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    CHAPTER ONE

    GENERAL INTRODUCTION

    The rate of cybercrime has gone up considerably in the last 10 years since the inception of the internet and digital age.in Nigeria, the national security adviser (NSA) estimated the annual cost of cybercrime to the country’s GDP is 0.08% which represents N 127 billion. There are various kinds of acts which would constitute an offence in the newly promulgated cybercrime Act 2015 such as: unlawful access to computers, unlawful interceptions of communications, unauthorized modification of data, misuse of data, system interference, intercepting electronic messages, emails, e-money transfer, tampering with critical infrastructure, computer related fraud, computer-related forgery, among others, as offenses that are punishable under the Act. Theft of electronic devices, electronic signature, child pornography and related offences, racism and xenophobic offences are also punishable under the Act. It also provided for cyber-stalking, cybersquatting and cyber-terrorism as offences; there are actually many valid reasons for the need of cybercrime laws in Nigeria. The study takes a subjective look at the attributes of cybercrime laws and certain challenges the cybercrime act and laws face such as: what constitutes a cyber-crime, who do you call when a cybercrime occurs, who enforces this act-the police or a special force, and how prepared are these officials?. It also takes a subjective look at certain controversial provisions of the cybercrime act of 2015 which are: cybercrime act and the registration of cybercafés, mandatory winding up and forfeiture of assets, lawful interception of communication, cyber security fund, cancellation of international passports.
    During the course of this research, reference and credit would be given to each author that his or her work is used in this research to add to existing
    This research work would raise certain contentious issues with the provisions of the cyber-crime act 2015, the enforcement mechanisms, officers, and how competent these officers are in combatting cyber-crime in Nigeria. It would also look at the scope, the significance, and research methodology used.
    1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
    Humans over the past years and decades have evolved from one stage to another stage in life, always coming up with different and better ways in carrying out their activities or daily life which they refer to as development. This can be traced back to the Stone Age down to the renaissance-the industrial revolution or the Iron Age. Humanity has passed through three (3) major stages of evolution which are; the hunter-gatherer, agricultural, and technological stage.
    Human developments or improvements in information and communication technology (ICT) has led to the information being represented into electronic or digital format which has led to the rapid demand of free, open and global access to information by its users.
    However, this shift from the ancient or traditional means of information communication has now provided a platform for criminal activities on the internet coupled with the fact that laptops, computers, and internet connectivity is becoming more affordable to the populace. Ever since the inception of the internet and Nigeria’s participation in this global phenomenon, there has been a rapid increase in the amount of crimes being committed on the internet through the use of various platforms such as Social media, emails, dating websites, online stores, Mobile Banking, Trade and service websites, and social engineering. The society over the past years have become more increasingly dependent on new information technology to carry out businesses through online services such as; Jumia, Konga, Wakanow, E-bay, Amazon and Alibaba, manage industrial activities, engage in personal communication through social media sites such as Facebook, Snapchat, WhatsApp, Pinetrest, Badoo, Tinder, Twitter, LinkedIn and many others. These technologies and information allow for enormous gain and efficiency, productivity and other benefits they create a vulnerability to those who wish to take an advantage of the system and new situations.
    Cyber-crime is now prevalent in the Nigerian society, of which the most common is fraud. this is as a result of the high rate of unemployment and other social factors which keep the youths among the Nigerian population Idle coupled with the ‘Get Rich Quick syndrome’. This makes the youth explore their skills in the cyber world and how they can benefit from it and not be caught knowing that there are no proper enforcement mechanisms put in place in Nigeria.
    The cyber-crime Act, 2015 is yet the most recent form of legislation combatting cyber-crimes in Nigeria and this study aims to analyze the key provisions of this Act, the contentious provisions, as well as to provide possible solutions and recommendations to combatting these cyber-crime issues in Nigeria. The study would also bring to light the various kinds of cyber-crime perpetrators, their mechanisms, and tools.
    1.2. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
    This research work will trace the history and uprising of cybercrimes such as ATM Fraud, piracy, hacking, email Scams etc. its effect on the Nigerian economy, its effect on Nigeria’s reputation in the global international system, the harsh effect of the cyber-crime act 2015 on cyber cafes operating in Nigeria, the cyber security fund; its use and management. The study takes a subjective look at the attributes of cybercrime laws and certain challenges the cybercrime act and laws face such as: what constitutes a cyber-crime, who do you call when a cybercrime occurs, who enforces this act-the police or a special force, and how prepared are these officials?
    1.3. OBJECTIVES
    The principal purpose of this study is to evaluate the cybercrime law in Nigeria with the main focus being the recently enacted Cyber-crime Act 2015 for the regulation of cybercrime activities in Nigeria. The study takes a subjective look at the attributes of cybercrime laws and certain challenges the cybercrime act and laws face such as: what constitutes a cyber-crime, who do you call when a cybercrime occurs, who enforces this act-the police or a special force, and how prepared are these officials?. Further analysis will amongst other things:
    • Discuss the Nature and Types of Cybercrime;
    • Assess the controversial provisions of the cybercrime Act 2015;
    • Examine and analyze key provisions of the Cybercrime Act 2015;
    • Suggest and recommend effective ways and methods on how cyber-crimes can be tackled in Nigeria.
    1.4. SCOPE OF STUDY
    This research work will focus on the present and future problems of cybercrime. The scope of this study or work includes but is not limited to; an overview of the cyber-crimes in Nigeria, the recently enacted cybercrime act 2015. An attempt would be made to analyze the cyber-crime Act 2015 and the international perspective and cooperation relating to the cyber-crime act 2015.
    1.5. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
    The significance of this study cannot be overemphasized. This is because this study would be of benefit to every internet user or subscriber; those who constantly carry out business, educational, Cyber cafés and financial transaction activities on the internet. The study is aimed at analyzing the recently enacted legislation on cyber-crime laws along with its shortcomings and challenges in combatting cyber-crime activities in Nigeria. The government, law and policy makers would also find this study very useful and handy as they attempt to come up with feasible and effective solutions to this rising issue of cyber-crime in Nigeria. Similarly, this work would further support law enforcement agencies with their aim to stopping cyber-crimes by giving suggestions and recommendations on ways in which they can enforce and equip themselves to be ready to combat cyber-crimes in Nigeria. This study would also help Law researchers and even those in related discipline in their future research.
    1.6. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
    During the course of this research, the doctrinal research method would be relied on for this research work. The research will combine both primary and secondary sources of materials. The relevant statutes and case laws would be consulted to assist in this research work.
    The nature of this study also demands that much reliance will be placed on online materials, textbooks, journals, and articles written in this area.
    1.7. LITERATURE REVIEW
    • What is Crime?
    With the aim of understanding and finding out the true meaning of cybercrime and its laws in Nigeria, the definition, elements and scope of crime would be evaluated.
    Sir Carleton Allen writes;
    “Crime is a crime because it consists in wrongdoing which directly and in serious degree threatens the security or wellbeing of the society.”
    This definition by Sir Allen explains why certain acts have been made crimes by the judicial decision or the legislative arm. These acts that have been made crimes do not necessarily reflect the present state of affairs. Meaning that a crime may remain a crime long after that act or crime no longer threatens the public or society. Hence Allen’s view describes to us what he thinks ought to be criminal than what is criminal.
    Some crimes however, may also be civil wrongs or torts such as theft, or criminal damage for which the affected individual may claim damages and compensation.
    A crime is any act or omission that violates a law which results in a punishment. Punishments can range from the payment of a fine to incarceration in jail. The level of the offense or crime will usually be set in proportion to the severity of the crime.
    Kadish defines crime as any act or omission to act which is prohibited by law enacted for the protection of the public at large and the judiciary is to punish the doer of a crime if found guilty of the offence as initiated by the prosecution attorney of the state. Kadish distinguishes between a “public crime” to be a public wrong whereas a private crime is a “civil wrong” and tort to an individual.
    • ELEMENTS OF CRIME;
    Preliminary element; before the state can attempt to prove that the defendant is guilty of the alleged crime, they must first determine (i) that there has been an occurrence of some injury which constitutes a crime, and (ii) that somebody’s criminal act is responsible for the injury. In a cybercrime case, the state would have to prove that there was an injury arising from the cybercrime act and that such cybercrime act was carried out by the defendant.
    There are two(2) elements that are necessary for the prosecution to prove during a criminal trial in order for the alleged criminal to be guilty These elements are known as the ‘Actus Reus’-an act (a Prohibited conduct), and the ‘Mens rea’ –this is the mental element of a guilty mind or intention. For example, if a person intentionally and without lawful excuse (such as self-defense) strikes another which leads to his harm or death, The prohibited conduct is the striking and the mental element, or guilty mind, is the intention to strike/hurt/injure. ‘Actus reus’ translates as “to do an act” from Latin, i.e. the occurrence of the criminal act or an unlawful omission of an act. It is the act which, in combination with mens rea constitutes a crime. For example, the crime of theft requires physically taking something (the actus reus) coupled with the intent to permanently deprive the owner of the object (the mens rea).the act of a cybercriminal deceiving another on the internet to transfer certain amount of money for false reasons or under false pretenses which would amount to a criminal act of fraud.
    ‘Mens rea’ translates as ‘to have in mind” from Latin. It is an important element of any crime because it relates to the need to determine whether the defendant held the sufficient state of mind to have the intent to commit the particular crime in question with the ‘guilty mind’. – 1) According to the Hyam v DPP case it relates to the idea that there is sufficient “criminal intention”. Sweet v. Parsley case illustrates that mens rea is required when the offence is a true crime as oppose to a normative offence.
    Furthermore, there are two additional elements which are needed to prove and these are; Causation, and Social Harm
    Causation basically just means that the prohibited act committed caused or resulted to the end harm.
    In proving social harm, The State must prove that the defendant performed a physical act that caused social harm with the intent to bring about that harm.
    • What is Cybercrime?
    There is no definite or generally acceptable definition of ‘cybercrime’ under the Nigerian law because cybercrime is a new and emerging field of criminal law which has recently been brought to light in the judicial system. There is little difference with what crime is and what cybercrime is, the major difference is the scope and the platform which cybercrime activities are carried out.
    The word cybercrime is popularly used to describe the criminal activities related to cyberspace or the cyber world. Furthermore, the word cybercrime could be defined as any crime that involves computer and networks, including crimes that do not heavily rely on computers and most times the computer is either a tool or a target or both. Therefore, cybercrime covers offences involving cyberspace, computers and other electronic information storage devices, such as data interference, illegal interception, illegal access and the misuse of devices.
    There has also been contention from various legal scholars that cybercrimes are old crimes via the computer. That is, the cybercrime offences are known to our statutes but are now promoted and carried out through the use of computers. However, in committing them, the digital media is used as an alternative instrument.
    According to Chukkol, it has been rightly observed that computers or related electronic medium like mobile phones may play a part in the commission of nearly every form of criminal activity for which penalties already exist under the existing statutes like the penal code law, the criminal code Act, Economic and Financial Crimes Commission Act.
    However, there is still need for a separate legislation on cybercrime with the aim of combatting, punishing, and deterring cyber criminals hence the Cybercrime Act, 2015. The foundation of criminal law in Nigeria’s legal system is that a person cannot be convicted for an offence that is not provided for in any criminal statute, legislation or enactment. Also the existing Penal code and criminal Act in Nigeria cannot be adequate or efficient in dealing with such cybercrime offences. The existing laws on crime in Nigeria did not address areas or envision issues like the jurisdiction- what happens when a cybercrime is committed outside Nigeria by a Nigerian? Who exercises jurisdiction? What courts have the jurisdiction to entertain the matter? The issue of evidence and investigation are also areas that need to be addressed. That is why there is a need for new Laws or enactments addressing these issues.
    • Categories of Cybercrime
    Cybercrime against Persons;
    Cybercrime committed against persons or individuals would include acts such as broadcast of child pornography, harassment of a person through any electronic device or internet, cyber bullying, fraud, and sending of viruses and DDOS. Cybercrime against persons can also be looked from the angle of a violation of a right to privacy of citizens online.
    Cybercrime against Property;
    The cybercrimes against property is one which is a notorious occurrence in the Nigerian cyberspace with acts such as intellectual property crimes (software piracy, theft of computer source code, infringement of copyright, patent, and trademark), cybersquatting, and cyber vandalism, spreading of viruses, cyber trespass and hacking.
    Cybercrimes against government
    The growth of the internet has led to various crimes and cyber terrorism with the aim of compromising the national security of a government to gain unauthorized access to their data and cause a number of other damages e.g. Wiki Leaks who illegally authorized files from the American government threatening to release them to the media.
    Cybercrimes against the society;
    Any unlawful act done with the intention of causing harm to the cyberspace or society at large, the cyber space can been used to carry out physical attacks on individuals and the society.

