikeja is both the administrative capital and
    Headquarters of Ikeja Local Government Council Area of Lagos State. Ikeja Local
    Government Council Area is located in the north-central part sharing boundaries with
    Ifako-Ijaiye, Agege, and Alimosho Local Government Council Areas in the western
    perimeter; Kosofe, and Mushin Local Government Council Areas in the eastern side,
    while Oshodi-Isolo Local Government Council Area forms the boundary in the
    southern part and Ogun State in the north as shown in Fig. 1.1


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    ABSTRACT

    This study investigated the bacteriological and fungal evaluation of three commonly used herbal drugs sold in Calabar metropolis. Using standard microbiological analytical protocols, the total bacterial counts ranged from 7.3×103 to 1.2×107cfu/ml while fungal counts ranged from 6.0×103 to 1.1×107cfu/ml. The bacteria isolated includes Bacillus species, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus species, Serratia marcescens and Klebsiella pneumoniae with percentage occurrence of 100%, 66.7%, 66.7%, 66.7% 33.3%, 33.3%, 33.3%, respectively, while the fungal isolates included Fusarium sp, candida albican and Aspergillus niger with prevalence occurrence of 100%, 33.3%, and 33.3%, respectively. The bacterial and fungal isolates showed susceptibility to all the antibiotics except Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus that exhibited moderate resistance to ampicillin and cefoxitin, respectively. There is, therefore, an urgent need for implementation of routine evaluation of herbal medicines and infection control policies in Cross River state and Nigeria in general.

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background of the study
    Traditional medicine (TM) is the sum total of knowledge, skills and practices based on the theories, beliefs and experiences indigenous to different cultures, whether explicable or not (WHO, 2000). TM could be use in the maintenance of health as well as in prevention, diagnosis, improvement or treatment of physical and mental illnesses (WHO, 2000). On the other hand, herbal medicines are plant-derived materials or preparations with therapeutic or other human health benefits, which contain either raw or processed ingredients from one or more plants. In some traditions, materials of inorganic or animal origin may also be present (WHO, 2000). Herbs include leaves, stems, flowers, fruits, seeds, roots, rhizomes and barks. The use of herbs for treating various diseases predates human history and forms the origin of most of the modern medicine. Long before the advent of modern medicine, herbs were the mainstream remedies for nearly all ailments (Barakat et al., 2013)
    In the last decade, there has been a global upsurge in the use of traditional medicine (TM) and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in both developed and developing countries. Today, therefore, certain forms of traditional, complementary and alternative medicines play an increasingly important role in health care and health sector reform globally. Hence, the safety and efficacy, as well as the quality control of traditional medicine and complementary and alternative medicines have become important concerns for both health authorities and the public. Man to cure diseases and heal injuries since time immemorial (Perumalsamy and Ignaglumuthu 2000) has used plants and herbs. In recent years, interest has been renewed in the use of medicinal plants, and scientific studies are designed to explain some of the curative phenomena associated with traditional herbal remedies. Most drugs utilized by people all over the world are of plant origin (Mboto, 2009).
    Due to its intrinsic qualities, unique and holistic approaches as well as its accessibility and affordability, herbal medicines continues to be the best alternative health care available for the majority of the global population, particularly for those in the rural areas of developing countries (Mwambazi, 1996).
    The bioactive principles and mechanism of action in most herbal preparations are usually not clearly defined, and there could be possibilities of interaction with each other in solution. According to Ogbonnia et al (2010), the quality as well as the safety criteria for herbal drugs may be based on a clear scientific definition of the raw materials used for such preparation. As related by the World health Organization (WHO), herbal medicines are medications prepared from one or more herbs or plant parts (roots, stem back, seeds and or fruits).
    These preparations are often used in different forms including chewing sticks, herbal pastes, powders, herbal mixtures and suspensions and may carry a large number of microbes originating from soil usually adhering to various parts of herbs. Most of these herbal materials are prepared and sold under unhygienic conditions
    (Oluyege et al., 2008).

    1.2 Justification for the study
    Several studies have reported the isolation of microbes especially in herbal materials that are prepared and sold under unhygienic conditions (Oluyege et al., 2008, Ngari et al., 2013). These microbes exist in these herbal preparations as either potential pathogens or contaminants. Commonly reported pathogens and contaminants that are associated with herbal medicine include; Salmonella, Escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus, shigella species, fungi, viruses, protozoa, insects and other gram positive and gram negative strains of bacteria (Ngari et al., 2013). These organisms have been reported to pose serious health hazards and risk to consumers of these medicines as well as affect the quality of the products (Banerjee and Saker, 2003). In Nigeria, herbal medicines is becoming so popular and there is dearth of information in evaluation of microbial quality of these medicines especially in Cross River state.

    1.3 Aims and objectives of the research.
    This study is aimed at evaluating the bacterial and fungal qualities of three herbal medicines sold in Calabar metropolis, Cross River state Nigeria.
    The specific objectives of this research were;
    1. To determine the bacterial and fungal load present in these herbal medicines.
    2. To identify and characterize bacteria and fungi associated with herbal medicines sold in Calabar metropolis, Cross River state Nigeria, and
    3. To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of isolated bacteria and fungi for the herbal drugs.

    ABSTRACT

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    ABSTARCT

    This study was carried out to verify all the manual process involved in generating Students Examination Result and to seek a way of automating the system for effective operations. Since there is continuous moves towards technological advances that enhanced productivity of labor and free human beings of task more economically by machines. Computer and its appreciations have become vital tools in economic, industrial and social development of advanced countries of the world. This system is designed to efficiently handle processes like inputting scores, storing results, classifying the grade points automatically calculated, and interpreting data of students overall result. The usual manual process now reached a level where it is difficult for the available man power to cope with the magnitude of examination work, in the given time span, The balance between the man power availability and the magnitude of the examination work result in the delay in the release of results. The most effective measure, which can improve the efficiency of the examination system, therefore is the introduction of computerization especially with the use of Examination Result Processing Software in various activities related to the conduct of result reduces the time span required for the release of results by 60 percent and reduces the process by almost 50 percent.

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background of Study
    Education is an indispensable system on which the life of every individual is built and as well stimulates the entire life application. It can also be referred to as a process designed for the acquisition and dissemination of skills and knowledge to the prosperity of the nation.
    The effort expended in the process of registration of students and computation of their examination is awesome. Quite worrisome or perturbing is the fact that these processes are carried out every academic terms, putting all operations in a continuous and ever demanding circle. The computation of examination result is obviously an object-centered activity, the student being the dominant object in this case. Hence, the need to evolve a computerized process that will effectively and efficiently capture all the important data associated with the examination and result processing within the senior secondary schools and the interactions among the object.
    Student’s examination result is the summary of each of the terms in a section also, through the three to four years of the university programme. A student’s result is also demanded by a student who has finished either level programme to determine whether the student is qualified or not for the level or the final exam and wishes to further into a university, polytechnic or college. It is prepared or formed by the score entered on the designed score sheet by the individual subject teachers on terminal examination. These genuine and noble desires necessitate the design and development of the student’s examination result processing system software.
    When a student attends an academic institution, a record, i.e. the result,is kept to trace his/her academic performance. The student examination displays a record of all the grades a student has acquired at each class and terms in a school. Below are frequently asked questions about a student’s examination results.
    – How is student examination result used?
    Student can use a student’s examination result as a means of monitoring their grades and to make sure the information is accurate. Students can use an “unofficial student examination result” for this purpose.
    – How can I obtain a student examination result?
    Students must request their examination result from the office of records or from the office of the registrar. Each school has its own student’s examination result release procedures.

    The effort expended in the process of registration of students and computation of their examination results is much. Quite worrisome is the fact that these processes are carried out every academic session, putting the operators in a continuous and ever demanding cycle. The computation of examination results and registration of students is obviously an object-centered activity, the student being the dominant object in this case. Hence, the need to evolve a computerized process that will effectively and efficiently capture all the important data associated with the registration and examination result processing within the tertiary institutions and the interactions among the objects.
    Students’ Examination Result is the summary of each of the semester performance in schools. A students’ Result is also demanded by a student who has finished his/her program. and wishes to transfer to another school or student who wishes to get a job. A Transcript is not given directly to a student. It is sent to the school that the student wishes to be transferred, or to the organization or establishment that requires the result.
    A students’ Result is prepared or formed by the scores entered on the designed score sheet by the individual course lecturers on semester examinations. This genuine and noble desire necessitated the design and development of the Undergraduate Registration and Examination Processing System software.
    There were three fundamentally distinct education systems in Nigeria in 1990: the indigenous system, Quranic schools, and formal European-style education institutions. In the rural areas where the majority lived, children learned the skills of farming and other work, as well as the duties of adulthood, from participation in the community. This process was often supplemented by age-based schools in which groups of young boys were instructed in community responsibilities by mature men. By the 1970s, education experts were asking how the system could be integrated into the more formal schooling of the young, but the question remained unresolved by 1990. Western-style education came to Nigeria with the missionaries in the mid-nineteenth century. Although the first mission school was founded in 1843 by Methodists, it was the Anglican Church Missionary Society that pushed forward in the early 1850s to found a chain of missions and schools, followed quickly in the late 1850s by the Roman Catholics. In 1887 in what is now southern Nigeria, an education department was founded that began setting curricula requirements and administered grants to the mission societies. By 1914, when north and south were united into one colony, there were fifty-nine government and ninety-one mission primary schools in the south; all eleven secondary schools, except for King’s College in Lagos, were run by the missions.
    The education system focused strongly on examinations. In 1916 Frederick Lugard, first governor of the unified colony, set up a school inspectorate. Discipline, buildings, and adequacy of teaching staff were to be inspected, but the most points given to a school’s performance went to the numbers and rankings of its examination results. This stress on examinations was still used in 1990 to judge educational results and to obtain qualifications for jobs in government and the private sector.
    As more information is made available in a variety of formats and media and in a variety of locations, the need to manage information/data efficiently becomes more and more critical. Both staff and public users want access to stored information and want to access it more efficiently. It is the Polytechnic Policy to improve both the efficiency and effectiveness of course registration and result processing operations and services through the implementation of an integrated automated database System.

    1.1 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
    Database of information is vital in today’s educational system with respect to course registration and examination result processing. This has become a very vital issue as students spend so much time trying to know the number of credit units for each semester. This problem has lead to time wasting, inaccuracy of results and even open to fraud. Cases of missing results have been recorded thereby making examination processing more difficult and untimely.
    There has been this problem of too much work for the Head of Department of Exams and Records owing to the increase of students in the institution, the Head of Department of the Exams and Records is faced with heaps of files .At times sorting out a particular students file takes time. This bitter complaint and the delay in the preparing of this students examination Result has been the major concern and therefore has intensified the need to design a generating software which will go a long way in tackling these problems and proffering solutions, at the same time to quicken the generating of student’s result.

    1.2 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
    The significance of this study is to design and implementation of Student Examination Result Processing System is to achieve the speedy registration process, speed of the results processing, to eliminate error due to manual processing and to provide security measure to check student mischievous act of changing marks on the result sheet. The Software will also provide a well functionality of student experience activity on student portal with various student and lecture’s interactions. The project work will help in a good number of ways to ease the delay in manual examination processing.
    1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
    The aim of this study is to develop student registration, course registration, examination registration, result processing and student transcript in less time, accurately and fast processing.
    The objectives of this study are to:
    1. Provide a reliable solution to result processing that is corruption free.
    2. To enhance the speed of the results processing.
    3. Ensure that normal credit load in line with the school is maintained.
    4. Provide a software that will generate result that is accurate, timely and error free.
    5. To keep accurate record of students examination Results in the school and prevent lost of result, which are vital to the exams and records.
    6. To provide a long time database backup.
    7. To process and transfer student academic transcript.

    1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
    This research work will concentrate on student registration, course registration, academic transcript, examination processing, result processing system in Federal Polytechnic Ilaro, Ogun State and can be extended to other Polytechnics.

    1.5 LIMITATION TO THE STUDY
    The limitation to this study include the lack of needed time frame, lack of needed materials to complete the project.
    1.6 DEFINITON OF TERMS
    The following are some terms commonly used in this project.
    DATA: Raw information or it is fact and figure collected together for references.
    DIRECT DATA CAPTURED: Data is capture directly without a conversion stage, by means of the input devices such as mouse, keyboard, pen writers, cameras, fax, e.t.c.
    INPUT: is the term denoting either an entrance which are inserted into a system. These are hardware that helps to send data in form of input to the computer.
    ON-LINE DATA ENTRY: Data is entered directly into the computer one transaction at a time (also known as transaction processing) under program control.
    OUTPUT: These are computer hardware that are responsible for giving out processed information.
    SOFTWARE: The program and other operating information used by computer; also a set of programs written to carry out some task in the computer. Logical related programs that works together to control hardware.
    PROCESS: This is the management of transportation of data into useful information.
    STUDENTS EXAMINATION RESULT: An official record of student’s work that show the courses they have taken and the marks they have achieved.
    DESIGN: The art or process of deciding how something will look, works etc.
    DOCUMENTATION: Material that provides official information or evidence or that serves as record, written specifications and information that describes the product. The act of recording something in a document.
    Information System: It is a collection of procedures, people, Instructions and equipment to produce information in a useful form.
    Technology: It is study of techniques or process of mobilizing Resource (such as information) for accomplishing objectives that benefits man and his environment.
    Information: Information can be defined as the process of gathering, transmitting, receiving, storing and retrieving data or several items put together to convey a desired message.