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    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background of The Study
    Documentary evidence is any evidence that is, or can be, introduced at a trial in the form of documents, as distinguished from oral testimony. Documentary evidence is most widely understood to refer to writings on paper (such as an invoice, a contract or a will), but the term can also apply to any media by which information can be preserved, such as photographs; a medium that needs a mechanical device to be viewed, such as a tape recording or film; and a printed form of digital evidence, such as emails, spreadsheets, etc.
    Normally, before documentary evidence is admissible as evidence, it must be proved by other evidence from a witness that the document is genuine, called “laying a foundation”.
    A piece of evidence is not documentary evidence if it is presented for some purpose other than the examination of the contents of the document. For example, if a blood-spattered letter is introduced solely to show that the defendant stabbed the author of the letter from behind as it was being written, then the evidence is physical evidence, not documentary evidence. However, a film of the murder taking place would be documentary evidence (just as a written description of the event from an eyewitness). If the content of that same letter is then introduced to show the motive for the murder, then the evidence would be both physical and documentary.
    Documentary evidence is subject to specific forms of authentication, usually through the testimony of an eyewitness to the execution of the document, or to the testimony of a witness able to identify the e handwriting of the purported author. Documentary evidence is also subject to the best evidence rule, which requires that the original document be produced unless there is a good reason not to do so.
    1.2 Statement of Problem
    Considering the concept of document generally as contained in Section 258 of the Evidence Act which explicitly mentioned that:
    “Document” include books, maps, plans, drawings, photographs and also includes any matter expressed or described upon any substance by means of letters, figures or marks or by more than one of these means, intended to be used or which may be used for the purpose of recording that matter”
    It is primary and crucial that a document used in litigation must not only be relevant, it should also be admissible. Thus, if a party wants to rely on the contents of a document to establish his case, it is his duty to bring them to notice of the court; and as a general rule he must produce the original of the document before the court.
    Nevertheless, in certain circumstances some obstacles do affect the admissibility of document to be tendered as evidence in the court of Law. Such issues include, lost of or destruction of paper documents, alteration, forgery of documents and sometimes documents are erroneously admitted by the court in the course of proceedings as well as other sundry issues relating to documentary evidence.
    There are the major problems that has to do with the admissibility of documentary evidence in the court of Law under the Law of Evidence in Nigeria i.e. striking the balance between the documents that are admissible and these that are not admissible as well as those that are become admissible in view of others are reliable evidence in the court of Law under Nigeria Law of Evidence.
    1.3 Objective of the Study
    The objective of this research is to portray the admissibility of documentary evidence under the Nigeria Law of Evidence which largely depend on the case laws and comments of erudite legal luminaries. And to some certain extent look at general concept of evidence, presumption relating to documents and exclusion of oral evidence by documentary evidence.
    1.4 Significance of the Study
    This research work serves as reference to other works of relevant field for incoming posterity. It will serve as medium public and private documents, the extent and limitation of the admissibility of such documents under Nigeria Law of Evidence.
    In view of the above, the research work will serve as a means of understanding the concept of document as well as its admissibility under the Nigeria Law of Evidence, which include the extent and limitations under Law, so that possible solutions and corrective measures will be proffered in tendering an or considering documents as an evidence.
    1.5 Methodology
    The research methodology used is pure doctrinal researches conducted in the library and internet. By this process the law reports of the superior courts of records, journals, national newspaper as well as renounced scholar Articles and paper presentation were consulted in my effort to state clearly the admissibility of documentary audience under the law of evidence in Nigeria.
    1.6 Scope of the Study
    The scope of this work is limited to the admissibility of documentary evidence under Law of Evidence in Nigeria. Nevertheless, this work will go on in a nutshell to have an overview of the concept of evidence generally; because one can only be successful in writing on admissibility of documentary evidence if, he highlighted the general concept of evidence in Law.
    Secondly, recent judgement of the superior courts of record in Nigeria as well as textbooks of the renounced lawyers and erudite judges also helped to discover the problems and solution in the process of writings.
    1.7 Organization of the Study
    This research work is divided in five chapters. Chapter one (1) consist of the introduction, statement of problem, objective of the study, significance of the study, methodology, scope of the study, organisation of the study and literature review.
    Chapter two (2) talks about the meaning of the concept Document; meaning of documentary evidence, types of documentary evidence, public and private document, general provision on documentary evidence and its admissibility in law as well as relevancy of documentary evidence.
    Chapter three (3) where the main work begin, looks at the the evidence act 2011- moving with the times and electronically generated evidence.
    Chapter Four provides a critical appraisal of the rules on admissibility of documentary evidence as to fact in issue under Sections 83 and admissibility of statements in documents produced by computers under Sections 84 of the Evidence Act 2011 which 26 includes admissibility of document made by a person in any proceeding, if the maker of the document had personal knowledge of the matters dealt with by the statement, where the document forms part of the record purporting to be continuous record, if the maker of the statement is called as a witness in the proceeding, the discretion of the Court to admit a statement made by the maker in any proceeding, the inadmissibility of the document made an interested person when the proceeding is pending or anticipated, admissibility of document signed or initialed by the maker, basis for admissibility of certificates of a registered medical practitioner, admissibility of computer generated document and conditions to be laid, admissibility of statement produced from different or combination of computers, basis for admissibility of certificate signed by a person in a responsible position, and conditions to be laid for an information to be duly supplied or produced by computer.
    While, chapter five (5) summarised everything in conclusion, recommendation and bibliography.
    1.8 Literature Review
    The importance of the work has been intensified and brought to bare mainly in pages featuring the practical application of the rules relating to documentary evidence in particular and its relevancy and admissibility of evidence in general.
    Although, there is no single textbook on the topic of this thesis, there are related articles written by lawyers and academics whose style and manner of approach will be explained below.
    Afe Babalola in his book :Law and Practice of Evidence in Nigeria” stated that a bill on information technology as well as the Evidence Bill 1998 which are still both before the National Assembly have hardly been attended to. On the other hand, some countries such as UK and USA have enacted statutes reforming their Laws, particularly the law of Evidence to take benefit of the advances in information, technology. It must be noted however that reform of the law of Evidence has been slow.
    Also, Yemi Osinbanjo believes amongst other things that computer printouts are not original. He also dispute with some English decisions even based on statutory provisions that computer documentary evidence is “real evidence”. The learned author also argues that those computer printouts do not qualify as documentary evidence under section (formerly section 90) of the Evidence Act. He concludes that unless the Evidence Act is amended, it will be difficult for courts in Nigeria to admit computer and electronically documentary evidence in Nigeria.
    Amupitan J in his article “Admissibility of Electronically Generated Evidence” stated that the Nigeria courts and the world over should at least give liberal interpretation to the admissibility of electronic evidence if the law is to be relevant and useful at this computer age of information technology in order to enhance and strengthen judicial activism. Also, Fidelis Nwadialo seeks to explain why he had decided not to treat computer generated evidence. He says he deliberately did this because there is no Nigeria law yet on the subject to have it included in a book on Nigeria law of Evidence, firmly submitting that any pronouncement on it will either amount to a suggestion or an opinion more suited for more journals as opposed to formal textbooks on law of Evidence. yet, while commenting on the “Sources of Nigeria Law of Evidence,” the learned author is of the view, having regard to section 5(a) of the Evidence Act and decision of the West African Court of Appeal, WACA and the Federal Supreme Court that “any Evidence which would have been admissible under the common law had the Act not been passed, will still be admissible.
    Although these writers have voiced the opinion on documentary evidence, they have not gone in depth on the topic.

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    CHAPTER ONE

    GENERAL INTRODUCTION

    1.0.0: Introduction
    When a suspect is described as having right, he is acknowledged to be entitled to something to which he has just claim under the law. By virtue of man’s creation, he has certain rights which are common to those of all other men. Most of the fundamental rights are in a sense natural right vested in every individual and to which he is entitled without any obligation or duty on the part of the government to provide facilities for their enjoyment.
    Moreover, all fundamental rights are in the final analysis rights, which impose limitations on executive, legislative or judicial powers of the government and are accordingly easily justifiable. Fundamental Human Right entails universal humanity which men enjoys and shares with his fellow men whether he is a suspect or a freeman. This in its totality has informed the writing of this project.

    1.1.0: Background To The Study
    Based on the adoption of universal declaration of Human Rights and the incorporation of fundamental human rights in our constitution, basic fundamental human rights have been created and which should be respected by all men in the Nigeria society. Unfortunately however, many people in our society face untold hardship day in day out because they are denied their basic rights, which normally the Constitution of Nigeria would enforce even though they are suspects but because they are unaware of these rights they rarely or never claim them. However, those who are saddled with these responsibilities fail to do their work properly. In this respect, this project will discuss some of the rights and the major rights of the suspects and how it could be known, respected and enforced properly by those concerned.

    1.2.0: Statement Of The Problem
    Even though there is a universal declaration of Fundamental Human Rights and Chapter IV of the Nigerian constitution in Fundamental Human Rights, the practicality has not been perfect because of the prevailing situation of unlawful treatment of suspects in the country.
    It is unlawful to treat suspect any how simply because they are being regarded as suspects. This clearly shows that the judiciary is aware of the right of an accused person and that it is sacrosanct and cannot be taken away unlawfully in this country. The violations of these rights have been so rampant in Nigeria.

    1.3.0: Objective Of The Study
    i. To study the relevance of the rule of law as a vital instrument for the protection and enjoyment of Fundamental Human Right and right to bail by the people most especially an accused person, who is the main centre of this work.
    ii. To know the principle of the rule of law, through which the rights of the accused to bail can be respected and recognized by everyone.
    iii. To enable the people know the best way to seek redress in the court of law whenever their rights are being infringed upon.

    1.4.0: Purpose Of The Study
    Ignorance as we all know is a disease, and has been earlier said, Nigerians generally are not well abreast of their legal rights even though it has been boldly written and spelt out in the Constitution of the country. But because every disease has a cure, the cure for the lack of awareness of these rights is the major purpose of this work particularly the right of an accused as stipulated in section 36 of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Which are: Right to silence, Right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty, Right to an interpreter, Right to informed properly the nature and detail of the charge among others

    1.5.0: Methodology
    The method that will be used to carry out this work is descriptive and not analytical. Major primary and secondary sources of law would be considered for the proper
    Overview or appraisal of this topic. The primary sources include the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, mainly Chapter IV and Section 35 and 36; the Criminal Procedure Code; the Criminal Procedure Act; and the Child Rights Act. The secondary source includes the International Articles on pro-bono services.

    1.6.0: Definition Of Terms
    BAIL: can be defined as the process through which an accused person who is arrested on the allegation of committing an offence is released by a constituted authority upon the provision of adequate security guaranteeing that the accused person would report at the police station or in court for his trail whenever his presence is required.
    ACCUSED: One charged with an offence
    AUDI ALTERAM PARTEM: The other party must be heard
    LEGAL AID: Free or inexpensive legal services provided to those who cannot afford to pay full price. Legal Aid is usually administered locally by a specially established organization
    NEMO DEBET ESSE JUDEX IN PROPRIA CAUSA: No one can be a judge in his own case
    PRO BONO: Being or involving uncompensated legal services especially for the public good
    PUBLIC DEFENDER: A lawyer or staff of lawyers, usually publicly appointed and paid, whose duty is to represent indigent criminal defendants
    SUSPECT: A person believed to have committed a crime or offence. To consider wrong doing without certain truth
    UBI JUS IBI REMEDIUM: Where there is a right there is a remedy

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    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background To The Study
    The term “Agriculture” is derived from the latin word “Ager” meaning field and culture.
    From a literary point of view, agriculture means field cultivation. Today, the term is now broadly constructed to include production, research and training in the field of crops, forestry livestock e.t.c. Agriculture is concerned with the cultivation of land to produce crops and rearing of animals of direct value to man. It is also concerned with the processing distribution and marketing of agricultural product.
    The Nigeria agriculture sector is still manifesting physical symptoms of peasant agriculture. It is dominated by small scale farmers who are responsible for about 95% of total production i.e the bulk of the source of our food. The livestock is in the hands of nomadic herdsmen; poultry is still essentially the backyard type; though a few commercial units are here and there. The fishing sector is also predominantly artisanal, very few motorized canoes are in use not to talk of fishing crawlers.
    The growth of the agricultural sector to a great extent, is a catalyst a support for the economic growth of developing countries. In emphasizing the importance of agriculture generally, Gunnair Myrdal notes that it is in agricultural sector that the battle for long term economic development will be won or lost.

    Nigeria is endowed with natural resources, large fertile farmland, wide range crops, and river amongst others. Despite its abundant natural resources it is faced with poor food situation. The poor food situation is traceable to the decline in the agricultural sector. The problem of feeding and provision of natural resources is increasing by the day. However several efforts are being made to improve the standard.

    Prior to the discovery of petroleum in Nigeria agriculture used to be the highest foreign exchange resources earner and contribution to gross domestic product GDP has been estimated to about 62.63% in 1960, 48.08% in 1970s, and 20.63% in 1980. Recently due to the growing awareness of the role of agriculture, the various governments have intensified efforts aimed at transforming from its present subsistence level to a market oriented production. One of those efforts was the ban made on importation of agricultural products like palm oil, maize and rice. This was done to encourage improvements on our production standard.

    Due to the fall in the level of production from decade to decade, the country could no longer feed the large population, provide raw material for domestic-industries, engage in export of agricultural produce and employ the labor force of the country despite the abundance of human and material resources.

    In spite of growing urbanization, Nigeria is known to be predominantly rural in natural and majority of population is dependent directly or indirectly on agriculture for their live hood. Credit delivery is perhaps one of the most important roles of banks, as the loans extended are used to expand existing businesses and in some cases to start new ones. According to CBN (2008) loans granted to clients is increasing from 2007 to date and most of it goes to financing micro-enterprises in rural areas.

    Ketu (2008) observed that banks have disbursed more than eight hundred million micro-credits to over 13,000 farmers across the country to empower their productive capacities. As such it is expected that agricultural output will increase with the increase in finding. The entrepreneurial capacity of the farmers we thus improve.

    1.2 Statement Of Research Problem
    According to Anyanwu etal (1997:14) “the agricultural sector has been recognized for a long time as an important sector to Nigeria economy and development is one of the crucial requirements for the overall economic growth.
    He noted further that the declined in agricultural activities might appear natural in any development process, it is obvious that in Nigeria agricultural activities would remain the most important single sector for some time to come. He emphasized that in the past, development planners have introduce programs such as national accelerated food production project (NATPP), green revolution programs (GRP), In search for all appropriate technique in order to increase farm output and productivity and such program have at one time been implemented.

    Based on these, a number of problems one facing the agricultural sector and they are as following. Inadequate finance or credit facilities, inadequate farms input, lack of storage facilities, lack of basic amenities, Lack of technical know-how, lack of research and illiteracy of the farmers.

    The questions to which this research will provide answers to one, is the credit advanced to farmers through adequate to have a significant impact on agriculture? All these problems can be solved or rather reduce when there is adequate financing.

    1.3 Research Questions
    This study revolved around the answering of the following research question.
    What extent does union bank and other commercial bank loans influences the agricultural output in Nigeria economy?
    What policy actions can be implemented to boost the agricultural productivity in Nigeria through does union bank and other commercial bank ?

    1.4 Objectives of The Study
    In this study therefore, the researcher hope to accomplish the following objectives:
    To determine how does union bank and other commercial bank loans/credit granted to the farmers can influences the agricultural output in Nigeria economy.
    To determine policy actions in which agricultural output can be improved through does union bank and other commercial bank credit.

    1.5 Hypothesis Of The Study
    Does union bank and other commercial bank loans have no significant impact on agricultural development in Nigeria?

    1.6 Significance of Study
    Union bank and other commercial bank services, particularly those sponsored by the government have adopted a traditional supply led subsidized credit approach mainly directed to the agricultural sector and other non-farming activities, but the effect has short lived.

    The Nigerian economy stands to derive lot of benefits if concrete steps are taken to salvage the agricultural sector opinions are divided as the actual benefit of policy, regulatory and supervisory framework and how it can develop economy, most especially the agricultural sector because it has grasps of the challenges facing agriculture.

    To the researcher, this work will serve as an avenue to broaden my knowledge, as it places a challenge that will expand my intellectual horizon by and applying various economic tools analysis draw conclusion for future analysis. It is also expected to serve as an impetus for further researchers in this area of study. It should not be considered as an end to research and policy making but as a guide taking into consideration of its limitation.

    To the government and its agencies, it looks at earlier policies designed and why they failed. Therefore it is hoped that it will provide a useful guide to policy makers in agriculture for steady and consistent policies and programmes in terms of funding.
    To the society, this researcher’s work will create awareness of the services that enables them engage in economic activities to be self-reliant, increase employment opportunities, wealth creation, growth and development. Finally, the salient findings of the study will also make the farmers to be more oriented in agriculture.

    1.7 Scope of the Study
    The scope of this research covers the period from 1998 to 2018. The period is significant because a lot of measures were adopted following the advert of crude oil and its collapse. That is pre-sap and implementation and role in financing the agricultural sector.