    Computer Network: Computer Network is a system that connects two or more computers together using a communication link.

    Databases: A systematically arranged collection of computer data, structured so that it can be automatically retrieved or manipulated. It is also called databank.

    File Transfer: Any kind of computer file can be sent via the Internet from one Internet user to another. Table of accounts on spreadsheets, design by a graphic artists, music sound files etc, can all be exchanged in this way.

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    ABSTARCT

    This project automates the payment processes involved during student registration at the Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kongo Campus. Payment processes include School fees and hostel allocation. A database was implemented using MySQL for proper record management and PHP was used as scripting language for the system development. The student creates an account with the APPS system where he/she can save any amount of money anytime at the designated banks of APPS so that during registration, he/she simply accesses his/her account and pays for his/her school fees and accommodation. This project shows that it is easier for students to complete their registration automatically rather than going through some tedious manual processes during registration.

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Introduction
    Developments in Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have made impact in all sectors of the society, including education. In higher education, application of ICTs in form of e-learning is changing the mode of learning and teaching processes [1]. School management is now done online, records are being kept in databases that are accessible through the web. Also Registration, payment of schoolfees, generating timetables and much more are done using the web. The world of IT has gone far and wide that now makes us see the importance of using automated system rather than manual system.
    Referring to the problem of school fees and hostel allocation as the Automatic Payment Portal System (APPS) problem. Given the large number of students that are typically involved in such problem, there is a growing interest in automating the process of payment using centralized matching schemes that incorporate efficient algorithms for APPS. Examples of similar automated systems are in use in several universities.
    In recent years, the advancement of technology has thus brought us into a new era of Web based systems. These systems are also known as enquiry systems and have the ability to input data, with a guaranteed response time and an assurance that the information is accurate and timely, then one is said to have a “Real Time System” [6]. A real time system is also a Web based system and comprises mainly of four (4) main components:
    i. A data-gathering component that collects data from the external environment.
    ii. An analysis component that transforms the received information as required by the application.
    iii. A control component that responds to the external environment.
    iv. A monitoring component that co-ordinates all other form of these components so that real-time response can be achieved.
    Due to these advancements, organization need no longer be centralized when information services can reach the home and offices for processing from a number of geographical locations. However, Web based systems have helped tremendously in every field of human existence today. Hence this project work provides and creates an Automatic Payment Portal System (APPS) to the Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kongo Campus through the development of a Web based system that will in turn improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the university.
    1.2 Statement of the Problem
    In most Nigerian Institutions of higher learning especially the Universities and Polytechnics, students enrolment to these higher institutions is continuously on the increase, and each year every student is expected to register for a session and therefore the student has to make payment for the session. This increase in student’s population over the years makes the period of registration stressful and payment of school fees and hostel accommodation a very tedious exercise. The existing system of payment of school fees and hostel allocation at the Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kongo Campus involves a student going online to generate a transaction ID which is then taken to the bank for payment. If the student needs to get hostel allocation, he/she has to go back online, book a room, generate another transaction ID and then take it back to the bank. This process is causing a lot of problems because many students will have to line up in unending queues in banks where so many unforeseen events might happen. A student might lose his/her money; get tired due to stress and so many other events. Most students during registration are always at home and will have to come back to school for registration because most banks outside Zaria does not provide this service.
    1.3 Motivation
    The existing system or mode of payment results to stress due to the factors and conditions encountered during registration. Every new and returning student has to register at the beginning of every session.
    Most students are in a state of confusion during registration either because they do not currently have the money to pay for their school fees or will have to come down to school to pay during process with no guaranteed accommodation or send the money to a friend who is in school.
    Based on these observations, a Web based system for Payment which will enable students overcome these problems during registration is designed and implemented. The system will allow a student to open an account at a designated bank and keep his/her school fees in the account anytime and any day. Due to the present situation of the country, parents can also keep their children’s entire school fees in their account. Therefore, the system allows you to keep your school fees incrementally or at once. The development of this Web based system will eliminate the major problems of the existing system.
    1.4 Aim
    The aim of the project is to develop an Automatic Portal Payment System (APPS) that allows students securely and comfortably pay their school fees and accommodation fees during registration.

    1.5 Objectives
    i. Create a Web based system that will solve the problems of the existing system being used for school fees and accommodation payment and hostel allocation
    ii. Develop a system that allows a student save his/her school fees in an account before the period of registration.
    iii. Allow students to pay their school fees and hostel accommodation anywhere and anytime during registration.
    iv. Ease and speed up registration of students every session.
    v. Test and validate the system prototype.
    1.6 Scope
    The scope of this project is to develop an Automatic Payment Portal System (APPS) for the Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kongo Campus. The system will accommodate only the administrator, bank staffs and students into one integrated Database system.
    This project is also scoped to only undergraduate programs in the Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kongo Campus and it is designed for the two faculties there i.e. Faculty of Administration and Faculty of Law.
    1.7 Research Methodology
    The proposed research method that would be adopted is as follows;
    i. Requirement Assessment -: A thorough assessment of the current existing system will be carried out and the requirements of the new system will be clearly defined by interviewing some students and lecturers.
    ii. Application Program -: At this stage, the design work flow will be converted to code and debugged.
    iii. Testing and Development -: The completed application will be tested and deployed on remote web host, ready for use.
    1.8 Significance
    Literature asserts that, for nearly every business, the simple act of collecting payments from consumers is actually quite complex and yet organizations want to make it easy and convenient for customers to pay, so they offer multiple choices of payment types and channels.
    Therefore, this project proposed the development of an alternative platform that enables students and their sponsors securely pay university fees online from wherever during registration. This will reduce the lengthy queues, and congestion at banks for payments. Sponsors of students will also be able to save their wards school fees before the period of registration and as such will make it easier to cater for their wards [2].
    1.9 Organization of the Project
    The project is divided into five (5) chapters. Chapter One is introductory chapter that includes the motivation, scope, research methodology, aims and objectives of the work, Chapter Two is the literature review, Chapter Three talks about the system analysis and design of the work, Chapter Four is the system development, implementation and testing and finally Chapter Five entails the recommendation and conclusion.

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    ABSTARCT

    This project was centered on web-based or electronic payment portal for secondary school administration. The current process of payment of several fees is being done manually and due to this procedure, numerous problems are been encountered. A design was taken to computerized the manual process in order to check these problems. The problems were identified after series of interviews and examination of documents after which analysis was made and a computerized procedure recommended. This project will also suggest how to successfully implement the computerized procedure and to overcome the obstacle that would hinder the successful implementation of the system. The new system was designed using PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor) and MYSQL. This language was chosen because of its easy syntax and features for developing web-based applications.

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Introduction
    Due to the dynamic nature of the world technology today i.e. the age of computerization of our society, there has been a need to automate the education systems. Broadly speaking, the computer has effectively attracted a lot of attention in recent time, due to its automation processes and its effects on our society today.
    Hence, the computer is an electronic device that works under the control of a stored program, automatically accepting information, which is the outcome of the processor.
    Developments in Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have made impact in all sectors of the society, including education. In higher education, application of ICTs in form of e-learning is changing the mode of learning and teaching processes. School management is now done online, records are being kept in databases that are accessible through the web. Also Registration, payment of schoolfees, generating timetables and much more are done using the web. The world of IT has gone far and wide that now makes us see the importance of using automated system rather than manual system.
    Referring to the problem of school fees and hostel allocation as the Automatic Payment Portal System (APPS) problem. Given the large number of students that are typically involved in such problem, there is a growing interest in automating the process of payment using centralized matching schemes that incorporate efficient algorithms for APPS. Examples of similar automated systems are in use in several universities.
    In recent years, the advancement of technology has thus brought us into a new era of Web based systems. These systems are also known as enquiry systems and have the ability to input data, with a guaranteed response time and an assurance that the information is accurate and timely, then one is said to have a “Real Time System”. A real time system is also a Web based system and comprises mainly of four (4) main components:
    i. A data-gathering component that collects data from the external environment.
    ii. An analysis component that transforms the received information as required by the application.
    iii. A control component that responds to the external environment.
    iv. A monitoring component that co-ordinates all other form of these components so that real-time response can be achieved.
    Due to these advancements, organization need no longer be centralized when information services can reach the home and offices for processing from a number of geographical locations. However, Web based systems have helped tremendously in every field of human existence today.
    1.2 Statement of the Problem
    Due to lack of online education payment system, the sector has been encountering some problems which include:
    a. The mentality of carrying out jobs manually which is inefficient, cumbersome (difficult or complicated), time-consuming and at times inaccurate.
    b. Problem of poor communication between the various departments involved.
    c. Problem to ensure that payers who need information can obtain it accurately and on time.
    d. Difficulty to ascertain (find out for certain) the real amount a student has paid.
    e. Problem of proper identification of payers
    f. Poor funding by government to generate revenue
    g. Problem of logistics
    h. Lack of adequate enlightenment to payers
    j. Tuition evasion i.e. willingly refusal to pay fees.
    1.3 Motivation
    The existing system or mode of payment results to stress due to the factors and conditions encountered during registration. Every new and returning student has to register at the beginning of every session.
    Most students are in a state of confusion during registration either because they do not currently have the money to pay for their school fees or will have to come down to school to pay during process with no guaranteed accommodation or send the money to a friend who is in school.
    Based on these observations, a Web based system for Payment which will enable students overcome these problems during registration is designed and implemented. The system will allow a student to open an account at a designated bank and keep his/her school fees in the account anytime and any day. Due to the present situation of the country, parents can also keep their children’s entire school fees in their account. Therefore, the system allows you to keep your school fees incrementally or at once. The development of this Web based system will eliminate the major problems of the existing system.
    1.4 Aim
    The aim of the project is to develop an Automatic Portal Payment System (APPS) that allows students securely and comfortably pay their school fees and accommodation fees during registration.
    1.5 Objectives
    The main aim and objective of designing this system is to satisfy the user’s need as follows:
    a. To satisfy the user need and requirement cost as effective as possible.
    b. A system that will be easy to use i.e. user-friendly.
    c. A system that will process data accurately, so that the user can be confident of the information stored in the file database.
    d. System that will take proper records of the number of students’ payee to avoid double payment.
    e. A system that is capable of checking error verification and validation. Verification is the checking of transcription error while Validation is the checking of data to ensure that they conform to rules that apply to them.
    f. To ensure against loss of information, security measures will be taken to prevent loss of information form files by user error or physical damages.
    g. System that will be easy to maintain and update.
    h. A system that will be flexible so as to adapt to changes, and prevent unauthorized users from tampering with important files.
    1.6 Scope
    The scope of online payment portal is to use an online or net based-payment system to carry out some of the activities of school that consumes time and that has been carried out manually which is tuitions collection.
    1.7 Research Methodology
    The proposed research method that would be adopted is as follows;
    i. Requirement Assessment -: A thorough assessment of the current existing system will be carried out and the requirements of the new system will be clearly defined by interviewing some students and lecturers.
    ii. Application Program -: At this stage, the design work flow will be converted to code and debugged.
    iii. Testing and Development -: The completed application will be tested and deployed on remote web host, ready for use.
    1.8 Significance
    Advantageous process of online payment system is to make sure that the duties of the sector under study is been carried out diligently and also to reduce the rate of manual method and time-consuming. Automation of a system that is net-based (online system) for tuition payers is introduced to save time and also ensure accuracy processing.
    Literature asserts that, for nearly every business, the simple act of collecting payments from consumers is actually quite complex and yet organizations want to make it easy and convenient for customers to pay, so they offer multiple choices of payment types and channels.
    Therefore, this project proposed the development of an alternative platform that enables students and their sponsors securely pay university fees online from wherever during registration. This will reduce the lengthy queues, and congestion at banks for payments. Sponsors of students will also be able to save their wards school fees before the period of registration and as such will make it easier to cater for their wards.
    1.9 Limitation of the study
    Some limitations found during this research include:
    a. Financial Limitation: – This is one of the major constraints, which has limited the extensiveness of this work, but due to my hard work and efforts, I was able to bypass it.
    b. Time constraints: – The time given for this research work was not enough to get comprehensive information about the study because it is a broad work to be carried out.

    Most constraints experienced during the course of writing this project is that of detailed information about their major operations, the staffs were a little diplomatic in answering questions in order not to reveal information that may indent the school’s image, though that did not stop me from writing and researching for detailed information.

    1.10 Organization of the Project
    The project is divided into five (5) chapters. Chapter One is introductory chapter that includes the motivation, scope, research methodology, aims and objectives of the work, Chapter Two is the literature review, Chapter Three talks about the system analysis and design of the work, Chapter Four is the system development, implementation and testing and finally Chapter Five entails the recommendation and conclusion.
    1.11 Definition of terms
    ONLINE:- the Oxford Dictionary define bn s Online as controlled by or connected to a computer, and as an activity or service which is available on or performed using the internet or other computer network. Or online indicates a state of connectivity.
    PAYMENT: – a payment is the transfer of an item or value from one party (such as a person or company) to another in exchange for the provision of goods, services or both, or to fulfill a legal obligation.
    PORTAL (ARCHITECTURE):- a gate, door, or the extremities (ends) of a tunnel
    A MAGICAL OR TECHNOLOGICAL:- a doorway that connects two locations, dimensions, or points in time.
    ENTERPRISE PORTAL:- a framework to provide a single point of access to a variety of information and tools
    INTRANET PORTAL:- a gateway that unifies access to all enterprise information and applications
    PORTAL RENDERING:- an optimization technique in 3D computer graphics
    WEB PORTAL:- a site that functions as a point of access to information on the Internet
    PORTALS NETWORK PROGRAMMING API:- a high-performance networking programming interface for massively parallel supercomputers
    PAYPAL:- PayPal is an America, international digital wallet based e-commerce business allowing payments and money transfers to be made through the internet.