    1.8 Definition of Terms
    The following terms as they relate to this study is defined; these are:
    Agricultural development: is a process that involves adoption by farmers of new and better practices (Garba, 1987; Orebiyi, 1999).
    Agricultural Credit: Credit that facilitates the acquisition and application of state of the art technology and enables such enterprise to be in the driving seat in technology application (World Bank, 2000).
    Agricultural Productivity: Increased in agricultural sector contribution to the Gross domestic Product of the nation (Idachaba, 1995)

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    CHAPTER ONE

    introduction

    1.1 Background to the Study
    Transportation and property are important in physical and economic development of
    towns and cities all over the world. Property and land values tend to increase in areas
    with expanding transportation networks, and increase less rapidly in areas without
    such improvements. Rapid and continued rise in housing and land prices are expected
    in cities with transportation improvements and rapid economic and population growth
    (Goldberg, 1970).
    Man, nations, regions and the world would be severely limited in development
    without transportation, which is a key factor for physical and economic growth
    (Oyesiku, 2002). Transportation systems and land use are interdependent. Indeed
    findings of earlier studies indicate compelling and consistent connections amongst
    them (Ewing and Cervero, 2001; Polzin, 2004). According to Bailey, Mokhtarian, and
    Littlel (2008), transportation route is part of distinct development pattern or road
    network and mostly described by regular street patterns as an indispensable factor of
    human existence, development and civilization. The route network coupled with
    increased transport investment result in changed levels of accessibility reflected
    through Cost Benefit Analysis, savings in travel time, and other benefits. These
    benefits are noticeable in increased catchment areas for services and facilities like
    shops, schools, offices, banks, and leisure activities.
    Road networks are observed in terms of its components of accessibility,
    connectivity, traffic density, level of service, compactness, and density of particular
    roads. Level of service is a measure by which the quality of service on transportation
    devices or infrastructure is determined, and it is a holistic approach considering
    several factors regarded as measures of traffic density and congestion rather than
    overall speed of the journey (Mannering, Walter, and Scott, 2004).
    Access to major roads provides relative advantages consequent upon which
    commercial users locate to enjoy the advantages. Modern businesses, industries,
    trades and general activities depend on transport and transport infrastructure, with
    movement of goods and services from place to place becoming vital and inseparable
    aspects of global and urban economic survival. Developments of various
    transportation modes have become pivotal to physical and economic developments.
    Such modes include human porterage, railways, ropeways and cableways, pipelines,
    inland waterways, sea, air, and roads (Said and Shah, 2008).
    According to Oyesiku (2002), urbanization in Nigeria has a long history in its
    growth and development. Extensive development being a feature of the 19th and 20th
    centuries, with concentration of economic and administrative decision-making in
    Lagos, Ibadan, Kaduna, Jos, and Enugu, and high degree of specialization and larger
    population associated with greater specialization of goods and services. Wyatt (1997)
    states that urban areas have tendency to develop at nodal points in transport network
    and places with good road network will possess relative advantage over locations
    having poor network. Urban locations with such relative advantage are found where
    different transport routes converge with high degree of compactness, connectivity,
    density, length and accessibility exhibited within the intra- and inter- urban road
    networks.
    Ikeja is a typical example in the history of growth and development of cities in
    Nigeria. The city became capital of Lagos State in 1976 with improved road networks
    developed to cater for increase in concentration of pedestrian and vehicular
    movements. Similarly, commercial activities like banking, retail/wholesale
    businesses, and professional services congregated to take advantage of nearness to
    seat of governance. Concentration of activities attracted consumers and ancillary
    service providers. This partly caused increase in demand for commercial space and its
    concomitant effects on commercial property values along arterial roads in the
    metropolis.
    The present position concerning commercial properties in Ikeja is that
    majority are located along arterial roads that deliver much of the vehicular and
    pedestrian movements. There have been increases in rental values along the individual
    arterial roads although not at equal rates. It is against this background that this
    research analyzed the arterial roads, determined the levels of accessibility,
    connectivity, traffic density of the individual arterial roads, examined the pattern of commercial property values and the relationship between the explanatory variables of
    the road network in Ikeja Nigeria.
    1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
    The relationship between transportation and urban property values has been the focus
    of many studies (for example, Dewees, 1976; Damm et al, 1980; Wolf, 1992; Singh,
    2005). Some of the earlier studies returned positive relationship between transport and
    property values while others showed negative relationship. For instance, in a study on
    the relationship between rail travel cost and residential property values, a replacement
    of streetcar with subway increased site rent at a location that is perpendicular to the
    facility within a one-third mile walk to the station (Dewees, 1976); and there was
    positive influence of permanent transportation improvements on land values (Wolf,
    1992). It was established that there was statistically significant relationship between
    distance of a parcel of land to the nearest Metro station and land price (Damm,
    Lerner-Lam, and Young, 1980), while there was evidence that residential property
    prices decrease immediately around the transport investment or station value uplift
    through changes in land values (Singh, 2005).
    The urban areas all over the world offer a number of advantages in terms of
    concentration of people followed by demand for commercial properties and
    transportation. Ikeja is a classical example of a city that has developed rapidly since
    1976 when it became the Lagos State capital. Construction of roads increased
    substantially with the opening up of residential precincts that also benefitted from
    increasing demand for lettable spaces in commercial properties. Many private
    companies, retail stores, commercial banks aggregate in the metropolis to take
    advantage of opportunities afforded by locations near the seat of governance thus
    attracting complimentary services. This led to high concentration of vehicular and
    pedestrian movements especially along the access roads.
    The roads exhibit a number of nodes and linkages to form networks of both
    arterial and minor routes along which commercial properties locate. Commercial
    users displaced residential users, causing sites to be at highest and best uses with
    concomitant increases in the values of commercial properties. Accessibility within the
    road network is affected by the compact nature of various routes that sometimes impede volume of traffic. The road network is made up of nodal points and links that
    determine the degree of connectivity and accessibility in the network.
    A number of factors affect values of properties. These factors may be intrinsic
    or extrinsic. The extrinsic factors include increase in demand for lettable space,
    location, condition of adjoining properties, nearness to park and leisure, local and
    national economic conditions. External factors are due to natural characteristics of the
    property which affect the city where the property is located. Intrinsic factors arise
    from within the nature of the property itself and relate to the physical attributes,
    including size of room, state of repair, decoration, and facilities. Other attributes that
    increase or decrease the amount that users are willing and able to pay in an open
    market transaction include physical characteristics of the structure, change in taste and
    demand, effect of adjacent activities, economic activities, inflation, and changes in
    legislation. The demand for commercial properties itself is affected by changes in
    population, planning and development schemes, legislation, and availability of good
    road networks (Hendon, 1971; William, Davies, and Johnson, 1980; Richmond, 1982;
    Millington, 1982; Olayiwola, Adeleye and Oduwaye, 2006).
    Earlier theorists (Burgess, 1925; Hoyt, 1939; Harris and Ullman, 1951; Lean
    and Goodall, 1977) generally believe that sites adjacent to main transport routes have
    relative advantages over those located some distance away, and other sites located at
    route intersections possess relative advantage with greater advantages belonging to
    sites located at focus of transport system. These advantages are determined in relation
    to accessibility, which has different characteristics in relation to individual sites thus
    differentiating between sites in terms of accessibility advantages.
    Many of the aforementioned studies emphasized the effects of the factors on
    values of properties generally with little consideration given to road network pattern
    and its effects on values of commercial properties. Possible relationships between
    road networks, location attribute, demand and supply, and accessibility and
    commercial property values have therefore elicited the interest of the researcher in
    this direction. The relationship cannot be determined without due consideration given
    to the explanatory variables on one hand and commercial property values on the other.
    The use of roads leads to a study of urban areas in relation to land uses, especially
    commercial properties. It is against this background that this study was conceived.
    1.3 Research Questions
    The foregoing has elicited a number of questions in terms of road network analysis
    and values of commercial properties in Ikeja, Nigeria to which answers are to be
    proffered. The relationship between arterial road network and commercial property
    values cannot be determined without due consideration given to variables that make
    up the network, especially those that relate to arterial roads and other explanatory
    variables and values of commercial properties. Some pertinent questions to enable the
    study attain its stated objectives are as follows:
    1. What is the pattern of arterial roads in Ikeja?
    2. What are the spatial pattern and trend of commercial property values in the study
    area?
    3. What are the relationships between commercial property values and arterial road
    network in the presence or absence of other explanatory variables?
    4. What are the individual contributions of the explanatory variables to variability in
    commercial property values?
    5. What are the models to explain and predict the relationship between the
    explanatory variables and commercial property values?
    1.4 Aim and Objectives of the Research
    The aim of this research is to analyze the network of arterial roads and other
    explanatory variables and commercial property values in Ikeja, while the specific
    objectives are to:
    a. Analyze the arterial road network pattern in the study area;
    b. Examine the spatial pattern and trend of demand, supply and values of
    commercial properties in the study area;
    c. Determine the relationships between commercial property values and road
    network, in the presence or absence of other variables, in the study area;
    d. Determine the contributions of individual explanatory variables to variability in
    commercial property values in the study area;
    e. Derive models for predicting variability in commercial property values in
    relation to the explanatory variables.
    1.5 Research Hypotheses
    Consequently, the following hypotheses were postulated:
    1. There is no significant relationship between commercial property values and
    independent explanatory variables in the study area.
    2. There are no differences in individual contributions of explanatory variables to
    variability in commercial property values in the study area.
    1.6 Justification and Rationale for the Research
    It is trite amongst earlier studies on accessibility in relation to property values that
    profitability and utility are determined by accessibility. The greater the accessibility of
    a location the greater the comparative advantage, and the greater the comparative
    advantages the greater the demand for property at the location. Lean and Goodall
    (1977), for instance, stated that urban areas naturally develop at nodal points in the
    transport network and those locations with good transport access to other areas have
    relative advantage over locations with poorer transport facilities and that urban
    locations having such relative advantages are likely to be where transport routes
    converge. Similarly, Estate Surveyors/Valuers and Planners believe that accessibility
    has great impacts on property values, with properties along major roads and at nodal
    points having greater values (Ogunsanya, 1986; Oduwaye, 2004; Omoogun, 2006).
    However, accessibility discussed in these studies was based on intuition without
    empirical basis to justify what relative accessibility advantages the locations have.
    This study borrows techniques found useful in other fields like operational
    research, geography, transportation and urban planning to explain and analyze road
    network for purpose of determining the relative accessibility of each of the arterial
    roads. It is believed that the techniques used in these fields can be extended to studies
    in estate management, thereby making cross-fertilization of research ideas across
    various fields possible. In this regard, this research has become relevant in
    determining the relationship between arterial road network and values of commercial
    properties in Ikeja.
    In addition, it is essential to establish a technique that may be useful for
    determining relative accessibility of locations in the network of arterial roads. Even
    when relative advantages are determined, there is need to develop models that will be
    useful for predicting commercial property values in Nigeria. The model may become tool for professional Estate Surveyors and Valuers to change their practice of using
    intuition to determine relative accessibility of locations in a road network. Similarly,
    there is the need to predict the supply of, demand for, and fair market values of
    commercial properties by developers, Estate Surveyors and Valuers, and feasibility
    and viability appraisers in present day’s risks and uncertainty in property
    development. This has underscored the importance of this study.
    Based on complexity of commercial, industrial, real estate activities and
    degree of urbanization exemplified by the study area, deductions and findings from
    the study may be applicable to other cities in Nigeria. The study will also arouse the
    interest of researchers in estate surveying and valuation particularly along
    transportation valuation, an aspect that probably has not been explored in Nigeria.
    A review of literature showed that studies on Nigerian intra-urban road
    network using the graph-theoretic concept to determine accessibility effects on
    commercial property values are scanty, available ones were on USA and U.K. This
    study will therefore contribute to empirical studies on intra-urban road network and its
    influence on commercial property values in Ikeja, Nigeria.
    1.7 Scope of the Study
    Roads may be classified as international, inter-city or intra-city. International and
    inter-city roads are usually major or arterial roads, while intra-city roads are routes
    within a city and may be minor or major (arterial). The study focused on arterial roads
    in the intra-urban network of Ikeja. There are ninety roads in Ikeja out which thirtyseven
    are arterial. From the thirty-seven arterial roads in the study area, only twenty
    traverse the commercial axes while others serve institutional, industrial, and
    residential neighbourhoods. This study therefore covered all major roads serving the
    commercial axis and inner areas of Ikeja to the exclusion of inter-city roads such as
    Lagos/Abeokuta Expressway, Oworonsoki/Apapa Expressway, Ikorodu Road, and
    Lagos/Ibadan Expressway that form rings around the study area.
    Preliminary study revealed that there are five types of commercial properties
    in the study area. These are retail shop premises, banking spaces, office properties,
    warehouses, and non-specific commercial properties. In respect of this research, focus
    was on offices, shops, banking spaces and other types of commercial users along the
    arterial routes to the exclusion of residential, industrial, and non-specific type of
    commercial properties.
    Due to the magnitude, terrain and complex nature of Lagos State roads, the
    study was limited to Ikeja intra-city roads. Ikeja is the predominant component of
    Ikeja Local Government, which itself is one of four zones identified within the larger
    Lagos metropolis. The four zones (Lagos Island, Apapa, Lagos Mainland, and Ikeja)
    represent commercial hubs of Lagos metropolis, which as revealed by preliminary
    observation, shows activity areas where employment, commercial, transportation
    terminals, and other businesses are concentrated (Oni, 2008).
    Road network analysis was carried out to determine the levels of accessibility
    and connectivity of nodal points as well as road and traffic densities in the hope of
    predicting commercial property values along each arterial road. In doing so, only the
    arterial roads identified as commercial axes in the study area were the focus of the
    research to the exclusion of secondary connector roads, while the relationship
    between arterial roads and commercial properties in the study area were examined.
    Many factors have dictated the choice of Ikeja. First, it is the capital of Lagos
    State of Nigeria and a socially heterogeneous city with variety of local, state and
    federal government roads. Second, the property market in the study area is well
    developed and it is possible to identify and analyze variations. Comprehensive data
    are available on commercial property values in Ikeja, which is one of the few cities in
    Nigeria offering opportunity for comprehensive survey of its commercial properties,
    with enlightened occupiers of commercial premises thereby making data collection
    possible. Third, a number of property magazines are in circulation in the city where
    professional Estate Surveyors and Valuers advertise commercial properties available
    for sale or letting. This makes the property market very active and up-to-date with
    stakeholders, prospective tenants, property owners, and investors versatile and
    knowledgeable about the goings-on in the market. Fourth, judging from what is
    applicable in Nigeria, the Ikeja road network is one of the most complex in terms of
    linkages, human and vehicular movements with availability of computerized and upto-
    date data and satellite images of the road network.
    1.8 Limitations of the Study
    The study focused on analysis of arterial roads and commercial property values in
    Ikeja. It did not attempt to investigate the structural stability of the arterial road
    network or assess the methods and accuracy of methods adopted by respondents in
    fixing the values of commercial properties in the study area. It simply analyzed accessibility, connectivity, arterial road network, distance to most central place in the
    study area, demand and supply of commercial properties in relation to commercial
    property values in the study area. Graph theoretic technique was used to analyze the
    arterial road network while opinions of Estate Surveyors and Valuers practicing in the
    study area were relied upon. The accuracy, or otherwise, of such opinions although
    not in doubt was not investigated.
    Some challenges were encountered during the study. By virtue of the busy
    nature of Estate Surveying and Valuation practitioners and “carefulness” of occupiers
    of the sampled commercial properties, there was considerable reluctance on their parts
    to volunteer information. Some of the respondents, especially Estate Surveyors and
    Valuers, delayed in completing the questionnaires and it took personal influence of
    the researcher (as their colleague) and assistance of the Lagos State Branch Chairman
    of the Nigerian Institution of Estate Surveyors and Valuers to obtain their eventual
    impressive responses. In addition, the researcher took time to allay the fears of
    Occupiers by educating them about the essence of the research, that it would in no
    way expose them to imposition of levies or charges or any liability to the Lagos State
    Government.
    The populations of commercial properties and occupiers in the study area were
    indeterminate. The study population was too large and there was no census available
    to ascertain them thereby making determination of their number somewhat tasking.
    The researcher however found a way out of the challenge by using a form of sampling
    based on estimated population of occupiers and adopting direct observation of the
    sampled properties to determine the average number of occupiers. These limitations
    however neither affected the quality of data collected nor the conclusions drawn from
    it.
    The various opinions of Estate Surveyors and Valuers were relied upon, in
    some cases, to the exclusion of those of occupiers especially in respect of questions
    that required a form of professional opinion. This was consequent upon the findings
    from the pilot tests earlier conducted which showed that the occupiers found such
    questions too technical. Hence, questions like rating of the roads in the study area in
    terms of accessibility, supply and demand of commercial properties were
    subsequently limited to the Estate Surveyors and Valuers.
    1.9 The Study Area
    Ikeja city is a large component of the Lagos metropolis. Lagos itself is the largest city
    in Nigeria, located at 6°34′60″N, 3°19′59″E along the West African coast and was the
    capital city of the country before it was replaced with Abuja on 12th December, 1991.
    However, Lagos remains the commercial nerve centre of Nigeria. The city is a typical
    example in the history of growth and development of urban areas in Nigeria. The
    Western Region administered the city along with Agege, Mushin, Ikorodu, Epe, and
    Badagry until Lagos State took off as an administrative entity, and in 1976 Ikeja
    replaced Lagos Island as the capital of Lagos State; consequently, more roads were
    constructed.
    In the general context, Lagos State is made up of twenty local government
    council areas out of which sixteen form the metropolitan Lagos and Ikeja Local
    Government area is one of them. Ikeja is both the administrative capital and
    Headquarters of Ikeja Local Government Council Area of Lagos State. Ikeja Local
    Government Council Area is located in the north-central part sharing boundaries with
    Ifako-Ijaiye, Agege, and Alimosho Local Government Council Areas in the western
    perimeter; Kosofe, and Mushin Local Government Council Areas in the eastern side,
    while Oshodi-Isolo Local Government Council Area forms the boundary in the
    southern part and Ogun State in the north as shown in Fig. 1.1