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    ABSTARCT

    This project study is focused on the design and development of security package for the Biotech Communication Limited.
    This research work came to existence the time when internet café business is becoming very popular and vast. The principal objective of this project is to stop or deny access to an unauthorized user and also to ensure proper accountability of cash received by the ticketers. Therefore the design and development of this internet security package for Biotech commucation Limited is worthwhile.
    This project covers all the general procedure involved in the design and development of a reliable in-house software application package that will provide automated Customer services for a cyber café. These procedures include the initial Design, Coding, Testing, Implementation, Maintenance and Enhancement of the new system. Thus this software will provide an accurate timing and billing information at any point in time for a cyber café operation. The New system was developed using Microsoft visual basic 6.0 programming language. This language was chosen because of its easy syntax and features for developing windows based application.

    CHAPTER ONE

    1.0 INTRODUCTION
    This is an introduction to the many threats that computer system and users face on the internet. Methods that users can implement to protect themselves are also explored. The security measures are used to gather, store, and distribute information as it is implemented differently across the web. Many companies and corporations that collect sensitive data do not have proper security protocols put into place, which may compromise personal information. Common errors that online businesses make when processing transactions will include information security and the protocols that they should put into place both in terms of their computer infrastructure, data collection and the establishment of personnel protocols, such as the handling of sensitive information and password changes. The transaction between the client and server will be examined along with the protocols used in the sharing of information, such as secure socket layers and their different certificates, encryption and security measures that are utilized. E-commerce firms must ensure that they control access to their networks by designing and implementing controls that will diminish the dissemination of sensitive information.

    1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
    The Internet has been described as the most revolutionary communication development of last century. It has changed everything about every type of business and there seems to be no end in sight to the advantages this phenomenon can bring to the enhancement of business communications. The Internet is a system for providing communication links between computers via local companies referred to as Internet of computer networks that is changing the way organizations and individuals communicates and do business.
    However, the major drawback is the security risks associated with it. The Internet suffers from a significant and widespread security problems. Perhaps, most important of all reason adduced for the poor security facilities on the internet may be the fact that it was not designed to every secured open access for the purpose of research was the prime motivation for the internet at the time of its conception. Other factors responsible for the security lapse of the internet are based on the TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) suite of protocol. A number of TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol) suites of protocols and a number of TCP/IP services are not secured and compromised by knowledgeable hackers. A number of security problems can be remedied or reduced through the use of this software and control for host security.
    1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
    Some of the problems associated with the internet security are as a result of inherent vulnerabilities in the services (and the protocols that the services implement), while others are as a result of host configuration and access controls that are poorly implemented or too complex to administer. Additionally, the role and importance of system management is often short-changed in job description resulting in many administrators begin at best, part-time and poorly prepared.
    Furthermore, the unavailability of experts who will carry the jobs for the people. Also the cost at which people or individuals will undergo before acquiring one will also arise to be a problem.
    1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT
    The objective of this research work is to develop an Internet Security Package consisting of a client billing software program with modification of existing software and eliminating the entire obstacle in previous versions of the numerous existing clients billing software program. Apart from producing an enhancement,
    It will also:
    i. Prepare daily account of all transactions with clients
    ii. Produce analyzed report for decision making
    iii. Provide security to enhance system lock when credit expires.
    iv. Automatically generate numbers as ID’S and allocate time and payments by clients.
    v. Enable the system within the network to identify user with particular name and password.

    1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT
    Like any other application development the significance of this project is to make internet café business much more profitable and easier to the investors.
    An internet café without effective security will gradually die because of pester and cashier stall time spent by clients.
    This software is intended to stop the death of internet café’s with attendant unemployment in the space. This will be facilitated by the development of automated technique i.e. café billing to check time automatically.

    1.5 SCOPE OF STUDY
    This project work or study is aimed at designing and developing an Internet Security Package consisting of a time billing software for the Access Point Communication Limited.
    Furthermore, it is also aimed at saving the management of the Access Point Communication Limited the troubles and difficulties in running an internet café manually.

    1.6 LIMITATION
    The main problem encountered or the constraints in the course of this research were with the initial difficulty in grasping the knowledge of the field, which was quite alien to the researcher. Though this was overcame within a short period of time.
    Also, the obtaining of accurate and complete information from the case study (Access Point Communication Limited) was somewhat inhibited. The researcher had to do some independent investigations and internet browsing to ensure that relevant information was used.
    Finally, the issue of time cannot be forgotten. There was a very limited time to carry out the research for the project and also limited time to produce the project work.

    1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
    DATABASE: A collection of interrelated data stored with controlled redundancy to serve one or more applications.
    E-MAIL: The term electronic mail is used to describe various system of sending data or message electronically via the telephone Network or other data network, through a central computer without the need to post letters.
    FLOWCHART: This is the diagrammatic representation of the program components using standard symbols.
    HACKING: A hacker is people who attempt to invade the privacy of a system. Hackers are normally skilled programmers.
    HARDWARE: This is the physical part of a computer system.
    INTERNET: The internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard internet protocol suite (often called TCP/IP) to serve billions of its users worldwide
    METHODOLOGY: A methodology is a collection of procedure techniques, tools and documentation aids which will help the system developer in their effort to implement a new information system, Abdul J.I (2004).
    MICROSOFT VISUAL BASIC: This is the software which allows you to develop your own software.
    NETWORK SERVERS: These are devices used to manage how the various resources on the network are shared.
    NEWS GROUP: These are meeting places for people discussing special topics.
    OFFLINE: This is the process of the computer not connected to the internet.
    ONLINE: This is the direct connection to the computers through the internet and under the influence of the computer C.P.U.
    SECURITY: This is an act of safeguarding a file or a document in order to prevent unauthorized access.
    SOFTWARE: This is the program that controls the computer operation.
    WWW: – This stands for World Wide Web which consists of the different websites which you can visit.

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    ABSTARCT

    This project study is focused on the design and development of security package for the Biotech Communication Limited.
    This research work came to existence the time when internet café business is becoming very popular and vast. The principal objective of this project is to stop or deny access to an unauthorized user and also to ensure proper accountability of cash received by the ticketers. Therefore the design and development of this internet security package for Biotech commucation Limited is worthwhile.
    This project covers all the general procedure involved in the design and development of a reliable in-house software application package that will provide automated Customer services for a cyber café. These procedures include the initial Design, Coding, Testing, Implementation, Maintenance and Enhancement of the new system. Thus this software will provide an accurate timing and billing information at any point in time for a cyber café operation. The New system was developed using Microsoft visual basic 6.0 programming language. This language was chosen because of its easy syntax and features for developing windows based application.

    CHAPTER ONE

    1.0 INTRODUCTION
    This is an introduction to the many threats that computer system and users face on the internet. Methods that users can implement to protect themselves are also explored. The security measures are used to gather, store, and distribute information as it is implemented differently across the web. Many companies and corporations that collect sensitive data do not have proper security protocols put into place, which may compromise personal information. Common errors that online businesses make when processing transactions will include information security and the protocols that they should put into place both in terms of their computer infrastructure, data collection and the establishment of personnel protocols, such as the handling of sensitive information and password changes. The transaction between the client and server will be examined along with the protocols used in the sharing of information, such as secure socket layers and their different certificates, encryption and security measures that are utilized. E-commerce firms must ensure that they control access to their networks by designing and implementing controls that will diminish the dissemination of sensitive information.

    1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
    The Internet has been described as the most revolutionary communication development of last century. It has changed everything about every type of business and there seems to be no end in sight to the advantages this phenomenon can bring to the enhancement of business communications. The Internet is a system for providing communication links between computers via local companies referred to as Internet of computer networks that is changing the way organizations and individuals communicates and do business.
    However, the major drawback is the security risks associated with it. The Internet suffers from a significant and widespread security problems. Perhaps, most important of all reason adduced for the poor security facilities on the internet may be the fact that it was not designed to every secured open access for the purpose of research was the prime motivation for the internet at the time of its conception. Other factors responsible for the security lapse of the internet are based on the TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) suite of protocol. A number of TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol) suites of protocols and a number of TCP/IP services are not secured and compromised by knowledgeable hackers. A number of security problems can be remedied or reduced through the use of this software and control for host security.
    1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
    Some of the problems associated with the internet security are as a result of inherent vulnerabilities in the services (and the protocols that the services implement), while others are as a result of host configuration and access controls that are poorly implemented or too complex to administer. Additionally, the role and importance of system management is often short-changed in job description resulting in many administrators begin at best, part-time and poorly prepared.
    Furthermore, the unavailability of experts who will carry the jobs for the people. Also the cost at which people or individuals will undergo before acquiring one will also arise to be a problem.
    1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT
    The objective of this research work is to develop an Internet Security Package consisting of a client billing software program with modification of existing software and eliminating the entire obstacle in previous versions of the numerous existing clients billing software program. Apart from producing an enhancement,
    It will also:
    i. Prepare daily account of all transactions with clients
    ii. Produce analyzed report for decision making
    iii. Provide security to enhance system lock when credit expires.
    iv. Automatically generate numbers as ID’S and allocate time and payments by clients.
    v. Enable the system within the network to identify user with particular name and password.

    1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT
    Like any other application development the significance of this project is to make internet café business much more profitable and easier to the investors.
    An internet café without effective security will gradually die because of pester and cashier stall time spent by clients.
    This software is intended to stop the death of internet café’s with attendant unemployment in the space. This will be facilitated by the development of automated technique i.e. café billing to check time automatically.

    1.5 SCOPE OF STUDY
    This project work or study is aimed at designing and developing an Internet Security Package consisting of a time billing software for the Access Point Communication Limited.
    Furthermore, it is also aimed at saving the management of the Access Point Communication Limited the troubles and difficulties in running an internet café manually.

    1.6 LIMITATION
    The main problem encountered or the constraints in the course of this research were with the initial difficulty in grasping the knowledge of the field, which was quite alien to the researcher. Though this was overcame within a short period of time.
    Also, the obtaining of accurate and complete information from the case study (Access Point Communication Limited) was somewhat inhibited. The researcher had to do some independent investigations and internet browsing to ensure that relevant information was used.
    Finally, the issue of time cannot be forgotten. There was a very limited time to carry out the research for the project and also limited time to produce the project work.

    1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
    DATABASE: A collection of interrelated data stored with controlled redundancy to serve one or more applications.
    E-MAIL: The term electronic mail is used to describe various system of sending data or message electronically via the telephone Network or other data network, through a central computer without the need to post letters.
    FLOWCHART: This is the diagrammatic representation of the program components using standard symbols.
    HACKING: A hacker is people who attempt to invade the privacy of a system. Hackers are normally skilled programmers.
    HARDWARE: This is the physical part of a computer system.
    INTERNET: The internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard internet protocol suite (often called TCP/IP) to serve billions of its users worldwide
    METHODOLOGY: A methodology is a collection of procedure techniques, tools and documentation aids which will help the system developer in their effort to implement a new information system, Abdul J.I (2004).
    MICROSOFT VISUAL BASIC: This is the software which allows you to develop your own software.
    NETWORK SERVERS: These are devices used to manage how the various resources on the network are shared.
    NEWS GROUP: These are meeting places for people discussing special topics.
    OFFLINE: This is the process of the computer not connected to the internet.
    ONLINE: This is the direct connection to the computers through the internet and under the influence of the computer C.P.U.
    SECURITY: This is an act of safeguarding a file or a document in order to prevent unauthorized access.
    SOFTWARE: This is the program that controls the computer operation.
    WWW: – This stands for World Wide Web which consists of the different websites which you can visit.

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    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background of the Study
    In 1950, Alan Turing’s famous article “Computing Machinery and Intelligence” was published (Turing, Alan (1950), which proposed what is now called the Turing test as a criterion of intelligence. This criterion depends on the ability of a computer program to impersonate a human in a real-time written conversation with a human judge, sufficiently well that the judge is unable to distinguish reliably—on the basis of the conversational content alone—between the program and a real human. The notoriety of Turing’s proposed test stimulated great interest in Joseph Weizenbaum’s program ELIZA, published in 1966, which seemed to be able to fool users into believing that they were conversing with a real human. However Weizenbaum himself did not claim that ELIZA was genuinely intelligent, and the Introduction to his paper presented it more as a debunking exercise:
    [In] artificial intelligence … machines are made to behave in wondrous ways, often sufficient to dazzle even the most experienced observer. But once a particular program is unmasked, once its inner workings are explained … its magic crumbles away; it stands revealed as a mere collection of procedures … The observer says to himself “I could have written that”. With that thought he moves the program in question from the shelf marked “intelligent”, to that reserved for curios … The object of this paper is to cause just such a re-evaluation of the program about to be “explained”. Few programs ever needed it more (Weizenbaum, Joseph January 1966).
    ELIZA’s key method of operation (copied by chatbot designers ever since) involves the recognition of cue words or phrases in the input, and the output of corresponding pre-prepared or pre-programmed responses that can move the conversation forward in an apparently meaningful way (e.g. by responding to any input that contains the word ‘MOTHER’ with ‘TELL ME MORE ABOUT YOUR FAMILY’) (Weizenbaum, Joseph January 1966). Thus an illusion of understanding is generated, even though the processing involved has been merely superficial. ELIZA showed that such an illusion is surprisingly easy to generate, because human judges are so ready to give the benefit of the doubt when conversational responses are capable of being interpreted as “intelligent”.
    Interface designers have come to appreciate that humans’ readiness to interpret computer output as genuinely conversational—even when it is actually based on rather simple pattern-matching—can be exploited for useful purposes. Most people prefer to engage with programs that are human-like, and this gives chatbot-style techniques a potentially useful role in interactive systems that need to elicit information from users, as long as that information is relatively straightforward and falls into predictable categories. Thus, for example, online help systems can usefully employ chatbot techniques to identify the area of help that users require, potentially providing a “friendlier” interface than a more formal search or menu system. This sort of usage holds the prospect of moving chatbot technology from Weizenbaum’s “shelf … reserved for curios” to that marked “genuinely useful computational methods”.

    1.2 Statement of the Problem
    Malicious chatbots are frequently used to fill chat rooms with spam and advertisements, by mimicking human behaviour and conversations or to entice people into revealing personal information, such as bank account numbers. They are commonly found on Yahoo! Messenger, Windows Live Messenger, AOL Instant Messenger and other instant messaging protocols. There has also been a published report of a chatbot used in a fake personal ad on a dating service’s website.
    1.3 Aim of the Study
    The aim of this study is to design and implement of general knowledge chatbot using natural language processing for an organization.
    1.4 Objective of the Study
    The major objective of this work is to develop an expert system chatbot with general knowledge. It also targets towards contributing to academic research work.
    It is also to ascertain whether the issue and how it can be solve.
    It reduce the time taken and stress of waiting for been attend to by a staff.

    1.5 Significance of the Study
    Internet of Things (IoT) is emerging as a significant technology in shaping the future by connecting physical devices or things with internet. It also presents various opportunities for intersection of other technological trends which can allow it to become even more intelligent and efficient. In this paper we focus our attention on the integration of Intelligent Conversational Software Agents or Chatbots with IoT. Literature surveys have looked into various applications, features, underlying technologies and known challenges of IoT. On the other hand, Chatbots are being adopted in greater numbers due to major strides in development of platforms and frameworks. The novelty of this paper lies in the specific integration of Chatbots in the IoT scenario. We analyzed the shortcomings of existing IoT systems and put forward ways to tackle them by incorporating chatbots. A general architecture is proposed for implementing such a system, as well as platforms and frameworks – both commercial and open source – which allow for implementation of such systems. Identification of the newer challenges and possible future directions with this new integration, have also been addressed.

    1.6 Scope of the Study
    The scope of this study is centered on design and implementation of general knowledge chatbot using natural language processing for an organization.
    1.7 Limitation of the Study
    Usually, every work has some limitations and this study is not exempted.
    The two major limitations of this study are the high programming technique as well as financial constraints. The high programming technique constraint in PHP, JQUERY and MYSQL prevents the researcher to have an in depth study and analysis on the subject matter. While the issue of financial constraint limits the frequency of investigation to/from the institution toward gathering the necessary information relevant for the study.
    1.8 Definition of Term
    CHATBOT: also known as a smartbots, talkbot, chatterbot, Bot, IM bot, interactive agent, Conversational interface or Artificial Conversational Entity) is a computer program or an artificial intelligence which conducts a conversation via auditory or textual methods. Such programs are often designed to convincingly simulate how a human would behave as a conversational partner, thereby passing the Turing test.
    NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING: is a subfield of computer science information engineering and artificial intelligence concerned with the interations between computer and human (natural) langauges, in particular how to program computers to process and analyze large amounts of natural language data.
    HTML CODE: – HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language. It is a type of computer language that is primarily used for files that are posted on the internet and viewed by web browsers. HTML files can also be sent via email.
    Markup language: – A markup language is a combination of words and symbols which give instructions on how a document should appear. For example, a tag may indicate that words are written in italics or bold type.

    Web browser: -A Web browser is a software program that interprets the coding language of the World Wide Web in graphic form, displaying the translation rather than the coding. This allows anyone to “browse the Web” by simple point and click navigation, bypassing the need to know commands used in software languages.

    File extension: – A file extension is the suffix at the end of a filename that tells a computer, and the computer user, which program is needed to open the file. Also called a filename extension, this suffix preceded by at least one period, is generally one to five characters long but the norm is usually three characters in length.

    Email: – Email, also sometimes written as e-mail, is simply the shortened form of electronic mail, a protocol for receiving, sending, and storing electronic messages. Email has gained popularity with the spread of the Internet. In many cases, email has become the preferred method of communication.

    TCP/IP: – This often used but little understood set of operations stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. TCP/IP is the combination of the two and describes the set of protocols that allows hosts to connect to the Internet. In actuality, TCP/IP is a combination of “more than those two protocols, but the TCP and IP parts of TCP/IP are the main ones and the only ones to become part of the acronym that describes the operations involved.

    TEXT FILE: – A text file is a computer file that stores a typed document as a series of alphanumeric characters, usually without visual formatting information. The content may be a personal note or list, a journal or newspaper article, a book, or any other text that can be rendered accurately in typewritten form.

    Hyper Link:-A hyperlink is a graphic or a piece of text in an Internet document that can connect readers to another webpage, or another portion of a document. Web users will usually find at least one hyperlink on every webpage. The simplest form of these is called embedded text or an embedded link.

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    CHAPTER ONE
    INTRODUCTION
    1.1 Background of Study
    The errors associated with the existing manual method of processing of students’ results in most universities in Nigeria and Benin, including the Houdegbe North American University, Benin, makes it not only desirable but imperative that computerized approach be used to the full in measuring students’ academic progress. The manual methods being employed suffer a number of set-back. They make the process to be time-consuming and prone to errors even as they lead to late publication of examination results. Worst still, sometimes wrong grades are being entered and students’ grade point averages are computed wrongly. Consequently, the cumulative errors being generated are ultimately linked to awarding of erroneous class of degree. Some students could end up with undeserved good classes of degree, while others could be unfairly victimized, bringing about frustration. In this case, the image of the department(s) concerned and the whole University alike could become tarnished. The problem, therefore, that arises is to find a method of processing examination results that would be sufficiently accurate and reasonably timely.
    Result processing is a routine activity. Every semester in the higher institution calls for assessment of the performances of the students. This assessment usually comes in the form of examinations, tests, practical, labs, and the like. Without an assessment of the students, there will not be the need to work hard.
    Assessment takes the form of a reward system. Students are interested in a competitive environment. Tracing this to the primary and secondary school systems where the students are graded in positions; each student works very hard to make the best results. The higher institution system is no difference. At the end of each academic semester, the results of the semester academic activities are computed. The issue here is in the conversion of the levels of involvement and expertise of the students into relative figures which ranks the students.
    There are over forty (10) departments in the Houdegbe North American University, Benin (HNAUB), each having an average of over four hundred students. A simple calculation here surfaces that there are over two thousand students in Hnaub. Each of the students in every level has results to be computed. The task of result processing and other academic activities mandates the assignment of course advisers to take care of such functions.
    Result, by way of definition is the consequence of an action; the conclusion of a problem, or experiment after a period of time. At the end of each academic semester, the results of the exams, tests, practicals and labs are calculated and the grades are correspondingly computed. This is done by the various course coordinators of the courses. The next phase of the result processing process is done by the level course adviser. Each level of every department has its own dedicated course adviser. The course adviser acts on the list of results of all the students in his/her level and those of other students who sat for courses in other levels; either as borrowed courses or as carry over courses. The task ahead of the course adviser is to convert the grades of the students submitted to him into grade equivalents.

    1.2 Statement of the Problem
    The problems posed by manual methods of result processing are enormous. The situation is the same in Houdegbe North American and Uninvesity, Benin correspondingly, Information Management Technology department. The issues here can only be addressed by employing upper hands. The effort expended in the process of registration of students and computation of their examination results is tedious. Quite worrisome is the fact that these processes are carried out every academic session, putting the operators in a continuous and ever demanding cycle.
    The computation of examination results and registration of students is obviously an object-centered activity, the student being the dominant object in this case. Hence, the need to evolve not just a computerized process, but an object-oriented software design and implementation that will effectively and efficiently capture all the important objects associated with the registration and examination result processing within the University and the interactions among the objects. This genuine and noble desire necessitated the design and implementation of a result processing application for a course program, with Information Management Technology as the organization in question.
    So many softwares have been developed and even sold worldwide to solve this problem but most of such softwares have been discovered to be inefficient. Another problem which these softwares have posed is non-user specific problems as they are rather general use softwares, than specific use softwares. Students as well has researched and developed their own software but they could not give or develop error free software that will assist in result generation, automated course registration to keep or build a database of results in the university that will facilitate students’ transcripts.
    This problem has been procrastinating the results of graduating or graduated students hence, delay in leaving for the National Youth Service when they ought to have gone. This problem has dominated the system especially in the department of case study, computer science Department.
    To arrest this problem, there is a need to develop software that is accurate, error free, and that can run on the web (using real time) in order to give students access to their results as at when needed. This will also help reduce the queue usually seen at the course advisers’ office during result’s check and in turn tackle the so much stress on both exams and record and the management in Universities.

    1.3 Aim Of The Study
    The aim of this study is to design and implement of mobile application result checker for the school of computer science mathematics, information and technology.

    1.4 Objectives of the Study
    The objective of this project is to design and develop system that can:
    1. Provide a reliable solution to result processing that is corruption free.
    2. Ensure that normal credit loads in line with the school is maintained.
    3. Provide a software that will generate result that is accurate, timely and error free.
    4. Maintain a reliable database for storage of students’ records and update as the need arises.
    5. Restrict unauthorized access to the students’ record.
    6. Provide an advice engine based on the current status of the student advices the student result which on the next course of action to take in his/her academic pursuit.
    7. Produce relevant report of students’ general performance at the end of every academic semester, presented in the form of tables, charts and graphs, etc.

    1.5 Significance of the Study
    The project work will help in a good number of ways to ease the delay in manual examination processing. The software developed will help schools management to achieve efficient Information Management System. There are many other advantages, and some of them are listed below.
    1. It saves time during examination processing result.
    2. Database for course registration and examination result is maintained.
    3. References are very fast and delays can be avoided.
    4. It allows easy access to stored information.
    5. It provides a medium for the students to interact and discuss their results and the way forward of their academics.
    6. It helps in reducing the costs such as labor, inventory and stationery.
    7. Generation of accurate results/information on transactions is ensured.
    8. It guarantees the students unshared access to their individual results.

    1.6 Scope of the Study
    This research work will concentrate on course registration and result processing and checking system, as well as course adviser functions provided in an automated format which enables the course adviser, the Head of Department, seen here as the enroller and the validator respectively, as well as the student to interact with the application effectively. This work will also use computer science department as the organization in question for its development. The system developed will only cover registration of students, result processing and statement of result, advising functions, course creation and mapping and security of students’ record functions.

    1.7 Limitations of Study
    In the course of this design, some factors led to constraints in the effective actualization of the project.
    1. The duration for this project was too small for the study to be carried out in a more complex scope. There were some other programmes like exams, to be attended to which curtailed the time spent on the project. The above constraint led to limiting the application functionalities.
    2. The limited resources available for carrying out this project posed a major constraint. There was much work to be done but, limited cash was available. The available related materials in this research topic were insufficient and some of the respondents were unwilling to supply useful information.
    3. There is not sufficient knowledge in the programming languages chosen for this work which led to involving upper hands at an expense.

    1.7 Definition of Technical Terms
    Information System: It is a collection of procedures, people, instructions and equipment to produce information in a useful form.

    Technology: It is study of techniques or process of mobilizing Resource (such as information) for accomplishing objectives that benefits man and his environment.

    Information: Information can be defined as the process of gathering, transmitting, receiving, storing and retrieving data or several items put together to convey a desired message.

    Computer Network: Computer Network is a system that connects two or more computers together using a communication link.

    Databases: A systematically arranged collection of computer data, structured so that it can be automatically retrieved or manipulated. It is also called databank.

    File Transfer: Any kind of computer file can be sent via the Internet from one Internet user to another. Table of accounts on spreadsheets, design by a graphic artists, music sound files etc, can all be exchanged in this way.
    Database Table(s): It is a collection rows and columns where in the database which are used for logical data storage and retrieval in the database.

    Database Management System (DBMS): This is the software that performs the task of database management.

    Transaction: This is a group of operation (database operations) that must be executed as one.

    Encapsulation: This is the concept of hiding specific behavior and attributes from a user.

    Programming Language: This is the language used to give instructions to the computer.