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    ABSTRACT

    The aim of this study was to investigate Audience perception of federal government removal of fuel subsidy in Enugu metropolis. Three main research questions were formulated for the purpose of this study and other sub questions aimed at prying into audience perception, causes and effects of fuel subsidy removal in Nigeria. Survey research method was used because of its convenience, reliability and cheapness. The study population was Enugu Metropolis. A total of 200 respondents were selected, using the purposive random sampling. The number of retrieved questionnaire was 195, representing 97.5% response rate. Statistical analyses of data collected were performed using, frequency distribution, percentages, tables while Chi-square formula was used to test the formulated hypothesis. Results revealed that audience perceived the removal of oil subsidy as an act of selfishness, wickedness and the federal government means of promoting their selfish interest, thereby making the masses to suffer. Corruption in the oil sector and gross mismanagement and also due to few corrupt individuals that are united to promote their private interest among other factors have been found to be the reasons and causes for the removal of fuel subsidy. These in turn have led to increase in prices of fuel pump oil products; increase in prices of food commodities, transportation and increase in operating costs of micro and small enterprises. The researcher recommends that there was a significant relationship between fuel subsidy removal and cost standard of living of the general populace. She suggested that the federal government should look into other sectors of the economy such as agriculture, tourism etc. in other to boost the economy.

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background of the Study

    For some number of years, Nigeria enjoyed subsidy on petroleum products. This came to an end on January 1st, 2012, after a declaration from President Goodluck Jonathan that afterwards, the subsidy was to be removed (Zaccheus, 2011). In Nigeria, the issue of appropriate pricing of petroleum product has always been a controversial policy issue. Successive governments have dealt with this problem to no avail. Suffix to say that in Nigeria, subsidy removal implemented by governments had always yielded negative effects on the citizens. According to Centre for Public Policy Alternatives (2012), a subsidy by definition is any measure that keeps the prices

    consumers pay for a good or product below market levels for consumers or for producers above market. The essence of having subsidy in place for products and services is that it has direct positive impact on poverty reduction in the lives of the poor masses who could not afford high prices (Nwaoga and Casimir, 2013).
    Subsidies were introduced in the Nigerian energy sector in the mid 1980‟s. Something of a

    creeping phenomenon, the value of the subsidies has gone from 1 billion in the 1980s to an expected 6 billion Dollars in 2011. In this period the specific products targeted for subsidy have changed. Diesel oil has had its associated subsidy redacted while petrol, gasoline; kerosene continues to enjoy a 54.4 % subsidy over the international spot market price at the Nigerian pump. Economists believed that social welfare is maximized when the price of each good and service is freely determined by the interaction of buyers and sellers in open competitive markets. In practice and especially in developing countries however, policy is often driven more by political consideration than rational economic theory. The risk of social unrest, street riots, and threats of civil war very easily make introduction of market distorting policies justified. Nigeria as a case in point is under increased pressures to grow its economy. Yet countervailing forces of corruption, mismanagement of public resources and poor governance conspire to frustrate efforts to sustain growth in the face of rising population numbers and demands for a democratic dividend by the citizenry (Centre for Public Policy Alternatives, 2012).
    According to Centre for Public Policy Alternatives, the justifications for introduction or removal of subsidies vary markedly. In developed economies Environmental issues, international trade and maintaining competitiveness are the main drivers of policy. Whereas welfare, poverty alleviation and election cycle politics largely underpin the reasons for which subsidies are introduced in developing countries. A new factor in the current mix of policy drivers is the

    renewed emphasis on governance reform championed by the Bretton woods institutions-The World Bank, IMF and the donor community. Lending urgency to this scenario is the global economic downturn and consequent rationalization by lenders, aid granting countries. As domestic demand for funds increase in these countries amounts available for aid, FDI and subsidies diminish. The consequence is a demand for greater efficacy in the economies of the aid receiving countries of which Nigeria is one.
    Furthermore, the issue of fuel subsidy removal has torn this nation into two factions, the government and the economic experts on one hand and the masses on the other hand. The last fuel subsidy removal on 1st January, 2012 sparked an uprising that almost led to a revolution; this attracted a lot of public debate, opinions and reactions leading to NLC strike and demonstrations in various states. Therefore, the major focus of this study is to investigate audience perception of federal government removal of fuel subsidy in Nigeria on January 2012.
    1.2 Statement of the Research Problem.

    Fuel is central to the economic pursuits of Nigerians, whose sustenance daily bread is tied to this bye product of Nigeria‟s rich crude oil deposits. The Petroleum Product Pricing Regulatory Agency (PPPRA) regulates the downstream Oil and Gas industry on behalf of the Federal Government and by the removal of subsidy on Premium Motor Spirit (Petrol), the downstream sub-sector of the Petroleum industry is deregulated for Petrol. Deregulation leaves market forces as the sole determinant of product prices. While over the years, many Nigerians have opposed the implementation of the policy in the Oil and Gas Industry, international finance and donor agencies like the World Bank and IMF have been very harsh in their criticisms of the successive governments that have sustained the policy for a single inherent flaw they condemned as harmful to the growth of the Nigerian economy. However it should be noted that there were obvious

    flaws in the policy at inception and up to January 1, 2012 when it was removed there were more private retailers of petroleum products than the state owned NNPC stations. The regulatory framework (PPPRA) used to enforce the subsidy was weak, under resourced and suffered from the Nigerian disease. The secrecy and lack of transparency by the administrator of the subsidy (the NNPC) did not help matters either. Nigeria still could not make her refineries efficient. This means that Nigeria could not produce enough refined products for local consumption. Finally, due to the weak regulation by the PPPRA, some economic saboteurs/cabal were able to misappropriate the fuel subsidy money and channel it to their own personal pockets instead of using it for what it was intended for. These and more reasons triggered the federal government of Nigeria to remove the subsidy on fuel. By this removal of oil subsidy, the question this study seeks to answer is: What is the perception of the audience with regards to the removal of oil subsidy in January 2012?
    1.3 Objectives of the Study

    The objectives of this study are:

    1. To examine the audience perception of fuel subsidy removal

    2. To examine the cause of the fuel subsidy removal

    3. To ascertain the effects of fuel subsidy removal on the citizens of Nigeria.

    1.4 Research Questions

    The study will proffer answers to the following research questions:

    1. What is your perception of the fuel subsidy removal?

    2. What would you consider to be the cause of fuel subsidy removal?

    3. What do you consider to be the effects of fuel subsidy removal on the citizens of Nigeria?

    1.5 Research Hypothesis

    H1: There is significant relationship between oil subsidy removal and cost/standard of living of the residents of Enugu metropolis.

    1.6 Scope of the Study

    This study investigates audience perceptions of the Federal Government removal of oil subsidy in January 1, 2012 amongst residents of Enugu metropolis. It also investigated how the audience perceived removal of oil subsidy. Decision was then made to conduct this study amongst residents of Enugu metropolis because of proximity to the base of the researcher.
    1.7 Significance of the Study

    The uniqueness of this study is that it will be used to determine the opinions, beliefs, attitudes and general behaviour of Nigerians on the Federal Government‟s removal of oil subsidy. Also, the study will add to the numerous literatures written on the issue of the removal of fuel subsidy by the government. It is also hoped that the findings of this study will help the government to be more alive to their duties, as it should be under a democratic government. Also, this study is significant politically because it will assist government in formulating formidable policies that will bring a more robust relationship with the people as well as engender the needed conducive environment for political and societal development. It will also help our future researchers to use the study as a source of reference for future research academic and other purposes.

    1.8 Definition of Terms

    The following terms that formed the topic of this study are hereby defined conceptually and operationally. The conceptual definitions are the dictionary meanings whereas the operational definitions are their working meanings they include:

    Audience: This means those who are directly or indirectly affected by the removal of the fuel subsidy.
    Perception: The general opinion held by Enugu urban residents about the removal of fuel subsidy by the federal government.
    Fuel Subsidy removal: This means the withdrawer of the policy which made the price of fuel to be reduced for the affordability of average Nigerians.

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    ABSTRACT

    This research work is aimed at analyzing Audience perception of female models in advertising message (a study of always ultra commercials). The research method used was survey method and questionnaires being the instrument. The findings from the questionnaire shows that the audience, especially those in Enugu metropolis, now have positive perception of female models with the aid of the “Always ultra” commercials they watch on their TV sets, after the findings, the researcher recommended that advertising regulatory bodies should scrutinize adverts properly before they are shown on TV.

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background of the study

    For any organization, advertising is one of the most important marketing activities, in modern economics; advertising occupies an important market position. The industry (advertising) has grown to become an important economic entity supporting lives of millions of people in the world. Advertising is not only an economic activity, but it articulates, different ideas, attitudes and values, which shape out social life and consumption patterns. Therefore, it can be said that advertising has become and form by virtue of signifying practices. Advertisements, articulates meaning to words and images although this depends on how we interpret them.

    Advertising is such a strong influence in our society that it determines our needs, what we care about, how we raise our children, what our interests are and so on. Advertising plays a role involving a number of relationships, power and satisfaction; in this light, advertising has over the years used women as a tool/ implement to persuade consumers into buying a product and portray the woman beautiful and desirable. As noted by Puranik(2011) “advertising is nothing, but a paid form of non-personal presentation or promotion of ideas, goods or services by an identified sponsors with a view to disseminate information concerning an idea, product or disseminated is called advertisement.

    In present day marketing activities, hardly is there any business in the modern world which does not advertise. However, the form of advertisement differs from business to business.

    Areas (2008) said that “advertising is the structured and composed, no-personal communication of information , usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature, about products, services, and ideas, by identified sponsors, through various mass media like television, billboard, newspaper, magazine, with the aim of creating awareness”. This definition has a close link with that of Dominick (2007), which says that “advertising is any form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods and services, usually paid for, by an identified or known sponsor. Advertising makes use of various media to reach out to the consumers across the globe”. Thus it is seen as the process of persuading potential customers to buy products or promote its services. Wikipedia (2011) give way that any organization that wants its products to be known and looked for, has to create awareness through advertising.

    Wilson, cited in Asemah (2010) said that advertising is controversial in nature and that in the early twentieth century, people clamored for the regulation of advertising. Believing much of it was exaggerated and untruthful. The United Nations conference on women recognized the importance of the mass media on the image of women/ female models. As noted by Ingham (n.d), television is widely known to represent and reinforce the main stream ideology of contemporary western culture: particularly. While television representations of women have changed greatly in the last twenty years alone, in other to accommodate the changing role of women on the society, one is led to ask how much the ideology has changed behind the more modern representations of women. If this is the case, then it is important for us to question how real the representations of women are on television and how this affects the attitudes of those who watch. Some of the most watched and perhaps influential genres of television viewing are advertisements and soap operas, in a world where women are numbered greater than men, can television be said to reflect the world as it is or dictate it?

    Limipinnian (n.d) avers that gender representation on a small scale has always been important for one to understand what it means to be male or female. Looking at it in terms of advertising (possibly considering the most important aspect, powerful and influential medium in this ever-increasing commercial society) is to look at it with a more serious eye from the image inflicted upon us in the patriarchal mass media that surround us, it is assumed that we have been encouraged to mould ourselves into a set ideal. For a woman, that means having beauty, elegance, passivity and good domestic ability. One of the reasons televisions is resistant to the messages as conflicting with women’s desire to consume. Advertisers do not want to present to the audience a liberated woman, because this new woman does not want and thus, will not buy their products. For this reason, the paper critically examines the perception of the audience of female models in advertising messages, using “always ultra” commercials as the study.