    Structure Query Language (SQL): This is a very high level programming language that is used to query the database

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    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.0 Synopsis
    The operation of any company is based on the contribution of staff either from executive level or operational level. For example, in a factory, the shop floor operation required full attendance of engineer, technical staff, and operation level staff before they start the operation. Therefore, the attendance system provides the information of the student existing to a particular lecture. Their information will help them to plan the operation and do any changes for any absent.
    Attendance can be defined as the action of being present at one place or event
    [1] For example present to somebody party or present to work in office. Attendance is one of the important factors in many institutions and organization that need to be followed by people
    [2]. Staff attendance tracking is a common practice in almost all organizations or institution. It is highly important for one organization in order to maintain their performance standards.
    [3]. In the previous implementation, there are various types of attendance systems that have been developed. For example: attendance systems by using pen and paper, using database, and also biometrics. These implementations still can cause lots of problems such as providing incorrect information to the users.
    The purpose of this integrated attendance system is to computerized the traditional way of record attendance. Besides that it is used to create a combination of various types of attendance where users can either choose to use smart card or fingerprint technologies. For example, by using combination of both smart card and fingerprint technologies to record workers attendance, the attendance system can be strongly protected and the inappropriate manner of behaviors can be eliminated. If one of the devices is malfunction, the others can acts as backup.

    1.1 Problem statement
    For organization that use pen and paper to record their attendance, with the large number of staff in the organization, this will be a problem to the record keeper to keep track on staff attendance because by using pen and paper, one staff can help other staff to sign his/her attendance even though they do not go to work or either the staff are late to work.
    With the existing approach, there is only a single input device use to record the student attendance either using smart card or fingerprint. If one university would like to have 2 different input of attendance system to provide interchangeable function, they will need to purchase both systems which will be costly. In addition, if one day the single input device suddenly breakdown, the attendance cannot be recorded.
    Therefore, there is a need to develop an integrated attendance system with various type of input to fulfill student needs and requirements because it is flexible and it can bring convenient to the organization to summarize and manipulate staff information. Lack of effectiveness in their methods of record keeping, further compounds the problem.

    1.2 Aims and objectives of the study
    The aim of the study is to design and implementation of staff attendance system using finger print.
    The objectives of this project are:
    i. To develop an Integrated Staff Attendance System (ISAS) by using fingerprint technologies.
    ii. To provide the potential users with the customize option of using both input device.
    iii. To develop an algorithm for the student processing towards attendance system

    1.3 Justification for the study
    The use of staff attendance system is very important because of human being proneness to error, leaving the staff to write down their names might not be accurate as staff can even write attendance for their fellow staff and their handwriting legibility can be a case when compiling the attendance record at the end of the semester.
    The official in charge of attendance collation is highly favored by this system because use of pen and paper as a means of collating staff attendance will leave the official in charge with numerous sheets of paper, which will be hectic as he/she has to start comparing several sheets to record the average attendance for just a staff. The official is going to waste a lot of time compiling the attendance percentage at the end of the semester, mistake can creep in due to the large volumes of papers.
    Successful implementation of this project mean the student attendance credibility can be queried or put to test anytime, and result are produce fast and accuracy, without stress.

    1.4 Methodology
    An embedded system is a combination of softwareandhardwareto performadedicatedtask.Someof the maindevicesusedinembeddedproductsaremicroprocessorsand microcontrollers.In thisproject,afingerprint based attendance systemusingmicrocontrollerisimplemented.Microcontroller forms thecontrolling module and it istheheartofthedevice.Initiallythefingerprintofusers andthatwillbeverifiedwiththefingerprintthatwasgivingatthetime of registration.
    Iftheboth fingerprints arematchedthen, it will be confirmed that the person should be mark present.Thetaskrelated instructions areloadedintothe microcontrollerwhichisprogrammedusingembeddedlanguage.The systemconsistsofMicrocontrollerUnit,Fingerprintmodule,LCD,aUSBsystem module to interact with the pc for reading and writing of dataand microcontrollerthatcollectdatafromthefingerprintmodule.Asitisbasedonthefingerprintauthentication thereisnochanceone student writing the name of is friend.
    AfingerprintreadershowninFigure.3.1isthe inputdevice.Theflashmemorycomprisesoffingerprint templateandotherdetailsofthe person.
    This is the design phase of the Biometric based Staff Attendance Register Software. It involved decomposing thewhole system into modules and defining the relationship among the constituent modules. Top down design approachwas employed which involved dividing the system into subsystems or modules and each subsystem being furtherdivided into even smaller subs. This process of division is repeated until each module is sufficiently small enough tobe conveniently coded (implemented) as an independent entity that performs a clearly defined operation.

    Figure 1.1 Fingerprint Reader

    1.4.1 Model Formulation
    _ Fingerprint Acquisition
    At the enrolment phase, the fingerprints would be acquired such that the print of the texture of the first finger (that isthe pointing finger) is obtained twice and analyzed for processing. The fingerprint samples would be stored in aMicrosoft SQL Server database with the aid of an interfaced fingerprint reader/scanner. The fingerprints are then tobe saved inside a database to cater for subsequent need for the various fingerprint analysis during matching.

    _ Fingerprint Feature Extraction
    In any fingerprint image, there are dark lines which are called ridges, whereas the spaces in between those darklines are called valleys. Ridges and valleys often run in parallel but there are two things that happen to any print. It iseither, the ridges and the valleys terminate or they bifurcate. Termination of a fingerprint is simply the situation inwhich a particular ridge ends abruptly while bifurcation is the situation by which the line splits into two. In the analysisof the fingerprint images during matching (authentication), the pattern of the fingerprint exhibits one or more regionswhere the ridge lines assume distinctive shapes; which are: loop, delta and whorl. If the fingerprint scan matches anyone stored in the database at the enrolment phase, the staff with the fingerprint will be updated as present for the
    lecture.
    _ Minutiae Extraction
    Each fingerprint images in the database after enrolment will be processed in order to extract a unique feature calledminutiae. It is this unique feature that will be compared at the (authentication) matching phase. This requires thefingerprint grey-scale image to be converted into a binary image. The binary images obtained by the process aresubmitted to a thinning stage which allows for the ridge line thickness to be reduced to one pixel. Finally, a simpleimage scans allows the detection of pixels that correspond to minutiae through the pixel-wise computation ofcrossing number.

    1.4.2 Workflow Development
    1.4.3 Model Evaluation
    The system consists of two main modules (phases); the enrolment module and the authentication (the attendance taking) module. The enrolment module can be referred to as the registration module. It starts with the taking offingerprint using the scanner, the fingerprint key features are extracted and the template gotten is then checked toverify if it has been taken before or not. If the fingerprint template is identified, the execution process will go back tothe line of code where fingerprint is being extracted, informing the user that ‘fingerprint template has been collectedbefore’. If the fingerprint template is not found, then it will be saved. This ensures that no single user can be enrolled(registered) more than once. Every successful fingerprint template is enrolled, and user’s details are saved alongsidewith the template. Figure ii depicts the enrollment flow process.
    The authentication module verifies a registered (enrolled) user and allows the attendance to be taken. Itstarts with the taking of the finger print; the template of the finger print taken is extracted. The system goes ahead toverify the template to check if it has been pre stored (registered), so that it can match it with an existing templatetaken. If no finger print template has been pre-stored (matching unsuccessful), the system displays “PleaseRegister”. But if the matching is successful, the attendance status for the day is checked. If the fingerprint hasalready been matched for the lecture period, it displays. “Attendance Already Taken for period” and if not it goesahead to take the Staff’s Attendance. This ensures that the attendance cannot be taken more than once by the samestaff for the same lecture. The Admin views and generates reports of the staff using the attendance register of everyuser according to the time table. Figure iii depicts the authentication flow process.

    1.5 Scope and limitation of the study
    The scope of this study is to design and implement staff attendance system using finger print reader a case study of organization in Nigeria. The limitations of this study are:
    1. Unavailability of academic materials
    2. Transport problem
    3. Lack of financial support
    4. Lack of Time
    5. Unavailability of programming software such as vb.Net, and Crystal report

    1.6 Glossary of Operational Terms
    Management: It is the co-ordination of all the resources of an organization through the process of planning organization, directing and controlling.
    System: Physical component of a computer that is used to perform certain task.
    Data: Numbers, Text or image which is in the form suitable for Storage in or processing by a computer, or incomplete Information.
    Information: A meaning full material derived from computer data by organizing it and interpreting it in a specified way.
    Input: Data entered into a computer for storage or processing.
    Output: Information produced from a computer after processing.
    Information System: A set of interrelated components that collect (or retrieve), process, store and distribute information to support decision making and control in an organization.
    Computer: Computer is an electronic device that accepts data as Input, processes data and gives out information as output to the user
    Software:-Software is set of related programs that are designed by the manufacturer to control the hardware and to enable the computer perform a given task.
    Hardware: -Hardware is a physical part of a computer that can be touched, seen, feel which are been control by the software to perform a given task.
    Database: -Database is the collection of related data in an organized form.
    Programming:- programming is a set of coded instruction which the computers understands and obey.
    Technology: -Technology is the branch of knowledge that deals with the creation and use technical and their interrelation with life, society and the environment, drawing upon such as industrial art, engineering, applied science and pure science.
    Algorithm: A set of logic rules determined during the design phase of a data matching application. The ‘blueprint’ used to turn logic rules into computer instructions that detail what step to perform in what order.
    Application: The final combination of software and hardware which performs the data matching.
    Data matching database: A structured collection of records or data that is stored in a computer system.
    Data cleansing: The proactive identification and correction of data quality issues which affect an agency’s ability to effectively use its data
    Data integrity: The quality of correctness, completeness and complain with the intention of the creators of the data i.e. ‘fit for purpose’.
    Enrollment: The process of an individual to enroll in an agency. Involves the initial collection of identifying details

    1.8 projects Organization
    This project consists of five (5) chapters. Chapter 1 discusses on the introduction of the system. The purpose of this chapter is to briefly explain about the overview system that is developed. This chapter also supply with the problem statements, objectives and the scope of the study.
    Chapter 2 is literature review. As the name given the purpose of this chapter is to reviews the previous research works which was conducted by other researches. All the relevant journal, thesis and books taken from those researches will be discussed in detail.
    Chapter 3 is research methodology;this chapter reveals the techniques, algorithms and related software that will be used for the project development. Besides that, it will also discuss about the process flow in detail of this research. Chapter 4 is implementation and testing. This chapter documenting all the process that involved in developing this system and the testing made to the system. Lastly, chapter 5, the conclusion concludes and come out with a summary about the developed project.

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    ABSTRACT

    This Thesis explores human resources development and utilization, in Enugu State civil service,
    an activity that has been neglected in the public sector. It presents answers to the following
    questions. The intent is to provide a useful basis for change in the human resource management
    culture in the civil service of Nigeria. The theoretical framework used in the study is Human
    Relations Theory that are in line with human research development and utilization. Most
    importantly, its objectives to the government agencies and organizations.
    In pursue of the above goals of this study, the researcher distributed and administered
    questionnaires to the employees of Enugu State Civil Service. The responses from the
    questionnaires were analyzed using simple percentage and frequency tables for proper
    clarification. From the analysis and interpretation of hypotheses, the researcher found out that
    many problems/factors affected the human resources development and utilization in Enugu State
    Civil Service such as: poor coordination among the agencies charged with the responsibility of
    human resources development, incompetent professionals and corruption. Based on these
    findings, the researcher has made the following recommendations.
    1) The agencies charged with the responsibility of human resources planning must
    continuously monitor and; evaluate outcomes from the services of workers in order
    to know their level of performance/productivity, where changes should be made and
    then plan better strategy for improving future performance. These are important
    corrective measures. The purpose of evaluating a training programme is to
    determine its effectiveness. A training programme is effective only if it has gathered
    in the evaluation process will enable the civil service to improve on programme for
    future trainees and also enable the trainers appraise themselves in terms of method
    and content.
    2) Another strategy for improving human resource development and utilization is by
    providing the agencies involved in human resources development with sufficient fund
    to make the process productive. This is because, every aspect of human resource
    development requires fund. For example, the training and development of human
    resources require money. Therefore, government should allocate sufficient fund to
    Enugu State Civil Service to enable them plan effectively for their human resources
    development, which in turn will improve the economy of the state.
    3) Adequately equipped training centres and facilities should be provided across the
    length and breadth of the country, so that different ministries should have easy
    access to obtaining training when the need arises. To properly plan and utilize
    human resources in Enugu State Civil Service, there should be provision for
    adequate training facilities, which will be used in developing human resources for
    productive services. There is no doubt that any training programmes is meaningful
    only if it enables man to be of great service to his organization. Training has its
    cardinal goals of creation of “behavioural change” in a desire direction as
    organizational needs dictates. Knowledge and skills should be designed and
    imparted on relevant employee(s) so as to affect a significant change in their job
    behaviour. According to Chandan (2007), employee training should assume the
    following specific form:
    (a) Induction and orientation course
    (b) On-the-job training
    (c) Off-the-job training
    (d) Vestibule training
    (e) Regular refreshers course in form of seminars, workshops etc.

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background to the Study
    The Human resources of an organization comprise of men and women, young and old who
    engage in the production of goods and services and who are the greatest assets of the organization
    (Ndiomu, cited in Ezeani, 2002:2). The people, in the words of Gant (1979, are the human
    resources for the supply of physical labour, technical and professional skills which are germane
    for effective and efficient planning and implementation of development policies, programmes,
    projects, and daily activities. There is no doubt that the ability of any organization or society to achieve its goals depends to a large extent on the caliber, organization and motivation of its
    human resources. As succinctly captured by Likert in Ezeani (2002:1).
    All the activities of any enterprise are initiated and determined by the persons who make up
    that institution. Plant, offices, computers, automated equipment, and all else that a modern firm
    use are unproductive except for human effort and direction.
    Similarly, Harbison cited in Ezeani (2002:1) opined that “human resources and not any other
    constitute the ultimate basis for the wealth of nations.” And according to Drucker (1978:273) “…
    good organizational structure does not by itself guarantee good performance. Human resources is as
    a fact of life of the existence, survival and development of an organization as food is to man”.
    However, these and such other statements by human resources management experts and
    practitioners alike are pointers to the importance and critical role of the human element in
    organization. Indeed, the human resources is a critical factor in the attainment of the goals of any
    organization. The ability of the human resources to contribute to the attainment of the goals of an
    organization such as the Local government depends to a great extent on how well they are
    managed.
    On the other hand, given the increasing volatile and complex socio-economic structure of our
    business organization in Nigeria, two basic factors are crucial for business success: Capital and
    Human Resources. According to Nwankwo (cited in Onah, 2007), every organization needs three
    main resources to survive. They are: financial, material and human resources. An organization needs
    money to pay it staff and to buy the essential materials or equipment for operations. Maximum
    production of services offered cannot be achieved unless the essential material resources are
    available. Of course, there is no organization without human resources. Capital, whether acquired
    through loans or from private sources, can be easier to manage and control, only when there is qualified and quality human resources. Even if an organization has got all the money and materials it
    needs, it must still find capable people to put them into effective use. Organizations, whether public
    or private, are prone to jeopardy when there is no adequate human resource and manpower planning.
    However, it is from the foregoing premise that the compelling need arises for manpower
    planning and development as a sine-qua-non for enhanced productivity. Despite available
    human/manpower, organizations in Nigeria have not been properly managed nor the available
    human resources managed adequately. This calls for strategic ways of improving human
    resource/manpower planning and its utilization to improve our economy. When organizations are not
    proper managed and are not productive, the economy of the country will be badly affected.
    Furthermore, according to the 1974 Udoji report (as quoted by Oshionebo, 2001), the public
    service must be changed and strengthened to respond effectively to the demand of development.
    They need qualified, skilled and motivated people at the right place and at the right time to achieve
    objectives, to transfer paper plan into actual achievement of all aspect of personnel management.
    It is pertinent to note that the civil service has continued to accord appreciable attention to
    proper strategies for improving manpower planning and staff development. In the wake of the
    professionalism introduced or reinforced by the 1988 Civil Service Reform, it was imperative for
    very job incumbent (holder) to possess requisite knowledge, skill and attitudinal tendencies in
    specific job activity in government service. Accordingly, we are told that in order to improve the
    economy and efficiency and raise the performance standard of employers to the minimum possible
    level of proficiency, ministries are to establish, operate and maintain programmes or plans for the
    training of employees in or under their ministry (FRN 1988).
    Government is also experiencing serious revenue shortfalls to meet its development
    objectives. Staff rationalization and other downsizing and rightsizing measures have been the consequence of revenue shortfall in both public and private sector as well as across economic subsectors.
    According to Banjiko (1996), Human resource/manpower planning, can therefore, be seen as
    the overall organization planning process by which the organization tries to ensure that it has the
    right number of persons and the right kind of people, at the right time and at the right place
    performing functions which are economically useful and which satisfy the needs of the organization
    and provide satisfaction for the individual involved.
    Well, to have the right number and quality of people requires effective strategies for human
    resource planning and sources managerial commitment. It is important for the following reasons:
    First, for any organization to achieve a reasonable degree of success, it is
    important neither to plan with excess or inadequate manpower. Human resources are
    always costly to acquire and retain, thereby making it economically difficult to justify
    keeping excess manpower. When we have excess employees, it can cause serious problem
    and even redundancy for the organization. Also, the organization cannot keep or afford to
    keep too few employees, as over-work by the available employees may retard work
    progress and lead a lot of dysfunctional behaviour on the part of employees. Effective
    strategic manpower planning and its utilization that takes into account the whole
    arrangement of potential planning factor can help to determine the right quality and kind
    of employees to keep.
    Secondly effective strategies for improving manpower planning can be useful for stabilizing
    employment level.
    Third, the need to cope with possible future changes and competitive forces in both product
    and labour market, in technology and government regulatory requirement, call for a realistic and
    effective manpower planning.
    It is pertinent to note that the Nigerian public service is the highest employer of labour in
    Nigeria. The civil service commission, both at the federal and state level, has the responsibility of
    manpower recruitment, selection and employment. Government programme and projects are
    becoming more complex and difficult, thus the necessity to plan manpower in order to meet
    challenges. In order to undertake good strategy for improving manpower planning and utilization in
    Enugu state civil service, government should, through its personnel managers, analyze from time to
    time, the various positions available, anticipate expansion of service and take cognizance of some
    factors that influence employment in the public sector. Such factors as quota system, political and
    fiscal policies of government.
    However, in the face of decreasing productivity in the public sector, the Obasanjo’s
    administration in 2006, set up a body to reform the public sector/service, especially in the
    employment of only qualified graduates. The Bureau for Public Service, head by Malam El-Rufai,
    was empowered to revive the public service to ensure effectiveness. The reform led to the
    retrenchment of about thirty thousand workers (unqualified, incompetent and dead wood) and the
    employment, training and development of about one thousand, five hundred fresh graduates with
    first class and second-class university degree.
    In fact, the central focus of this study is to interrogate how manpower training and utilization
    affects the Enugu State Civil Service.

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    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background Of Study
    The development of any nation depends to a very large extent on the calibre, organization and motivation of its human resources. In the specific case of Nigeria where diversity exerts tremendous influence on politics and administration, the capacity to increase the benefits and reduce the costs of this diversity constitutes a human resource management challenge of epic proportion in its public sector organizations. Human Resource Management (HRM) is the function within an organization that focuses on recruitment of, management of, and providing direction for the people who work in the organization. Human Resource Management can also be performed by line managers.
    Human Resource Management is the organizational function that deals with issues related to people such as compensation, hiring, performance management, organization development, safety, wellness, benefits, employee motivation, communication, administration, and training.
    Human Resource Management is also a strategic and comprehensive approach to managing people and the workplace culture and environment. Effective HRM enables employees to contribute effectively and productively to the overall company direction and the accomplishment of the organization’s goals and objectives. Human Resource Management is moving away from traditional personnel, administration, and transactional roles, which are increasingly outsourced. HRM is now expected to add value to the strategic utilization of
    employees and that employee programs impact the business in measurable ways. The new role of HRM involves strategic direction and HRM metrics and measurements to demonstrate.
    HRM covers a wide range of activities. The main area of study we will focus on will be incentives and work organization. Incentives include remuneration systems (e.g. individuals or group incentive/contingent pay) and also the system of appraisal, promotion and career advancement. By work organization we mean the distribution of decision rights (autonomy/decentralization) between managers and workers, job design (e.g. flexibility of working, job rotation), team-working (e.g. who works with whom) and information provision.
    Human resource management encompasses the traditional personnel functions of recruitment, selection, training, motivation, compensation, evaluation, discipline, and termination of employees. Each of those tasks demands particular skills. Increasingly, human resource management is being recognized for its strategic importance to organizations and jurisdictions, and is moving beyond its traditional position as a monitor of compliance. This course is designed to provide you with an understanding of the evolution of human resource management policies and practices, and how changes over time reflect shifting societal values and environmental circumstances. Our emphasis is on improving understanding of the
    historical context and current conditions of public sector HRM and developing basic skills necessary to be an effectively manage human resources.
    According to Likert (1996:112) the term human resource refers to the talents.” Thus the term connets man in relationship to the world of works. Such work involves producing things and providing services of all kinds in the social political, cultural and economic development of a nation.
    “Human resources management is simply described as the management of the human resources in an organization for optimal utilization and attainment of organizational objectives” Banjoko (1996:69) AS opined by Harbinson (1998 :213) man power refers to human beings i.e. human
    resources of an organization or nation regardless of their skill. They make
    organizations functions”. Karen (1999:89) looks at manpower as a unique
    resource. It is an indispensable means of converting all other resources to
    mankind use and benefits” How well it is used determines how well an organization performs. Human resources management takes place within
    the frame work of an organization in a purpose constrict, deliberately
    designed to achieve certain goals. The efficiency with which that organization is operated will depend to a large extent on how utilized. For a manager to be effective, the manager has to design a programme which ensures the selection and training of employees for the jobs that best suit their abilities and motivating them to exert that maximum effort for the attainment of the corporate objective.
    In the last ten years, organisations especially in Africa have been hit with the undisputable fact that the creation of competitive advantage lies in people. Organisations have increasingly recognised the potential for their people to be a source of competitive advantage. Not too long ago, so called HR functions was the preserve of „Personnel Managers‟ whose duties were to recruit and select, appraise, promote and demote. These superficial duties could be performed by any manager, it therefore never seemed necessary to employ an expert in the form of a human resource manager let alone create a whole department dedicated to HRM. Little attention was paid to human resource management issues and its impact on organisational performance. The emphasis on traditions and socio-cultural issues injected an element of subjectivity in „personnel manager‟ functions such as recruitment and selection, performance appraisal, promotion, demotion, and compensation.
    In today‟s competitive and rapidly changing business world, organisations especially in the service industry need to ensure maximum utilisation of their resources to their own advantage; a necessity for organisational survival. Studies have shown that organisations can create and sustain competitive position through management of non-substitutable, rare, valuable, and inimitable internal resources (Barney, 1991). HRM has transcended from policies that gather dust to practices that produce results. Human resource management practices has the ability to create organisations that are more intelligent, flexible and competent than their rivals through the application of policies and practices that concentrate on recruiting, selecting, training skilled employees and directing their best efforts to cooperate within the resource bundle of the organisation. This can potentially consolidate organisation performance and create competitive advantage as a result of the historical sensitivity of human resources and the social complex of policies and practices that rivals may not be able to imitate or replicate their diversity and depth.
    Lately, organisations are focused on achieving superior performance through the best use of talented human resources as a strategic asset. HRM policies or strategies must now be aligned to business strategies for organisational success. No matter the amount of technology and mechanisation developed, human resource remains the singular most important resource of any success-oriented organisation. After all, successful businesses are built on the strengths of exceptional people. HRM has now gained significance academically and business wise and can therefore not be relegated to the background or left in the hands of non-experts. Attention must be paid to the human resources organisations spent considerable time and resources to select.
    Armstrong (2009) defines Human Resource Management (HRM) as a strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organisation‟s most valued assets; that is, the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of its objectives. Moreover, Human resource management practices can be defined as a set of organisational activities that aims at managing a pool of human capital and ensuring that this capital is employed towards the achievement of organisational objectives (Wright and Boswell, 2002). The adoption of certain bundles of human resource management practices has the ability to positively influence organisation performance by creating powerful connections or to detract from performance when certain combinations of practices are inadvertently placed in the mix (Wagar and Rondeau, 2006). So if we think human resource management as just the services any manager may provide in recruiting and selecting, appraising, training and compensating employees, then we rather would have to take the backseat for those who understand the influence HRM has on corporate performance to take the centre stage. Research has recorded a positive relationship between human resource management practices and corporate performance. Thus in order to stimulate corporate performance, management is required to develop skilled and talented employees who are capable of performing their jobs successfully (Klein, 2004).
    Achieving better corporate performance requires successful, effective and efficient exploit of organisation resources and competencies in order to create and sustain competitive position locally and globally. HRM policies on selection, training and development, performance appraisal, compensation, promotion, incentives, work design, participation, involvement, communication, employment security, etc must be formulated and implemented by HRM specialist with the help of line managers to achieve the following outcomes: competence, cooperation with management, cooperation among employees, motivation, commitment, satisfaction, retention, presence, etc
    In fact, Ahmad and Schroeder (2003) found a positive influence of human resource management practices (information sharing, extensive training, selective hiring, compensation and incentives, status differences, employment security, and decentralization and use of teams) on organisational performance as operational performance (quality, cost reduction, flexibility, deliverability and commitment). In furtherance of this assertion, Sang (2005) also found a positive influence of human resource management practices (namely, human resource planning, staffing, incentives, appraisal, training, team work, employee participation, status difference, employment security) on organisation performance.
    For businesses to survive, HRM should be given its rightful place of relevance in any organisation and not left in the hands of line managers who neither have the expertise nor the time and space to carry out the enormous functions of a human resource manager.
    1.2 Statement Of Problem
    The management of any organization be it profit or non profit oriented institution or organization is often faced with one common problem. This problem normally has to do with the efficient and effective utilization of resources for the attainment and of organization goals and objectives. The set goals and objectives clearly justify the existence of any organization and therefore its realization or non-realization determines the survival or untimely death of such organization. The need to realize organizational objectives imposed on management a variety of problems which management needs to tackle from time to time. It has often been
    discovered that improper and poor management of human resources in organizations usually leads to problems such as.
    1. High labour turnover
    2. Low employee morale
    3. Lack of job satisfaction
    4. Reduced creativity and sturned growth on the part of the employee
    5. Lack of employee motivation which often result in low employee productivity and
    6. Reduce corporate profitability and threatened growth and survival
    of the organization.
    The effects of these problems on employee productivity and how it
    could be reduced or eliminated completely to enhance productivity via
    effective human resources management is what the research is set to
    achieve.
    HRM has made significant inroads into the Nigerian corporate world. It is common to see large organisations in Nigeria set up a whole department for the sole purpose of managing human resources and hire experts in the field to be in charge of HRM. The enormous benefits of properly managing human resource cannot be over emphasised. However, the majority of the local government in Nigeria are yet to catch the “HRM cold”. Inappropriate HRM policies and practices of some of these banks can be attributed to the non-existence of HRM specialists or HRM departments. Research has established significantly a positive relationship between an organisation‟s HRM practices and performance. Most of these organization do not realise the impact of properly managing its human resource and therefore leave policies in the hands of line managers and board of directors who are non-HRM experts to implement or enforce strategies, policies, processes, programmes and practices. The value of properly managing human resources is lost to such rural banks.
    Human Resource Management is extremely important for banks especially because banking is a service industry. Management of people and management of risk are two key challenges facing banks. How you manage the people and how you manage the risks determines your success in the banking business. Efficient risk management may not be possible without efficient and skilled manpower.
    Organization has been and will always be a “People Business”. Though pricing is important, there may be other valid reasons why people select and stay with a particular bank. Organization must try to distinguish themselves by creating their own niches or images, especially in transparent situations with a high level of competitiveness. In coming times, the very survival of the Organization would depend on customer satisfaction. Those who do not meet the customer expectations will find survival difficult. Organization must articulate and emphasize the core values to attract and retain certain customer segments. Values such as “sound”, “reliable”, “innovative”, “close”, “socially responsible”, “Nigerian”, etc. need to be emphasized through concrete actions on the ground and it would be the Organization human resource that would deliver this.