    Understanding the concept of advertising

    It is any paid form of non-personal communication link, initiated by an identified marketer, to establish or continue exchange relationships with customers and at times, with other stakeholders. Companies advertise to: build awareness, position a product/brand, build preference, and differentiate their products/ brands. Dominick (2007) sees advertising as any form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods and services, usually paid for by an identified sponsor.
    Wikipedia (2011) gave a comprehensive definition of advertising thus:

    Advertising is the process of persuading potential customers to buy products or promote its services. It is also the branch of marketing that deals with communicating to customers about products, brands, and services. Advertising is a type of communication used to persuade an audience (viewers, readers, or listeners) to take some action with respect to products, ideas or services. Most commonly, the desired result is to drive consumer behavior with respect to a commercial offering, although political and ideological advertising is also common. Advertising messages are usually paid for by sponsors and viewed via various traditional media, including mass media such as newspapers, magazines, television commercials, radio advertisements, outdoor advertising or direct mail or new media such as website and text
    Therefore, the real message, aim/objectives of advertising is effective communication and understanding between producers and consumers.

    1.2 Brief history “Always ultra” product/commercials

    “Always” began in test market in Minneapolis, Minnesota in January 1983. At that time

    (3) pad types were introduced: maxi pads, minipads, and pantiliners. The ongoing market share objective was 25%; by October/November “always” had a 21.5% share; year (1) was 18.9%.The target audience were women between the ages 12-49. Test market result indicated “always” could achieve a 22.5% going share nationally. Competition at the time was intense. Johnson and Johnson was the market leader. Competitive response includes new product line extensions, products improvement, and heavy competitive promotional spending. “Always” also spent very heavily at the time. Consumer awareness of the product was low; consumers who tried “Always” like it, except for the pad.

    By 1984, “Always” was in national distribution at that time there were (4) four pad types: maxi pads. Minipads, thin minipads and pantiliners. National expansion results were mixed: market share was 14.8% vs. the 16% objective key issues included in-market distribution and out of stock problems to meet the original 22.5% objective. Additionally, awareness among pad-using women was 82% compared to test market at 89%. Television advertising started 7-2- 84 and samples were mailed including a coupon. In 1986, “Always” plus was introduced into the US representing the first line of feminine hygiene pads with panty protectors on the side where leakage is most likely to occur. In 1991,”Always” ultra was introduced into the US market. The ultra pad incorporates a novel super sober technology for feminine hygiene protection. In Europe, the general expansion of the full “Always” product line, including “Always ultra” and pantiliners also began.

    1.3 Statement of the problem

    It is important to know that advertisings increasing sophistication and sophistry are clearly evident

    In today’s world, sophistication is manifested in attention grabbing advertisements copies, which virtually compel recipients to pay undivided attention. The primary stereotypes, is the portrayal of female models as sex objects. Women are often presented in limited roles because of the perception that they are not dependent and do not fit into the business votes or authority settings, they are portrayed to be more feminine. Men or male models are usually placed above the female models, because they (male models/men) are seen as calm and perfect for such roles. Therefore

    the study is after the perception that is how the audience views female models or their thoughts of them in passing advertising messages.

    1.4 Objectives of the Study

    The objectives of the study are:

    a) To examine the role of female models in advertising messages.

    b) To find out audience perception of female models in advertising messages.

    c) To determine the effect “always” ultra commercials has on the advertising perception of the audience.
    d) To find out how “always” ultra commercials have portrayed female models to the audience.

    1.5 Research Questions

    a) To what extent have female models passed advertising messages?

    b) How has “always ultra” as a product helped in terms of advertisements, to portray advertising messages to the audience?
    c) How has “always ultra” commercials influenced the audience?

    d) In what way manner does the audience see female models?

    e) Do models have negative or positive impact in advertising?

    1.6 Scope of the Study

    The essence of this research work is to study how “Always ultra” as a product and its advertisements/commercials has aided audience perception, of female models in passing advertising messages in Enugu metropolis. The study covers the various commercials run by the

    “always ultra” company and how it has helped the audience in making their choice, or giving their opinion on what they think of female models.

    1.7 Significance of the study

    The study will help to determine the extent of knowledge of audience and likewise their attitude towards commercials both on radio and television. Also, the research helps to ascertain the importance of electronic media especially the television as a media of bringing about people’s awareness innovation. As a result of this research/study, it helps to educate the audience on the benefits include positive view of female models in advertising messages, and
    the importance of the product been studied to the audience and finally eliminating the thought of female models as only sex objects and not product promoters.

    1.8 Operational definitions of Terms

    The following terms where used and is defined as follows: Audience
    Perception Female models
    Audience perception Commercials Advertising

    Audience: a group or number of people that come together to watch, listen, or read the same thing.

    Perception: it is an idea, belief, or an image you have as a result of how you understand the true nature of something.

    Female models: a lady or woman that showcases a product/service.

    Audience perception: what a group of people think of the true nature of a thing. Commercials: it is connected with showcasing goods and services and making profit. Advertisement: a notice, picture, or film telling people about a product, job, or service.

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    ABSTRACT

    This study investigated the bacteriological and fungal evaluation of three commonly used herbal drugs sold in Calabar metropolis. Using standard microbiological analytical protocols, the total bacterial counts ranged from 7.3×103 to 1.2×107cfu/ml while fungal counts ranged from 6.0×103 to 1.1×107cfu/ml. The bacteria isolated includes Bacillus species, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus species, Serratia marcescens and Klebsiella pneumoniae with percentage occurrence of 100%, 66.7%, 66.7%, 66.7% 33.3%, 33.3%, 33.3%, respectively, while the fungal isolates included Fusarium sp, candida albican and Aspergillus niger with prevalence occurrence of 100%, 33.3%, and 33.3%, respectively. The bacterial and fungal isolates showed susceptibility to all the antibiotics except Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus that exhibited moderate resistance to ampicillin and cefoxitin, respectively. There is, therefore, an urgent need for implementation of routine evaluation of herbal medicines and infection control policies in Cross River state and Nigeria in general.

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background of the study
    Traditional medicine (TM) is the sum total of knowledge, skills and practices based on the theories, beliefs and experiences indigenous to different cultures, whether explicable or not (WHO, 2000). TM could be use in the maintenance of health as well as in prevention, diagnosis, improvement or treatment of physical and mental illnesses (WHO, 2000). On the other hand, herbal medicines are plant-derived materials or preparations with therapeutic or other human health benefits, which contain either raw or processed ingredients from one or more plants. In some traditions, materials of inorganic or animal origin may also be present (WHO, 2000). Herbs include leaves, stems, flowers, fruits, seeds, roots, rhizomes and barks. The use of herbs for treating various diseases predates human history and forms the origin of most of the modern medicine. Long before the advent of modern medicine, herbs were the mainstream remedies for nearly all ailments (Barakat et al., 2013)
    In the last decade, there has been a global upsurge in the use of traditional medicine (TM) and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in both developed and developing countries. Today, therefore, certain forms of traditional, complementary and alternative medicines play an increasingly important role in health care and health sector reform globally. Hence, the safety and efficacy, as well as the quality control of traditional medicine and complementary and alternative medicines have become important concerns for both health authorities and the public. Man to cure diseases and heal injuries since time immemorial (Perumalsamy and Ignaglumuthu 2000) has used plants and herbs. In recent years, interest has been renewed in the use of medicinal plants, and scientific studies are designed to explain some of the curative phenomena associated with traditional herbal remedies. Most drugs utilized by people all over the world are of plant origin (Mboto, 2009).
    Due to its intrinsic qualities, unique and holistic approaches as well as its accessibility and affordability, herbal medicines continues to be the best alternative health care available for the majority of the global population, particularly for those in the rural areas of developing countries (Mwambazi, 1996).
    The bioactive principles and mechanism of action in most herbal preparations are usually not clearly defined, and there could be possibilities of interaction with each other in solution. According to Ogbonnia et al (2010), the quality as well as the safety criteria for herbal drugs may be based on a clear scientific definition of the raw materials used for such preparation. As related by the World health Organization (WHO), herbal medicines are medications prepared from one or more herbs or plant parts (roots, stem back, seeds and or fruits).
    These preparations are often used in different forms including chewing sticks, herbal pastes, powders, herbal mixtures and suspensions and may carry a large number of microbes originating from soil usually adhering to various parts of herbs. Most of these herbal materials are prepared and sold under unhygienic conditions
    (Oluyege et al., 2008).

    1.2 Justification for the study
    Several studies have reported the isolation of microbes especially in herbal materials that are prepared and sold under unhygienic conditions (Oluyege et al., 2008, Ngari et al., 2013). These microbes exist in these herbal preparations as either potential pathogens or contaminants. Commonly reported pathogens and contaminants that are associated with herbal medicine include; Salmonella, Escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus, shigella species, fungi, viruses, protozoa, insects and other gram positive and gram negative strains of bacteria (Ngari et al., 2013). These organisms have been reported to pose serious health hazards and risk to consumers of these medicines as well as affect the quality of the products (Banerjee and Saker, 2003). In Nigeria, herbal medicines is becoming so popular and there is dearth of information in evaluation of microbial quality of these medicines especially in Cross River state.

    1.3 Aims and objectives of the research.
    This study is aimed at evaluating the bacterial and fungal qualities of three herbal medicines sold in Calabar metropolis, Cross River state Nigeria.
    The specific objectives of this research were;
    1. To determine the bacterial and fungal load present in these herbal medicines.
    2. To identify and characterize bacteria and fungi associated with herbal medicines sold in Calabar metropolis, Cross River state Nigeria, and
    3. To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of isolated bacteria and fungi for the herbal drugs.

    ABSTRACT

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    Price: 2000 Naira (BSC, MSC)

    ABSTRACT

    This project examines the comparative study of the performances of government owned and privately owned broadcasting media organization (A study of FRCN and Raypower Radio stations Enugu). To achieve this, the survey method was adopted as the research method while the instrument of data collection was the questionnaire. The sample size was drawn using the stratified sampling technique. Two hypothesis tested were accepted leading to the conclusion that the emergence of private broadcasting media in Nigeria improves broadcasting generally and that the entrance of private broadcasting is a challenge to government owned broadcast media in Nigeria to a great extent. The researcher recommends among others that private individuals should enter into broadcast media ownership in order to further improve broadcasting in Nigeria especially in the rural areas (rural broadcasting).

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background of he Study

    The role of the broadcasters and the broadcast media as agents of rural and national development, especially at the information dissemination level is now generally recognized and accepted by experts and policy makers. What seems quite unresolved in many developing countries is how best to utilize the potentials of the broadcasters and their media to achieve developmental objectives (Nwosu, 1990:119). In Nigeria, there are three main types of media ownership namely; government ownership, private ownership and partnership. In the case of government ownership, the government establishes controls and finances the media outfit, private ownership is when an individual or a group of persons establish, control and finance the media outfit in partnership both the government and private individuals are into some sort of co-ownership regarding the establishment, financing and controlling of the media house.
    There is a symbiotic relationship between the media and the society. It is in the interest of the society to have strong and robust mass media as it is in the best interest of the media to uphold the values and protect the interest of the society from which they derive their impulse, support and patronage. No media institution can survive if it is perceived to be working against its own society (Onukaba 2005:3).
    It is the duty of any media institution to keep the public aware of what is going on around them by providing accurate, factual and timely information at all times. It is also the duty of the media to warn and alert the public about

    impending dangers to interpret events or provide information needed by the public to make every day decision that will make them participate actively in the political, economic and social activities of a community and to assist the public in determining current trends.
    Media institutions are also expected to use their products to educate, entertain, modify public opinions, reinforce attitudes and set agenda for the society. In many societies, people depend on the media to know where to find jobs, where to shop, where to eat, seat out, who to note for etc it is therefore, safe to say that the influence of the media extends to every aspect of human life and society.
    But for media institutions to be able to play these roles effectively, they are expected to uphold the values of objectivity, fairness, justice, accuracy, balance, moderation and decency. The reason governments have often given for their involvement in the media is that the private ones cannot be trusted to faithfully uphold these values of the profession. They accuse them of fostering unrealistic expectations among the populace, heightening anxieties about conditions in the country, mongering etc. of course, these are general criticisms against all media institutions, whether private or public. State media institutions are set up ostensibly to address these weaknesses of the private media as well as to bring government programmes and policies closer to the people and promote peaceful co- existence among the different groups in the society in which they operate. But they are usually limited by their methods of operation (Onukaba, 2005:5).
    The “battle cone” seems to be drawn between those who argue unflinchingly that the best way to use the broadcast as a facilitator of development

    in the third world is to have them owned and controlled by the government and those that believe that the best result will be achieved by making the electronic media dominantly a private sector affair. It is on this fact that the researcher’s topic finds it footing, hence “the comparative study of the performance of government owned and privately owned broadcasting media organization” (a study of FRCN and Ray Power Radio).
    Somewhere between the two extreme rolls are those who belong to what seems to be more pragmatic position that government ownership and control of the media should co –exist with private media ownership and that commercial broadcasting should exist with private media to facilitate the job of broadcasters in the area of socio- economic development of their nations.
    The origin of the current government ownership and control of the broadcast media in Nigeria can be traced to the history, purpose and nature of colonial broadcasting services. It was mainly used for catering for the information and entertainment needs of the predominantly colonial political and educated elites in colonial Nigeria as well as the needs of the very few Nigerians educated elites (Nwosu 1990: 120-121)
    Nigeria has since had its independence in 1960 and has undergone many changes that make it imperative that the broadcast media should change its operations and structure to reflect the change situations. Although, the broadcasting system of Nigeria has changed or broaden its aims, objectives and mode of operation but the ownership and control structures or pattern still remains the same.
    So many reasons have been given by many Nigerian experts and policy makers for the perpetuation of the ownership and control status quo. One of such

    reasons is that the airwaves are limited and should, therefore, be regulated by the government to ensure equity, order and fairness it has also been argued that the role of broadcasting as an instrument of nation- building and development is so important that it should not be left in the hands of private individuals or organizations.
    The fear has also been expressed that because radio and television are powerful instruments of politicization, they careful into the hands of some unscrupulous politicians or political groups who may misuse them to gain and hold political power unfairly or propagate parochial political ideologies or ideas. There is the question of funding proponents of government control and ownership insist that broadcasting in Nigeria can never survive financially if it does not depend on its government for financial subventions.
    It is believed in many quarters that it is the above reason given for exclusive government ownership and control broadcasting in Nigeria that has kept the system unchanged until 1992. Hence, many Nigerians have yielded abundant reasons in support of privatization of broadcasting.
    The dominant belief of those who advocate privatization of broadcasting in Nigeria seem to be that the electronic media practitioners would render the best service when those media are operated as privately owned business or a commercial enterprise. Among the reason given for making this conclusion is that the electronic media would then be able to avoid unsuitable government influence that content of broadcast news or current affairs in today’s Nigeria tend to be politically biased.
    The point that some people make is that private ownership of broadcast media allows for healthy competition which could lead to improved services to

    the masses of Nigeria. Related to this service of the masses is the argument that privately owned broadcast media encourages diversity in production, programming and other areas of broadcasting.
    By 1992, there was a lot of debate and protest against the monopoly of the government in broadcasting business. Thus, there were clarion calls for deregulation and decentralization of broadcast media establishment and ownership. Hence, it was the contention of the people that a media system that does not suffer undue restrictions and interference from government would definitely become the best for the development democracy in the country (Nwosu 1990:22)
    It was not until 24th of august 1992 that the federal military government

    under Babangida’s administration promulgated decrees number 38, which established privatization of electronic media. It was in view of this that Dr. Raymond Dopkesi; established Raypower which started broadcasting in Lagos and later established Enugu station which is one of my study focus.
    It is the development that gave rise to the contention as to which system of ownership is preferable, hence, the relevance of the study at hand.