    1.3 Aim and Objective Of The Study
    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the perceptions of employees towards HRM practices in Beyelsa local government system and to establish the impact of such practices on organizational performance.
    The main objectives of the study are to critically assess the productivity and human resource development in Nigeria Organization with a view to:
    1) Identifying the importance of HRM to an organization in Nigeria
    2) Identifying the need for HRM in an organization
    3) Identifying problems associated with HRM in organizations.
    4) Examine the trend and techniques of HRM in organizations
    5) Reviewing the process of HRM and its impact on organization
    productivity
    6) Identifying the relationship between effective HRM and
    organizational profitability.
    7) Identifying the problems associated with HRM and prefer solutions
    to them.
    1.4 Research Questions
    1. What is the evidence to prove that work motivation and compensation contributes to the productivity of an organization?
    2. What is the evidence to prove that Ethics and Values contribute to poor productivity of an organization?
    3. What is the significant relationship to show that work attitude of workers by workers affects the productivity of an organization?
    4. What is the evidence to show recruitment and selection process of workers affects the productivity of public sector organization?
    1.5 Research Hypotheses
    The following research hypotheses are tested.
    The researcher uses hypotheses HO which is a test of no difference
    HO1: There is evidence to prove that work motivation and compensation contributes to the productivity of an organization.
    HO2: There is evidence to prove that Ethics and Values contribute to poor productivity of an organization.
    HO3: There is a significant relationship to show that work attitude of workers by workers affects the productivity of an organization.
    HO4: There is evidence to show recruitment and selection process of workers affects the productivity of public sector organization

    1.6 Significance Of Study
    Human Resource Management is the backbone of any economy production of any nation.
    HRM plays a vital role in the productivity of the Nigeria public sector organizations. It is therefore important to identify the significances of the research work which are subdivided as:
    1. The findings of this research will serve as a guide in the productivity of other public sector through their human resource.
    2. The findings of this study will enable for proper management of human resource
    which will lead to effective customer value and productivity in public sector
    organization management.
    3. It will also enhance government, private sector and general public participation
    contribution in addressing these human resource management in public sector
    organization.
    4. The study will enable me to contribute my own views and ideas on managing human resource and productivity in the civil servant of Nigeria.
    5. The study will be of immense help to other people and students who might wish to carry out other researches in the field.

    1.7 Scope Of The Study
    The work is on Productivity and human resource development in Nigeria, with Civil servant as a case. It will cover the concept of productivity; examine Human Resource Management in Public Sector, the impact of HRM on Productivity in civil servant and also the challenges of Human Resource Management in Public Sector.
    1.8 Limitations Of The Study
    In carrying out this research many factors served as constraints:
    1. The limitation of the research title as just HRM and Productivity in the Nigeria civil servant.
    2. Financial Limitation.
    3. Inadequate Time: time factor constitutes the major limitation of this research study. It relates to the fact that the time for research work was short because it was combined with lectures, studies and examination.
    4. Negative attitude of respondent: the problem facing the researcher with regards to the respondents relates to the non-cooperation and uncompromising attitude some respondents in giving

    1.9 Definition Of Terms
    (a) Document study: Ikeagwu (1998:89), a document study refers to
    the study of any written material that contains information about
    the happenings that are being studied.
    (b) Manpower: Harbinso (1998:106) refers manpower as human
    being i.e. human resources of an organization for optional
    utilization and attainment of organizational objectives.
    (c) Manpower development: According to Kennedy (1961:57) this is
    a process of acquiring and increasing the number of persons who
    have educational skills and experience, and motivation which are
    critical for economic and social development of an organization. It
    includes investment by society in education, investment by
    employer’s in training and investment by individual in time and
    money in their own development.
    (d) Productivity by (Mail, 1978:42) is seen as reaching the highest
    level of performance with the least expenditure of resources. It
    represents the output of goods and services which can be obtained
    from a given input indices as manpower const/unit of output,
    manpower cost as a ratio of sales, per employee and contribution
    per employee. Internal and external either through reduction in number of mechanization by Bedium (1987:80).
    (e) Training: Is defined as discipline and instruction which improve
    character through exercises to achieve objectives or goals
    efficiently. Rom Herzog (1977:102).
    (f) Staff appraisal: Refers to critical performance appraisal it
    plays important role in determine who has potential for
    development (Banjoko, 1996:46). Each manager or head of
    department filling a form over viewing certain areas of
    performance of the subordinates normally carries it out. The form
    which each manager is expected to complete in respect of the staff
    has various columns for recording salient aspects of an employee’s
    contribution over a period of twelve months.
    (g) Compensation what the employees receive in exchange for their
    contribution to the organization Kertk, (1996:8).
    (h) Manpower Plan: Is action steps to meet manpower need. It is
    specific action plan or blue prints for bridging the gap between the
    forecast and the inventory to be met as a result of changes in the
    existing workforce. Specific plans will have to be developed for the
    recruitment training and transfer of the necessary personnel. Karek,
    (1999:102).

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    ABSTRACT

    Globally, it is expected that banks should play vital roles in financing economic
    activities as their contribution at ensuring sustainable economic growth and
    development. The intermediary role of banks can foster economic growth through
    raising of savings, improving efficiency of loan-able funds and promoting capital
    accumulation. In Nigeria, the banking industry as well as the entire economy assumed
    a new dimension in September 1986 when the then Military government introduced
    the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP). Expectedly, this restructuring brought
    certain changes not only to the banking system but also the entire economy of
    Nigeria. However, whether continuation of policies allied to the programme has
    increased access to loan-able funds through the intermediation functions of banks is
    still contentious. It is against this background that this study examined the impact of
    bank credit on economic growth in Nigeria from 1987 to 2012, and specifically
    sought to evaluate the impact of bank credits advanced to the private sector on
    Nigerian economic growth, ascertain the effect of bank credits extended to the public
    sector on Nigerian economic growth and ascertain the impact of the aggregate bank
    credits to the private and the public sectors on the Nigerian economy. The study
    adopted the ex-post facto research design and times series data were collated from the
    Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin and Annual Reports. The OLS regression
    statistic was used to test the hypotheses stated. The estimated regression results
    indicate that private sector credits, public sector credits and the aggregate bank credits
    to the private and the public sectors impact positively and significantly on economic
    growth over the period of the study. The study concludes that for the Nigerian
    economy to grow, policy frameworks that favour more credits to the private sector of
    the Nigerian economy with minimal interest rate to stimulate economic growth should
    be pursued by government. This will assist in making more loan-able funds available
    for investment into the real sectors of the economy. The study, therefore, recommends
    among others that policies on public sector borrowing and spending should be
    reviewed in order to discourage gross unproductive “white elephant” investments and
    more credits channeled into subsectors with more linkage effects such as agriculture,
    manufacturing, energy and infrastructural development.

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
    Globally, banks in developing countries are expected to play vital and
    effective roles in financing their economic projects and activities as their contribution
    in ensuring sustainable economic growth.
    Theoretical discussions about the importance of credit development and the
    role that the banking industry plays in economic growth have occupied a key position
    in the literature of development finance.
    According to Osada and Saito (2010), financial or credit development can
    foster economic growth by raising savings, improving efficiency of loan-able funds
    and promoting capital accumulation. Banking industry credit in Nigeria assumed a
    new dimension and was transformed by the recapitalization and consolidation of
    banks which restructured them for better performance. Access to bank credit or
    financing can be said to improve commensurately in response to competition and the
    healthy sate of soundness the banks attained. Availability of credit allows firms to
    increase production, output and efficiency and in turn increases the profitability of
    banks through interest earned (Agada, 2010).
    The role of credit in economic growth has been recognized as credits are
    obtained by various economic agents to enable them meet operating expenses
    (Nwanyanwu, 2008). Furthermore, according to Ademu (2006), the provision of
    credit with sufficient consideration for the sector’s volume and price system is a way
    of achieving economic growth through self–employment opportunities. While
    highlighting the role of credit to the growth of any economy, he further explained that
    credit can be used to prevent an economic activity from total collapse in the event of
    unforeseen circumstances.
    The debate on the intermediary role of banks in the economic development has
    dominated many discussions in literature. However, there seem to be general
    consensus that the role of intermediary role of banks helps in boosting economic
    growth and development. Akintola (2004) identifies banks’ traditional roles to include
    financing of agriculture, manufacturing and syndicating of credit to productive sectors
    of the economy. When the banking industry discharges these important functions satisfactorily the outcome would be that the economic growth, as proxied by the
    Gross Domestic Product (GDP), will improve commensurately.
    Akpansung and Babalola (2008) have stated that the central Bank of Nigeria
    has been seen to be playing a leading and catalytic role by using direct control not
    only to control overall credit expansion but also to determine the proportion of bank
    loans and advances to “high priority sector” and “other”. According to them, this
    sectoral distribution of bank credits is often meant to stimulate the productive sectors
    and consequently lead to increased economic growth in the country. Citing Driscoll
    (2004), they opine that financial development can foster economic growth by raising
    savings, improving allocative efficiency of loanable funds and promoting capital
    accumulation. Arguing along this path, Jayaratne and Strahan (1996) maintain that
    well-developed financial markets are necessary for overall economic advancement of
    less developed and emerging economies.
    1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
    There still remains a gap in understanding the causal relationship between
    banking industry credit and economic growth in developing economies. And
    particularly, little studies have been done to find out the impact the various types of
    deposit money bank credits have on the growth of national economies. The influence
    of such types of credit (like those advanced to the public sector and the private sector)
    on economic growth has received little interest from researchers. Tuuli (2002) posits
    that although there have been numerous empirical studies on the determinants of
    growth in transition economies the relationship between bank credits and economic
    growth, however, has largely been ignored. Thus, studying the impact of the deposit
    money bank credits on the growth of the Nigeria economy has become very
    necessary. And until this vacuum is filled, the unavoidable questions on the study will
    remain unanswered.
    Generally, economic growth has long been considered an important goal of
    economic policy with substantial body of research dedicated to explaining how this
    goal can be achieved. But unfortunately, such concerted efforts in both researchers
    and policies have yielded no meaningful result. The questions, therefore, remain why
    is it so? And what practical measures should be taken to plug the situation?
    Central Bank of Nigeria (2009) notes that flow of credit to the priority sectors
    fell short of prescribed targets and failed to impact positively on investment, output and domestic price level. Certainly, these comments have triggered questions on the
    effectiveness and productivity of bank credits on the Nigerian economy. In similar
    perspective, Taiwo and Abayomi (2011) note that the justification of public sector
    credits is for the provision of infrastructural facilities, which will consequently drive
    economic growth. However, they further posit that the effects of such government
    spending on economic growth are still an unresolved issue theoretically as well as
    empirically.
    1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
    The general objective of this study is to ascertain the impact of deposit money
    bank credits on Nigeria’s economic growth. In line with this, the specific objectives of
    the study include the following:
    1. To evaluate the impact of bank credits advanced to the private sector on the
    Nigerian economic growth.
    2. To ascertain the effect of bank credits extended to the public sector on
    Nigerian economic growth.
    3. To ascertain the impact of the aggregate bank credits to the private and public
    sectors on the Nigerian economy.
    1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
    This study is based on the following research questions:
    (1) How far has bank credit to the private Sector influenced Nigeria’s economic
    growth?
    (2) To what extent has bank credit to the public sector affected economic growth
    in Nigeria?
    (3) To what extent have aggregate bank credits to the private and public sectors
    influenced Nigeria’s economic growth?
    1.5 HYPOTHESES OF THE STUDY
    The hypotheses of this study are as follows:
    Hypotheses One
    HO: Bank credits to the private sector do not have a significant positive effect on
    Nigeria’s economic growth.
    Hypotheses Two
    HO: Bank credits to the public sector negatively and significantly affect Nigeria’s
    economic growth.
    Hypotheses Three
    HO: Aggregate bank credits to the private and public sectors do not have a
    significant positive effect on Nigeria’s economic growth.
    1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
    The study will focus on the impact of banking industry credit on economic
    growth in Nigeria over the period 1987-2012. Bank credits as shall be used in this
    study are credits advanced by the deposit money banks in Nigeria.
    Types of bank credits to be captured will include private and public sector
    credits, while economic growth shall be proxied by the real Gross Domestic product
    (RGDP).
    In justification for the choice of the base year, it is worthy to note that in
    Nigeria, the Nigerian economy assumed a new dimension in September 1986 when
    the military government introduce the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP). The
    emphasis of the programme was deregulation of the economy, which was aimed at
    curtailing government participation in the economy. As a result, this restructuring
    brought radical changes not only to the banking system but also the entire economy of
    Nigeria. Therefore, it becomes necessary for our purpose to use 1987 as our base year
    bearing in mind the overwhelming expectations with respect to the anticipated result
    the programme would bring.
    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
    The study will be of immense benefit to the following:
    • Bankers: The study will enhance their understanding of the relationships
    existing between bank credits and economic growth. This will go a long way
    in enabling them carry out efficient financial intermediation function bearing
    in mind how it will impact on economic growth.
    • Regulators of the Financial Industry: When economic growth is of the essence,
    they will find this research relevant in their policy strategies, and regulatory
    prerogatives aimed at fostering sustainable economic growth and building
    efficient financial sector development.
    • Investors: Both foreign and indigenous investors in the Nigerian economy will
    stand to take advantage of the gift of this study to already existing body of
    knowledge. The study will sharpen their understanding of causal relationships
    between financial development and economic growth. When they understand
    the relevance of bank credits to increase in productivity, it will enable them
    make rational decisions in obtaining funds at a price and amount that will
    serve their needs.
    • The Government: different levels of government will find this study useful
    especially policy implementation, enactment of laws and making
    pronouncement that will promote economic growth.
    • Researchers: other researchers will find this study very useful since it will add
    to the existing knowledge. Such researchers and students who wish to carry
    out a related study will have to use it as a research material.