    1.2 Statement of Research Problem

    Ownership of the media house, its control and recruitment of its principal staff has formed the influential factors consequent upon the programme quality of the media house since the owners of the media house usually determine the aforementioned factor. The media ownership has in some ways influenced the media progrmames and this has posed problems to journalism as a trade.
    In this case, the broadcast media have to function in tune with the whims and caprices of the owner(s). Nothing runs the broadcast media practitioners

    down as having the option of either following the dictates of he owners or face the bitter music of being sacked. Ownership influence on programme content has made many broadcasting media outfit to collapse in operations and has also made them to loose their audience grip. This is mostly true of government owned broadcast media. After the liberation of media started springing up from all corners, one of which is Ray power FM radio station.
    These new privately owned media station produced standard programmes that out bids that of the government owned media stations and as such, many people abandoned government owned broadcast media.

    1.3 Objectives of the Study

    The objective of this study will include:

    i To find out if the emergence of private broadcasting media in Nigeria has improved broadcasting generally.
    ii. To establish if the entrance of private broadcasting is a challenge to government owned broadcast media in Nigeria.
    iii. To know if source credibility affects broadcast media listenership.

    iv. To find out if Enugu radio listenership prefers private radio programmes to government radio programmes.
    v. To check whether the radio listenership use what they hear from the radio.

    1.4 Research Questions

    i. How does the emergence of private broadcasting media in Nigeria improve broadcasting generally?

    ii. To what extent is the entrance of private broadcasting a challenge to government owned broadcast media in Nigeria?
    iii. How does source credibility affect broadcast media listenership?

    iv. To what extent does the Enugu Radio listenership prefer private radio v. programmes to government radio programmes?
    v. To what extent does the radio listenership use what they hear from radio?

    1.5 Research Hypotheses

    The following research hypothesis derives logically from the problem posed in the research questions.
    Hi: The emergence of private broadcasting in Nigeria improves broadcasting generally.
    Ho: The emergence of private broadcasting in Nigeria does not improve broadcasting generally.
    Hi: The entrance of private broadcasting is a challenge to government owned broadcast media in Nigeria to a great extent
    Ho: The entrance of private broadcasting is not a challenge to government owned broadcast media in Nigeria to a great extent

    1.6 Significance of the Study

    The findings of this study “The comparative study of the performances of government owned and privately owned broadcasting media organization” (A study of FRCN and Raypower Radio station Enugu) will help other researcher in carrying out a similar study. It will add to the mass communication literature and

    bulk of knowledge on media performance in Nigeria. The study will help to analyze the pattern of media ownership and its influence on Nigerian development. Finally, it will provide the premise for individuals and stakeholders to make decisions on which form of media ownership is better and needful in Nigeria.

    1.7 Scope of the Study

    The researcher’s scope will center on comparatively studying government ownership of media alongside privately owned media. The study focus will be on FRCN and Ray power radio stations both in Enugu.
    The population

    The population selected is made up of the entire people who listens to FRCN and Ray power radio stations.
    The sample

    The sample size will be on those in Enugu metropolis. Due to time and financial constraints and because the researcher is convinced that since FRCN and Raypower FM are both situated in Enugu, it will offer a good sample for the study.

    1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

    Comparative study:- Based on the study, it means that the researcher will study two media houses government owned (FRCN) and privately owned (Raypower) to find out how similar or different they are.

    Government owned media organization:- This is represented by Federal Radio Co-operation of Nigeria (FRCN) which is part of the researcher’s study focus. It is owned by the federal government of Nigeria.
    Privately owned broadcasting media:- It is represented by Raypower FM, which is also part of the researcher’s study focus. It is owned by Raymond Dopkesi, under the corporate name: DAAR Communications.

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    Price: 2000 Naira (BSC, MSC)

    ABSTRACT

    This project deals with the network of livestock but focuses on the information of the livestock and how they interact with the physical environment. This new design is meant to given the public information on livestock making use of the computers. This project will also focus on animal husbandry, breading, feeding, and management of animal for the production of food, fibre, work and pleasure. Modern method concentrates on ones types of animal in large, efficient farming units that general animal product as the highest rate of return for investment. Intensive husbandry conditions includes large numbers of animals in small lots, enriched feed, and growth stimulation by various means, and vacci-domestic animals, however, are raised in small units under less efficient conditions and at lower rates of return.

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    This project is about the design and implement of a computerized livestock management information system which is meant to give information about livestock to the public and also alert them to known what they are meant for.
    Taking a look at the animal husbandry, breeding, feeding and management of animal or livestock for the production of food, fibre work, and pleasure. Modern methods concentrated one type of animals products at the highest rate of return for investment. Intensive husbandry conditions include large numbers of animals in small lots, means and vaccination against disease. Most of the world’s domestic animals, however, are raised in small units under less efficient conditions and at lower rates of returns. Animal furnish more than one-fourth of the world’s total value of agricultural products. They supply a much higher proportion of human food in the developed countries than elsewhere. In the United States, animal products accounts for more than one-half of the total agricultural income.
    Traditional husbandry practices are closely associated with the degree of control needed over the animals have multiple uses; for example, animals is kept primarily, for work also supply milk, meat and nothing materials. The animal, and their, uses, however, are closely associated with the culture and experience of the people who care for them.
    In some regions of the world, cattle are not considered for use in the production of food. Studies have shown that the work power, fertilizers, milk and the fuel from dung that the cattle provide. In these regions are more efficient animal products than meats. Analysis of other cultural practices has often revealed unexpected efficiency of use fitted to local circumstances.
    Environmental influences such as climate also play an important role in the domestication and use of animals. Water buffalo are use as draft animals to pull wagons and farm equipment in Southern Asia, where they are adapted to the high temperature and humidity, while horses, which thrive in moderate climates, were the principles draft animals in the temperature regions until they were replaced by treated cattle humid conditions are prevalent in the Southern United States because they are better adapted to the climates of the region than European cattle.

    Integrated Farming is a whole farm management system, which
    aims to deliver more sustainable agriculture. It is dynamic approach which can be applied to any farming system around the world. It involve attention to detail and continuous improvement in all areas of a farming business through informed management processes, integrated faring combines the best of modern tools and technologies with traditional practices according to given site and situation. In simple words, it means using many ways of cultivation in a small space or land
    Integrated Farming is not based on a set of fixed parameters but on informed management processes. This knowledge-based flexibility of Integrated Farming includes attention to detail and managing all resources available.
    This study is based on livestock farming i.e. “farm management information system” a case study of Obasanjo farm. Once more the direction intention of this project is to computerize livestock farming that “farm management information system” has been operated manually. Management information system in this organization was essentially operated with a great deal of human efforts, and in fact the activities of the organization in this system is less challenging, less complex and hence organizations do this extents small sized. Management information systems remain the system that aim at providing information for the management on a regular basis. This call to mind the time value of information which implies that when the required information is received behind the period it will be used, the information become useless. MIS dries to inform the manager how to provide the information.

    Management always aim at reading the climax in the decision performance fort attainment of organizational objective but this existing system could not attract such performance due to the lack of effective information tool which can provide the management with quality and needed information and at needed time. These systems always result to information over local which actually decreases the decision performance in any management. Information they say is power. Quality information is very vital do check in organization. The only information that can accelerate the management decision performance is the information that process the good quality of information. Such quality of information comprises:
    (1) Relevance
    (2) Accuracy
    (3) Completeness
    (4) Reliability
    (5) Timeliness

    Despite these qualities management cannot achieve their objectives. The decision performance also depends on the manager himself. The manager must be able to identify problem, define the problem, analyze it and suggest a possible solution to the problem. And for manager to do these, he must be backup with information required.

    Due to the show mentioned faults and errors associated with the existing system of management information an alternative system is suggested which a computerized system is.
    The technology have created an interesting opportunities for all managers and as the technology is growing the researcher demand it necessary to let the blowing wind reach the farm managers (Obasanjo Farm Managers) in their management information system. Software is developed to replace this manual operation of management. This form of software is an expert system.

    Computerized livestock farming “farm management information system” is a software package that contains a lot of files and records the file that was designed in detail is a sales file which each of its record consist of files like varieties of livestock, quantity, price, weight, subtotal, total amount grand total etc.

    1.1 Background Of Study
    Chief Olusegun Obasanjo is not only a retired army officer, former head of state and politician; he is also a successful farmer. He owns Ota Farm, which is also called Obasanjo Farms. The large farm was formally opened on October 8, 1979, a week after Obasanjo handed over power to a civilian administration on October 1, 1979.
    At inception, the farm took off as Temperance Enterprises Limited (Farming Venture). It later became Obasanjo Farms Nigeria Limited. Obasanjo Farms indeed took off in grand style, indication that Nigeria’s former president meant serious business. This probably accounts for the growth, expansion, sustainability and consolidation witnessed in the evolution of the farm, considering how it started and where it is now.
    The farm took off with two layer houses containing 100, 000 birds each and five broiler houses of 12,000 each, in addition to two feed mills of three tons per hour each. The large farm, which has up to 7,000 workers started with four bulldozer operators. Today, Obasanjo makes up to N34million daily from Ota Farm, which has branches in Ibadan and Igbo-Ora, Oyo State. This is no small earning for the former president whose farm has played a significant role in the development of agriculture and food production.
    Obasanjo also uses the farm complex at the Agbe L’ Oba House, Ota, and the Ogun State headquarters of the farm, to hold political and diplomatic meetings.
    According to greenhealthyfarm.com, farmers business community says Obasanjo farm otta Nigeria limited ogun State majorly specialize in production of agro-based products and agro-allied groups which include: Table egg, hatchery services, chicken (broiler, grower, layers, day old chicks), plantation agriculture, piggery, commercial and parent stock poultry farm, cattle production (beef and dairy), grass cutter, fish production (fingerlins and juveniles ) and they have well equipped animal processing unit with facilities ranging from cold storage facility, animal feeds processing unit t0 Oil palm production.
    Since the year 1070, obasanjo farm, as pioneered an integrated mechanized farming in Nigeria as of means of sustaining our fast growth population.

    1.2 Statement Of The Problem
    A critical look has been taken and the effective feasibility study conducted and the step taken has been able to identify a number of problems that is affecting the effective development of animal in the world at large.
    The problems which are discovered (during the feasibility study are as shown below:
    The ability to know the number of people that visits the company system daily.
    Inaccurate calculation due to the use of manual methods of doing it.
    Speed of communication and the number of stages in the communication chain.
    Feedback data on the measures used in the exercise are seldom. If ever perfect.
    It is very unfortunate that the technology potentials has not been fully or even adequately realized in the field of farm management information. Very little farm managers has grabbed this powerful it opportunities. This has put managers and researchers behind. Some of the problems militating against high decision performance and achievement of management goals are as follows:
    – Lack of quality information tool.
    – Lack of specialist in the field. Lack of technical – known how.
    – Lack of sufficient fund
    – Poor service render by the government
    – Poor perception of economic benefit.
    – Management decline
    – Immobility etc.

    1.3 Aims Of The Study
    The aim of this project work is to design and implement computerized integrated farming system (farm management information system) for Obasanjo farm.
    Obasanjo farm majorly specialize in production of agro-based product and agro-allied groups which are:
    Table Egg, Hatchery Services, Chickens (broilers, layers,growers, day old chick), plantation agriculture, piggery, commercial and parent stock poultry farm, cattle production (beef and dairy), grass cutter, rabbit and fish production (fingerlins and javeniles). Well-equipped animal production unit with facilities ranging from cold storage facilities, animal feed production unit to oil pal production
    1.4 Objectives Of The Study
    The objective that led to this research work is basically to expose the Nigeria farmers in general and especially OBASANJO FARM farmer manager with the effective, efficient, accurate and timely form of management information system. That is to replace manual MIS with computerized MIS. The researcher hope to achieve the following after this research thus
    – To equip all the manage with quality information on regular basis.
    – To give information on livestock to the public
    – Increase the production of livestock in the economy
    – System that will operate accurately well without error
    – System that will eliminate the use of too much paper.
    – System that will increase the functionality of livestock business without incurring too much cost on the management.
    – To eliminate the steady decline in the management.
    – To automate all the activities of Management information system.
    – To accelerate decision performance
    – To design an expert system.

    1.5 Significance Of The Study
    In the event of the above mentioned faults and errors discovered in the manual system. It is believed that the introduction of a computerized system of MIS will change the whole thing positively. It will totally eliminate the inherent problem which will in turn bring about immense cash value to Obasanjo farm and to all farm managers in Nigeria.

    It will definitely expose and enlighten the staff and managers of farm in Obasanjo farm on what they supposed to know about their management. In addition, it will bring about more noticeable contribution and improvements to both the headquarters and other branches nationwide to be able to defined their problems and find out large on the favourable side.

    Through the researcher restricted the study to Obasanjo farm, the result of the findings will let of immense benefits to all Nigeria farm managers and as well to students conducting similar research work on the same or related topics.

    1.6 Scope Of The Study
    In the study of this nature, one would like to accumulate information from many areas, But, in the view of the time given for this research such a wide range could not be reached. The researcher therefore, concentrated on the sales management information of livestock in obasanjo far. The choice of sales MIS was due to the time factor.

    1.7 Limitation Of Study
    Usually, every work has some limitations and this study is not exempted.
    The two major limitations of this study are the high programming technique as well as financial constraints. The high programming technique constraint in PHP, JQUERY and MYSQL prevents the researcher to have an in depth study and analysis on the subject matter. While the issue of financial constraint limits the frequency of investigation to/from the institution toward gathering the necessary information relevant for the study.

    1.8 Definition Of Terms
    Terms associated to this topic are to be defined below. Thus.
    (1) Boar – This male pig that has grown to a point that can pregnant a sow.
    Confine System – This is type of management system that does not interact with the system’s environment. The pigs under this system are controlled they are not expose to the environment, their feeding and all management are controlled by a prison or persons.
    (2) Computer – A machine used in modern times in organization and homes do manipulate data.
    (3) Data – Is a row fact that has no meaning.
    (4) Database – A collection of interrelated data stared with controlled redundancy to serve one or more application.
    (5) Information – Information is a data that has been evaluated. It is a processed data.
    (6) Information Overload – A situation which the sheer amount of information in an system is simply too great to be coped with by the information management available. It is overflow of information which slow down decision performance.
    Information system- A systematic way of organizing the handling of information, from information gathering to information retrieval and use.
    (7) Management – The process of procuring, allocating, combing and utilizing or organizational resources expressed usually as 3ms (men, materials and money) through planning organizing directing and controlling activities of work of the organization member to reach certain stated objectives.
    (8) Management Information System – Mis is an integrated and holistic reporting network system in an organization that provides planning and controlling information for effective decision making.
    (9) Mobility – This ability of information to move from one point to another, from one person to another easily and timely.
    Open System – This is a system that interacts with its environments. The pigs reared in this system are always expose to the environment, its feeding and every other thing about the management is not controlled
    (10) Pucker – A pig at the slaughter stage.
    (11) Piglet – Young pigs. That is the earlier first stage of pigs.
    (12) System – It is a collection of interrelated and interdependent procedures that are joined together to perform an activity or a task.
    (13) Software – The programs that control the computer operation the system programme controls the hardware component of computer which application program controls task performed by computer.
    (14) Sow – The female pig.

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    ABSTARCT

    This study was carried out to verify all the manual process involved in generating Students Examination Result and to seek a way of automating the system for effective operations. Since there is continuous moves towards technological advances that enhanced productivity of labor and free human beings of task more economically by machines. Computer and its appreciations have become vital tools in economic, industrial and social development of advanced countries of the world. This system is designed to efficiently handle processes like inputting scores, storing results, classifying the grade points automatically calculated, and interpreting data of students overall result. The usual manual process now reached a level where it is difficult for the available man power to cope with the magnitude of examination work, in the given time span, The balance between the man power availability and the magnitude of the examination work result in the delay in the release of results. The most effective measure, which can improve the efficiency of the examination system, therefore is the introduction of computerization especially with the use of Examination Result Processing Software in various activities related to the conduct of result reduces the time span required for the release of results by 60 percent and reduces the process by almost 50 percent.

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background of Study
    Education is an indispensable system on which the life of every individual is built and as well stimulates the entire life application. It can also be referred to as a process designed for the acquisition and dissemination of skills and knowledge to the prosperity of the nation.
    The effort expended in the process of registration of students and computation of their examination is awesome. Quite worrisome or perturbing is the fact that these processes are carried out every academic terms, putting all operations in a continuous and ever demanding circle. The computation of examination result is obviously an object-centered activity, the student being the dominant object in this case. Hence, the need to evolve a computerized process that will effectively and efficiently capture all the important data associated with the examination and result processing within the senior secondary schools and the interactions among the object.
    Student’s examination result is the summary of each of the terms in a section also, through the three to four years of the university programme. A student’s result is also demanded by a student who has finished either level programme to determine whether the student is qualified or not for the level or the final exam and wishes to further into a university, polytechnic or college. It is prepared or formed by the score entered on the designed score sheet by the individual subject teachers on terminal examination. These genuine and noble desires necessitate the design and development of the student’s examination result processing system software.
    When a student attends an academic institution, a record, i.e. the result,is kept to trace his/her academic performance. The student examination displays a record of all the grades a student has acquired at each class and terms in a school. Below are frequently asked questions about a student’s examination results.
    – How is student examination result used?
    Student can use a student’s examination result as a means of monitoring their grades and to make sure the information is accurate. Students can use an “unofficial student examination result” for this purpose.
    – How can I obtain a student examination result?
    Students must request their examination result from the office of records or from the office of the registrar. Each school has its own student’s examination result release procedures.

    The effort expended in the process of registration of students and computation of their examination results is much. Quite worrisome is the fact that these processes are carried out every academic session, putting the operators in a continuous and ever demanding cycle. The computation of examination results and registration of students is obviously an object-centered activity, the student being the dominant object in this case. Hence, the need to evolve a computerized process that will effectively and efficiently capture all the important data associated with the registration and examination result processing within the tertiary institutions and the interactions among the objects.
    Students’ Examination Result is the summary of each of the semester performance in schools. A students’ Result is also demanded by a student who has finished his/her program. and wishes to transfer to another school or student who wishes to get a job. A Transcript is not given directly to a student. It is sent to the school that the student wishes to be transferred, or to the organization or establishment that requires the result.
    A students’ Result is prepared or formed by the scores entered on the designed score sheet by the individual course lecturers on semester examinations. This genuine and noble desire necessitated the design and development of the Undergraduate Registration and Examination Processing System software.
    There were three fundamentally distinct education systems in Nigeria in 1990: the indigenous system, Quranic schools, and formal European-style education institutions. In the rural areas where the majority lived, children learned the skills of farming and other work, as well as the duties of adulthood, from participation in the community. This process was often supplemented by age-based schools in which groups of young boys were instructed in community responsibilities by mature men. By the 1970s, education experts were asking how the system could be integrated into the more formal schooling of the young, but the question remained unresolved by 1990. Western-style education came to Nigeria with the missionaries in the mid-nineteenth century. Although the first mission school was founded in 1843 by Methodists, it was the Anglican Church Missionary Society that pushed forward in the early 1850s to found a chain of missions and schools, followed quickly in the late 1850s by the Roman Catholics. In 1887 in what is now southern Nigeria, an education department was founded that began setting curricula requirements and administered grants to the mission societies. By 1914, when north and south were united into one colony, there were fifty-nine government and ninety-one mission primary schools in the south; all eleven secondary schools, except for King’s College in Lagos, were run by the missions.
    The education system focused strongly on examinations. In 1916 Frederick Lugard, first governor of the unified colony, set up a school inspectorate. Discipline, buildings, and adequacy of teaching staff were to be inspected, but the most points given to a school’s performance went to the numbers and rankings of its examination results. This stress on examinations was still used in 1990 to judge educational results and to obtain qualifications for jobs in government and the private sector.
    As more information is made available in a variety of formats and media and in a variety of locations, the need to manage information/data efficiently becomes more and more critical. Both staff and public users want access to stored information and want to access it more efficiently. It is the Polytechnic Policy to improve both the efficiency and effectiveness of course registration and result processing operations and services through the implementation of an integrated automated database System.

    1.1 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
    Database of information is vital in today’s educational system with respect to course registration and examination result processing. This has become a very vital issue as students spend so much time trying to know the number of credit units for each semester. This problem has lead to time wasting, inaccuracy of results and even open to fraud. Cases of missing results have been recorded thereby making examination processing more difficult and untimely.
    There has been this problem of too much work for the Head of Department of Exams and Records owing to the increase of students in the institution, the Head of Department of the Exams and Records is faced with heaps of files .At times sorting out a particular students file takes time. This bitter complaint and the delay in the preparing of this students examination Result has been the major concern and therefore has intensified the need to design a generating software which will go a long way in tackling these problems and proffering solutions, at the same time to quicken the generating of student’s result.

    1.2 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
    The significance of this study is to design and implementation of Student Examination Result Processing System is to achieve the speedy registration process, speed of the results processing, to eliminate error due to manual processing and to provide security measure to check student mischievous act of changing marks on the result sheet. The Software will also provide a well functionality of student experience activity on student portal with various student and lecture’s interactions. The project work will help in a good number of ways to ease the delay in manual examination processing.
    1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
    The aim of this study is to develop student registration, course registration, examination registration, result processing and student transcript in less time, accurately and fast processing.
    The objectives of this study are to:
    1. Provide a reliable solution to result processing that is corruption free.
    2. To enhance the speed of the results processing.
    3. Ensure that normal credit load in line with the school is maintained.
    4. Provide a software that will generate result that is accurate, timely and error free.
    5. To keep accurate record of students examination Results in the school and prevent lost of result, which are vital to the exams and records.
    6. To provide a long time database backup.
    7. To process and transfer student academic transcript.

    1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
    This research work will concentrate on student registration, course registration, academic transcript, examination processing, result processing system in Federal Polytechnic Ilaro, Ogun State and can be extended to other Polytechnics.

    1.5 LIMITATION TO THE STUDY
    The limitation to this study include the lack of needed time frame, lack of needed materials to complete the project.
    1.6 DEFINITON OF TERMS
    The following are some terms commonly used in this project.
    DATA: Raw information or it is fact and figure collected together for references.
    DIRECT DATA CAPTURED: Data is capture directly without a conversion stage, by means of the input devices such as mouse, keyboard, pen writers, cameras, fax, e.t.c.
    INPUT: is the term denoting either an entrance which are inserted into a system. These are hardware that helps to send data in form of input to the computer.
    ON-LINE DATA ENTRY: Data is entered directly into the computer one transaction at a time (also known as transaction processing) under program control.
    OUTPUT: These are computer hardware that are responsible for giving out processed information.
    SOFTWARE: The program and other operating information used by computer; also a set of programs written to carry out some task in the computer. Logical related programs that works together to control hardware.
    PROCESS: This is the management of transportation of data into useful information.
    STUDENTS EXAMINATION RESULT: An official record of student’s work that show the courses they have taken and the marks they have achieved.
    DESIGN: The art or process of deciding how something will look, works etc.
    DOCUMENTATION: Material that provides official information or evidence or that serves as record, written specifications and information that describes the product. The act of recording something in a document.
    Information System: It is a collection of procedures, people, Instructions and equipment to produce information in a useful form.
    Technology: It is study of techniques or process of mobilizing Resource (such as information) for accomplishing objectives that benefits man and his environment.
    Information: Information can be defined as the process of gathering, transmitting, receiving, storing and retrieving data or several items put together to convey a desired message.

    Computer Network: Computer Network is a system that connects two or more computers together using a communication link.

    Databases: A systematically arranged collection of computer data, structured so that it can be automatically retrieved or manipulated. It is also called databank.

    File Transfer: Any kind of computer file can be sent via the Internet from one Internet user to another. Table of accounts on spreadsheets, design by a graphic artists, music sound files etc, can all be exchanged in this way.

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    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    INTRODUCTION
    Most rental service firms today still use manual information system because their information needs are of moderate size and managers of such firms have probably been enjoying the manual system as regards to their relatively and comfortable low level of transaction activities.
    With the high level of social activities been experienced, It is only the rental firms with very large information or high capacity of rental service with rapid rate of renting per item that are likely to survive pressure, and therefore should link information system to business strategy. With this pressure, there is a need to improve corporate effectiveness through their own involvement in system planning to ensure that business strategy is developed in the context of the computerized environment.
    Among the many rental service centers, majority adopted a great variety of manual information system for management activities most of which are single file system. This single file system does not offer opportunities for easy manipulation of data to provide managers an insight into transaction reports such as to rapid statistics for operation analysis, it does not provide instant access to information for controlling and directing the firm. At this point we can see that the world of rental service business lacks conclusion data in the relative effectiveness of manual information system versus computerized information system.
    Different rental service centers at various level of activities with different critical level will agree that stress, confusion and errors increase with increase in volume of information as the transaction activities rises, and there is a great point where manual information system will not operate successfully.
    In this respect, computerized rental service management information system has been developed to provide BRAHAM RENTALS with consistency, comprehensive and reasonable accurate information for planning directly and controlling the activities for which they are responsible and for making timely and effective decision.
    1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
    There are problems faced by the management of BRAHAM RENTALS , this problems can be attributed to the fact that they use manual information processing in their activities. These problems include:
    * Errors and inaccuracy since all computations are done manually.
    * Updating activities are time consuming very poor and lacks accuracy.
    * Lack of adequate information for decision making.
    * Inconsistency and redundancy are often encountered in the information processing system for the generation of management information.
    * Processing of information is usually time consuming and most times with undesired out
    This project work is prompted by the problems of Braham Rentals to find a lasting solution to these problems.
    1.2 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
    The purpose of this study is to design a computerized information system that will replace the manual procedures of carrying out operations in the existing management information system of BRAHAM RENTAL SERVICES.
    The designed system will be able to:-
    1 make entries of all transactions made.
    2 Make necessary equals of relevant information about all the transaction made between the firm and the client.
    3 produce reports for managerial use to make good plans, Direct and control the activities in the firm as well as. Taking effective decision to suit any decision.
    1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVE
    The aims and objectives of this project is to design a computerized rental services management information system for BRAHAM RENTAL SERVICES that will aid in the following:
    * to reduce the average response time to management enquiry concerning transaction status.
    * To produce timely accurate and up to date report for management purpose.
    * To aid the administration and management to eliminate avoidable inefficiency.
    * Finally to explore all capacities of computer in the area of speed, efficiency and security of data.
    1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
    The scope of this covers the normal operational procedures of data processing and information about all rental transactions made on BRAHAM RENTAL SERVICES. The project scope extends from the point of customers booking of items to the point these items are leased.
    1.5 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
    This work is limited to the application of computerized information management system in BRAHAM RENTAL SERVICES. However during the course of this project work, there are factors militated against my carrying out of this work. they include:-
    * lack of time
    * High cost of production
    * lack of adequate research materials.
    1.6 ASSUMPTION
    Some assumptions made while carrying out this work was that the data I collected from BRAHAM RENTAL SERVICES and some rental services centers was accurate and valid due to their maximum co-operation and interest with regards to the study concerned.
    1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
    Some technical term have been used on this work and the whole system will be meaningless if the terms are not the explicitly explained.
    Data: These are facts and figures which are examined to produce information
    File: this is a collection or group of related records.
    Flowchart: this is a system analysis tool that provide a graphical presentation of a sequence to represent the operation.
    Information: this refers to data that have been processed in such a way as to be useful to the recipient.
    Transaction: this refers to business carried out between people, usually buying and selling of goods and services
    Record: this is a written account of something that is kept, so that it can be looked at and used in future. It is also a set of related fields in a given system.
    Report: information reaches to managers from the M.L.A by a virility of analysis statistics statement etc. which ear generally be referred to as reports.
    Rentals: This is the act of making a payment; usually an amount fixed by contact made by a person or agency at specified intervals, in return for the right to occupy or use the property that person or agency
    Services: this refers to a business whose work involves doing something for customers and not producing or buying and selling of goods.
    System: A system is a network of the interrelated part of procedures that the joined together to efficiently accomplish a goal.

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    ABSTRACT

    It is pertinent to say that students are encountering problems in receiving their industrial training allowance. As a computer science student, we have to take the lead while others follow. Setting the pace in everything that has to do with computing is what matters so long as I am concern. In a bid to put a stop to that, I have decided to develop a workable website for the school that will enable the students receive their allowance on any bank of their choice and visit any cybercafé all over the world, log in and fill the necessary information without having to go to the school bursary.
    What motivated me is the way people travel from far ,in other to receive their allowance and go to the bursary department for their cheque collection instead of receiving their money online. For instance those on one year industrial will have to come to the school in other to collect their cheque and cash their money at a particular bank specified. The case of our students dying in an auto mobile crash or queuing up at the bursary department will be a thing of past.
    This website is designed using ASP.NET and dream weaver. It is an interactive website. And it is intended to provide the services that are mostly needed by the students for their industrial training allowance. The students will now be in a better position to receive their money and bank will submit to the industrial training fund headquarter and/or institution the print out of the total number of students whom they have credited their account for confirmation.

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    Industrial training programme was introduced under the National policy by the federal government in the year 1973/74 and supervised by the National board for technical education (NBTE). It is a training a student undergoes in the field of his/her course of study in other to acquires more knowledge and be more practical.

    The students industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) is a skill training program that is designed by the federal government to expose and prepare students of university, Polytechnic and colleges of education for industrial work situation that they might likely meet before or after graduation. Before the establishment of the scheme was a growing concern among our industrialists that graduates of our institutions of higher learning lacked adequate practical background studies preparatory for employment in industries.