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    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background of the Study
    The process of creating and disseminating information via electronic means including email and via the Web is electronic publishing. Electronically published materials may originate as traditional paper publishing or may be created specifically for electronic publishing. It is also known as: e-publishing, web publishing and internet publishing Kist (1989) defined electronic publishing as “the application by publishers of a computer aided process, by which they find, capture, shape, store and update information content in order to disseminate it to a chosen audience” From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, electronic publishing includes the digital publication of e-books and electronic articles, and the development of digital libraries and catalogues. A popular electronic encyclopedia, Grolier Electronic Publishing, 1995.
    The information technology has changed the way that information is stored and disseminated and has threatened the traditional approaches to the library and its services. The digital revolution has taken on the world of publishing also. Now paperless publishing or electronic publishing is gaining more prominence.
    In the changing scenario, libraries and librarians will have to play a crucial role in handling conventional and electronic resources. Thus the era of electronic publishing has begun affecting library and information professionals. The ultimate goal of electronic publishing is to provide fast and easy access to the information contained in the objective publications with simple, powerful search and retrieval capabilities.
    Thus, e-publishing can be used effectively in the context of Dr. S.R. Ranganathan’s fourth law “Save the time of user” for many purposes. The U.G.C Infonet E-Jounrnal Consortium is a unique ICT programme for facilitating free electronic access to scholarly academic databases and journals to 100 universities
    is the largest academic network in the world.
    Electronic Publishing
    It is basically a form of publishing in which books, journals and magazines are being produced and stored electronically rather than in print. These publications have all qualities of the normal publishing like the use of colours, graphics and images and they are much convenient also. It is the process for production of typeset quality documents containing text, graphics, pictures, tables, equations etc. it is used to define the production of any that is digitized form.
    Electronic Publishing = Electronic Technology + Computer Technology + Communication Technology + Publishing
    Kist (1989) defined electronic publishing as “the application by publishers of a computer aided process, by which they find, capture, shape, store and update information content in order to disseminate it to a chosen audience” From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, electronic publishing includes the digital publication of e-books and electronic articles, and the development of digital libraries and catalogues.
    A popular electronic encyclopedia,Grolier Electronic Publishing, 1995 defines electronic publishing as:
    l The term E-publishing refers more precisely to the storage and retrieval of information through electronic communications media. It can employ a variety of formats and technologies, some already in widespread use by businesses and
    general consumers and others still being developed. E-publishing technology can be classified into two general categories:
    l. one in which information is stored in a centralized computer source and delivered to the users by a telecommunications system, including online database services and videotext represents the most active area in E publishing today, and,
    2. another in which the data is digitally stored on a disk or other physically deliverable medium.
    1.2 Statement of the Study
    The invention of printing technology in mid- 15th century revolutionized the production of books in printed form. Publication of books and journals on magnetic media microfilms and microfiche- followed suit in the 1930s. In fact, space problems, which the libraries were facing, led to the use of magnetic media publication of books. But this media could not find acceptance of their users due to various factors such as strain on eyes, cumbersome retrieval of information, etc. Meanwhile computing technology was developed in 1960s, and with it, some time later towards the end of 20th century, were invented other media such as optical discs, digital versatile discs for recording of information.
    The 21st Century Electronic Publishing is basically a form of publishing in which books, journals and magazines are being produced and rendering journals a less than ideal format for disseminating current research. In some fields such as astronomy and some parts of physics, the role of the journal in disseminating the latest research has largely been replaced by preprint repositories. However, scholarly journals still play an important role in quality control and establishing scientific credit. In many instances, the electronic materials uploaded to preprint repositories are still intended for eventual publication in a peer-reviewed Journal. There is statistical evidence that electronic publishing provides wider dissemination. A number of journals have, while retaining their peer review process, established electronic versions or even moved entirely to electronic Publication. Electronic publishing is increasingly popular in works of fiction as well as with scientific articles. Electronic publishers are able to provide quick gratification for late-night readers, books that customers might not be able to find in standard book retailers E-Book format and books by new authors that would be unlikely to be profitable for traditional publishers. While the term “electronic publishing” is primarily used today to refer to the current offerings of online and web-based publishers, the term has a history of being used to describe the development of new forms of production, distribution, and user interaction in regard to computer-based production of text and other interactive media. The impact of electronic publishing on library collections, services and administration is complex. There are, however, many good usable solutions that libraries can learn from each other. No one needs to recreate the wheel to cope with e-publications. How the advent and increasing presence of electronic publishing will impact the people who will read them may ultimately be of more importance than what we will do with the machines, the storage media or the delivery mechanism.
    The most recent trend in the book industry is the development of electronic books (or E-Books), which has the potential to be the most for-reaching change since Guntenberg’s invention.
    1.3 Aim and Objective of the Study
    The aim and objective of this study is to analyse the impact of E-publishing in digital era in our society and also examining and investigate how E-publishing improve the publishing of article, journal and other written content by scholar.
    1.4 Significance of the Study
    Projects provide a flexible framework for engaging students in exploring curricular topics and developing important 21st century skills, such as communication, teamwork, and technology skills. In addition, students are motivated by the fun and creative format and the opportunity to make new friends around the world. For this project will help in adding new content to body of knowledge and help others for further study.

    1.5 Research Question
    1. what is the impact of E-publishing in this digital era.
    2. How did E-publishing improve the publishing of journal and other written content.
    1.6 Research Methodology
    This study shall majorly be constituted of articles culled from newspapers, journals, write-ups, opinions of authors and jurists and internet materials. This is due to the newness of this topic. However, some textbooks from some notable authors will also be considered.
    1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study
    The scope of this study is centred on the impact of E-publishing in digital era. In pursing this investigation and study, lots of impediments and obstruction were encountered as the research progressed. All these impediments brought about a conspicuous clause with the research work. They include, time constraint and financial conditions. Time was also limited to the researcher in carrying out the study effectively and efficiently. Financial condition prevailing within the economic system was a serious impediment. This includes transportation fare to and from school to get material. Also that of extracting the essential information either through printing or photocopying of relevant materials. Finance, thus contributed immensely to limit the entire scope of the research.
    Although all these obstructions were envisaged and experienced, efforts were made to carry on with the research to achieve the expected and desired result.

    1.8 Definition of Terms
    Electronic Books (E-Books): The book is quiet popular document to meet the academic needs of user community. Publishing a book electronically is to achieve quick publishing and dissemination of information. A book may not have contemporary value that a journal has but it certainly has an archival and reference value.

    Electronic Periodicals: Electronic Periodicals are accessible to all users regardless of geographic location. Anyone in the world with services and the proper computer software and browser services can access online journals.

    Electronic Database: With the emergence of computers and communication technologies the strength of academic information system in the development of modern database has taken new shape. The holding of the academic library database consisting of books, periodicals, reports and theses can be converted to electronic form that allows access for public use through digital networks. The online electronic library card catalog (OPAC) shows how information could be published and that enable user to search the document with various access points like author, title, subjects.

    Electronic Publishing on CD-ROM: CD-ROM has provided new dimension for information storage and retrieval. Publishing information mainly abstracting sources are quiet common in CD-ROM. Although much of the work on e-journals has concentrated on distribution via the Internet, there has been some work on CD-ROM as well.

    Print-on-Demand (POD): Print-on-Demand is a new method for printing books. It is a mix of electronic and print publishing. The book is held by the publisher in electronic form and is printed out in the hard copy form only on order. This method helps free publishers from the process of doing a traditional print run of several thousand books at a time.

    Digital Content: Digital Content Generally refers to the electronic delivery of fiction that is shorter than book-length, nonfiction, and other written works of shorter length.

    Email Publishing: Email publishing is designed specifically for delivering regular content-based email messages. Email publishing, or newsletter publishing, is a popular choice among readers who enjoy the ease of receiving news items, articles and short newsletters in their email box.

    Web Publishing: Web publishing is not a novel practice any longer, but it continues to change and develop with the introduction of new programming languages. HTML is still the most widely used web programming language, but XML is also making headway. XML is valuable because it allows publishers to create content and data that is portable to other devices. Nearly every company in the world has some type of website, and most media companies provide a large amount of web- based content.

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    ABSTRACT

    This research was aimed at evaluating the potentials of soil bacteria to elaborate L-asparaginase; an important therapeutic enzyme involved in the treatment of lymphoblastic leukemia. Fourteen soil samples were collected but pooled into seven composite samples to represent their various locations. The samples were analyzed using standard microbiological protocols. A total of 125 bacterial species were isolated by pour plate technique. Marian market dump-site soil (MMDS) sample harboured 26 (20.8%) of the isolated bacteria while Satellite Town dump-site soil (STDS) sample harboured 6 (4.8%) of the total bacteria. Results of the primary screening tests revealed that only 35 (28%) of total bacteria could elaborate L-asparaginase production potential by the rapid plate technique. However, only 6 (17.1%) of the positive bacteria could demonstrate such potentials in liquid medium. The six bacteria were preliminarily identified as species of the genera Pseudomonas, Corynebacterium, Bacillus, Erwinia and Escherichia. These results demonstrate the potentials of dumpsite bacteria to produce value-added biopharmaceutical products for applications in health care.

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    L-asparaginase (EC 3.5.1.1) belongs to a group of homologues amidohydrolases family, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of amino acid L-asparagine to L-aspartate and ammonia. They are naturally occurring enzymes expressed and produced by animal tissues, bacteria, plants and in the serum of certain rodents, but not in mankind (Muthusivaramapandian et al., 2008). Large number of microorganisms that include Erwinia carotovora, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Abdel-Fatteh et al., 2002) and Escherichia coli (Qin et al., 2003) has been known to produce L-asparaginase. Different types of asparaginase can be used for different industrial and pharmaceutical purposes.
    Asparaginases are used to reduce the formation of acrylamide, a suspected carcinogen in starchy food products such as snacks and biscuit (Bansal et al., 2010). By adding asparaginase before baking or frying the food, asparagine is converted into another common amino acid, aspartic acid and ammonia (Lalitha and Ramanjaneyulu, 2016). L-asparagine is an essential amino acid used for nutritional requirement of both normal cells and cancer cells. Since several type of tumor cell requires l-asparagine for protein synthesis, they are deprived of an essential factor in the presence of L-asparaginase. This enzyme is widely used in the treatment of acute lymphatic leukemia. Lymphatic tumor cells require huge amount of L-asparaginase for malignant growth.
    L-asparaginase + H2O L-asparaginase Aspartic acid + Ammonia (NH3).
    L-asparaginase was produced by wide range of bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, algae and plants (Prasad et al., 2013). Microbes are better source for the production of L-asparaginase, because they can easily be cultured, extracted and purified.
    1.1 Justification
    L-asparaginase has lots of medical and industrial applications. Ever since, L-asparaginase anti-tumor activity was first demonstrated, its production using microbial systems has attracted considerable attention owing to their cost effective and eco-friendly nature.
    1.2 Objectives of study
    The overall aim of the proposed study is the production of L-asparaginase (anti-cancerous) enzyme from bacteria.
     Isolation of pure cultures of bacteria from .soil samples
     Primary screening of purified isolates for L-asparaginase production
     Secondary screening of positive bacteria for L-asparaginase production in liquid medium.

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