    The main objective of the program is to bridge the gap between theories and practical by making it possible for students to get themselves exposed to real jobs and actual job situations and environments. It is therefore an important and mandatory component of training in the accredited disciplines or courses like Computer science, Engineering, Geology, and Agricultural Sciences, etc.

    BACKGROUND HISTORY OF FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC NEKEDE OWEER

    In the year 1979, Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri was originated as the Imo State of Nigeria edict.No.16 of 1978 established the institution. It started at the Government Technical College (GTC) along Egbu road Owerri in the same year, with an initial number of 275 students. In October 1980, the institution was moved to its permanent site at Nekede Owerri-west with an intake number of 1350 students. The institution later metamorphosed to Polytechnic Nekede Owerri on the 25th march 1987 by edict No.6 of 1987. on 1st of January 1993, it was later renamed to Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri.
    The Federal Polytechnic Act(CAP139) of 1979 regulated the institution. The purpose of the polytechnic as provided for in section 2 are as follows:
    ACHIEVEMENTS:
    After 30 years of existence, the polytechnic has attained the age of maturity like the good and faithful steward, the institution has achieved a lot in the following areas:
    o Academic programs
    o Growth in staff and student population
    o Maintenance culture
    o Sports
    o Policy making and headship of the institution

    ACADEMIC PROGRAMS:

    ORGANIZATIONAL CHART:

    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
    Since the history of Federal Polytechnic Nekede, which has several faculties and departments, the school has under go several problems, which delay in paying ITF allowances which is be done manually.
    We need a set of simple and consistent principles to govern the arrangements for the computerization of projects conducted or completed under the Innovation and Technology Support Programme (ITSP) and General Support Programme (GSP) of the Innovation and Technology Fund (ITF). This manual system of paying ITF allowances has lead to different problems such as:
     Prone to human error/typographical error
     Unnecessary delay in the payment of students and supervisor allowance
     Difficulties of students in getting placement
     Inadequate supervision
     Non-signing of necessary materials like students’ log book at their places of attachment
     Risk of transporting from students place of attachment down to their various schools for collection of their allowance.
     This research work was embarked upon to achieve certain aims which this study will attempt critically to exhaust the subject of this study.

    AIMS/OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
    The aims/objectives of this study is to set and control standards of excellence and effectiveness in and offer direct training of professionals, technicians, technologists and entrepreneurs to meet the human resource needs for rapid industrialization and sustainable economic development of Nigeria, relying on a corp of highly motivated and competent professional staff using best of breed training techniques and modern technology.
    The objectives/aims are as follows:
     Provision of an avenue for students in institutions of higher learning to acquire industrial skills and experience in their approved course of study.
     Prepare students for the industrial works situation which they are likely to meet after graduation.
     It expose students to work methods and techniques in handling equipment and machinery not available in their institutions.
     Provide students with an opportunity to apply their knowledge in real work situation thereby bridging the gap between theory and practices.
     Enlists and strengthen employers’ involvement in the entire educational process and prepare students for employment in industry and commerce.
     To provide opportunities for graduated from local universities to acquire research/ industrial experience by participating in research and development (R$ D) projects funded by ITF.
     To stimulate the interest of university graduates in applied research and development activities and help create a larger pool of research talents.
     To further support local universities, research and development centers and private sector companies in undertaking applied research and development activities by funding interns for their ITF projects.

    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
    The significance of this research work is to provides a reliable and efficient platform for implementing e-payment directly to the account of the approved participating students.
     To ensure adequate funding of the scheme.
     Students taking part in the students industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) are aware of the objectives for which it was established primarily on issue of relating theory to practice. They were usually eager to take part in the scheme because it offers the students learning experiences which cannot be directly gained in the class room.
     Establish siwes and accredit siwes unit in the approved institutions.
     Formulate policies and guideline for participating bodies and institutions as well as appointing siwes co-coordinators and supporting staff.
     Thus the evaluation of siwes in tertiary institutions in meeting up with the needs for the establishment of the programme is necessary.
    However, this package will be of good use to all students, supervisors and ITF officers and directors because it will saves time when information is be retrieved.

    SCOPE OF STUDY
    The researcher is concerned with an online industrial training payment system. It cover all the operations of SIWES department of the institution which is the case study. It deals with the ITF e- payment allowances, supervision of students, online filling of log- books.

    ORGANIZATION OF STUDY
    Chapter two reviews the related literature under the following sub-headings: industrial training fund, the review of the site, online students industrial training fund, industrial training fund(ITF) new mode of payment, etc.
    Chapter three handles the system methodology analysis and design as follows: introduction, the user interface, hardware and software requirements, user documentation, system backup, system maintenance, etc.
    Chapter four is concerned with the system implementation and programming.
    Chapter five comprises of summary, conclusion and recommendation.

    LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
    There are some limitations or constraints confronting this study, they are as follows
    • TIME: I have a very little time to carry out this research this was the fact that I combine the research work with my academic studies. You can agree with me that time constraints is one of the limitations I experience while carry out this research work.
    • FINANCE: however, finance is another constraint I experience while carry out this research. The inadequate of finance to carry out this research slow down the research work. Despite the limitations every effort was geared towards accomplishing this project.

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    ABSTRACT

    The researcher critically looks at developing a system that will enable administrative offices to keep adequate record of all the sent, received and lost articles or letters. Articles and letters are some of the vital ingredients of life and information technology. It is quite obvious, that any organization or group that does not communicate or use medium, of communication is assumed to be a dead or lifeless organization, the earliest people survived because these medium of communication was in existence and to the most important part of it, it was the only medium of communication before the advent of radios, telephone, televisions etc. These medium of communication has contributed a lot to the world of information technology (IT) which is the most lucrative and vibrant field of life and endeavor. In the course of disseminating information through articles and letters, it is quite obvious that some will get lost due to human and environmental factors. The software was developed used visual basic 6.0 programming language. Visual basic 6.0 was chosen as a result of its easy syntax and structure for developing windows based application.

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    Articles and letters are some of the vital ingredients of life and information technology. It is quite obvious, that any organization or group that does not communicate or use medium, of communication is assumed to be a dead or lifeless organization, the earliest people survived because these medium of communication was in existence and to the most important part of it, it was the only medium of communication before the advent of ridios, telephone, televisions etc. These medium of communication has contributed a lot to the world of information technology (IT) which is the most lucrative and vibrant field of life and endeavor.

    In the course of disseminating information through articles and letters, it is quite obvious that some will get lost due to human and environmental factors. These human factors could be as a result of the carelessness of the officers in charge or misplacement.

    On the other hand, the environmental factors could be rain fall, fire outbreak i.e. environmental hazards that are beyond the control of main at the time of occurrence. This chapter cortically looks at the background of the study as it affects lost articles and letters reconciliation system. It also looks at the statement of problem i.e. what prompted the research.

    It also looks at the purpose of the study. It also takes into consideration the scope of the study. It also looks at the limitations of the study finally; it looks at the terms as was used in the research work.

    1.2 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
    This project research focuses attention on the Nigerian postal services as its case study Nigerian postal services abbreviated as NIPOSI, is a government owned and operated corporation, it is the Nigerian postal administration responsible for providing postal services in Nigerian. It has more than 20,000 employees and runs more than 5,000 post offices. The Nigerian postal services also have the following business ventures, EMS, Bulk post venture, NIPOSI central workshop e.t.c it was founded in Nigeria in 1987 to deliver first class mails, domestic mails, logistics etc.
    1.3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
    It has been discovered by the project researcher, that there are some lapses that emanate from the ordinary or manual way of handling articles and letters. These lapses are mainly found in offices were large volume of files or mails are being processed. This results to lost articles or letters written for special purpose. All these made the researcher to think of a system that could reconcile all lost articles and letters.

    1.4 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
    The researcher critically looks at developing a system that will enable administrative offices to keep adequate record of all the sent, received and lost articles or letters.

    1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
    This project work will involve the design and implementation of a lost articles and letters reconciliation system for Nigerian postal services (NIPOST). Due to the vast nature of the project topic, the researcher limited the scope to Nigerian postal services so as to achieve maximum efficiency for the worth.

    1.5 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
    The major limiting factors or constraints encountered in the cause of this research were the initial difficulty in grasping the knowledge and understanding of this research field which was quite alien to the researcher. Though, this was overcame within a short period of time. Also, obtaining materials for the research was also one of this most difficult thing or constraint encountered by the researcher. The areas seem to be devoid of research. No paper seminars or even books written on this field.
    Finally, obtaining information from the case study was hectic because of the hierocratic nature of government owned agencies.
    1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
    During this project research, the following terms will be frequently used:
     Articles: A piece of writing about a particular subject in a newspaper, magazine etc.
     Letters: A message that is written down or printed on paper and usually put in an envelope and sent to somebody.
     Computer: An electronic machine that can store organize and find information, do calculation and control other machines.
     Software: Set of instructions that tell the computer what to do.
     Files: A box or folded card that is used to store loosed papers
     Reconciliation: An end to disagreement and the start of a good relationship.
     Hardware: The mechanical part of the computer.
     Database: A collection of interrelated data started with controlled redundancy to serve one or more application.

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    Price: 2000 Naira (BSC, MSC)

    ABSTARCT

    This project automates the payment processes involved during student registration at the Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kongo Campus. Payment processes include School fees and hostel allocation. A database was implemented using MySQL for proper record management and PHP was used as scripting language for the system development. The student creates an account with the APPS system where he/she can save any amount of money anytime at the designated banks of APPS so that during registration, he/she simply accesses his/her account and pays for his/her school fees and accommodation. This project shows that it is easier for students to complete their registration automatically rather than going through some tedious manual processes during registration.

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Introduction
    Developments in Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have made impact in all sectors of the society, including education. In higher education, application of ICTs in form of e-learning is changing the mode of learning and teaching processes [1]. School management is now done online, records are being kept in databases that are accessible through the web. Also Registration, payment of schoolfees, generating timetables and much more are done using the web. The world of IT has gone far and wide that now makes us see the importance of using automated system rather than manual system.
    Referring to the problem of school fees and hostel allocation as the Automatic Payment Portal System (APPS) problem. Given the large number of students that are typically involved in such problem, there is a growing interest in automating the process of payment using centralized matching schemes that incorporate efficient algorithms for APPS. Examples of similar automated systems are in use in several universities.
    In recent years, the advancement of technology has thus brought us into a new era of Web based systems. These systems are also known as enquiry systems and have the ability to input data, with a guaranteed response time and an assurance that the information is accurate and timely, then one is said to have a “Real Time System” [6]. A real time system is also a Web based system and comprises mainly of four (4) main components:
    i. A data-gathering component that collects data from the external environment.
    ii. An analysis component that transforms the received information as required by the application.
    iii. A control component that responds to the external environment.
    iv. A monitoring component that co-ordinates all other form of these components so that real-time response can be achieved.
    Due to these advancements, organization need no longer be centralized when information services can reach the home and offices for processing from a number of geographical locations. However, Web based systems have helped tremendously in every field of human existence today. Hence this project work provides and creates an Automatic Payment Portal System (APPS) to the Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kongo Campus through the development of a Web based system that will in turn improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the university.
    1.2 Statement of the Problem
    In most Nigerian Institutions of higher learning especially the Universities and Polytechnics, students enrolment to these higher institutions is continuously on the increase, and each year every student is expected to register for a session and therefore the student has to make payment for the session. This increase in student’s population over the years makes the period of registration stressful and payment of school fees and hostel accommodation a very tedious exercise. The existing system of payment of school fees and hostel allocation at the Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kongo Campus involves a student going online to generate a transaction ID which is then taken to the bank for payment. If the student needs to get hostel allocation, he/she has to go back online, book a room, generate another transaction ID and then take it back to the bank. This process is causing a lot of problems because many students will have to line up in unending queues in banks where so many unforeseen events might happen. A student might lose his/her money; get tired due to stress and so many other events. Most students during registration are always at home and will have to come back to school for registration because most banks outside Zaria does not provide this service.
    1.3 Motivation
    The existing system or mode of payment results to stress due to the factors and conditions encountered during registration. Every new and returning student has to register at the beginning of every session.
    Most students are in a state of confusion during registration either because they do not currently have the money to pay for their school fees or will have to come down to school to pay during process with no guaranteed accommodation or send the money to a friend who is in school.
    Based on these observations, a Web based system for Payment which will enable students overcome these problems during registration is designed and implemented. The system will allow a student to open an account at a designated bank and keep his/her school fees in the account anytime and any day. Due to the present situation of the country, parents can also keep their children’s entire school fees in their account. Therefore, the system allows you to keep your school fees incrementally or at once. The development of this Web based system will eliminate the major problems of the existing system.
    1.4 Aim
    The aim of the project is to develop an Automatic Portal Payment System (APPS) that allows students securely and comfortably pay their school fees and accommodation fees during registration.

    1.5 Objectives
    i. Create a Web based system that will solve the problems of the existing system being used for school fees and accommodation payment and hostel allocation
    ii. Develop a system that allows a student save his/her school fees in an account before the period of registration.
    iii. Allow students to pay their school fees and hostel accommodation anywhere and anytime during registration.
    iv. Ease and speed up registration of students every session.
    v. Test and validate the system prototype.
    1.6 Scope
    The scope of this project is to develop an Automatic Payment Portal System (APPS) for the Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kongo Campus. The system will accommodate only the administrator, bank staffs and students into one integrated Database system.
    This project is also scoped to only undergraduate programs in the Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kongo Campus and it is designed for the two faculties there i.e. Faculty of Administration and Faculty of Law.
    1.7 Research Methodology
    The proposed research method that would be adopted is as follows;
    i. Requirement Assessment -: A thorough assessment of the current existing system will be carried out and the requirements of the new system will be clearly defined by interviewing some students and lecturers.
    ii. Application Program -: At this stage, the design work flow will be converted to code and debugged.
    iii. Testing and Development -: The completed application will be tested and deployed on remote web host, ready for use.
    1.8 Significance
    Literature asserts that, for nearly every business, the simple act of collecting payments from consumers is actually quite complex and yet organizations want to make it easy and convenient for customers to pay, so they offer multiple choices of payment types and channels.
    Therefore, this project proposed the development of an alternative platform that enables students and their sponsors securely pay university fees online from wherever during registration. This will reduce the lengthy queues, and congestion at banks for payments. Sponsors of students will also be able to save their wards school fees before the period of registration and as such will make it easier to cater for their wards [2].
    1.9 Organization of the Project
    The project is divided into five (5) chapters. Chapter One is introductory chapter that includes the motivation, scope, research methodology, aims and objectives of the work, Chapter Two is the literature review, Chapter Three talks about the system analysis and design of the work, Chapter Four is the system development, implementation and testing and finally Chapter Five entails the recommendation and conclusion.

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    Price: 2000 Naira (BSC, MSC)

    ABSTARCT

    This project was centered on web-based or electronic payment portal for secondary school administration. The current process of payment of several fees is being done manually and due to this procedure, numerous problems are been encountered. A design was taken to computerized the manual process in order to check these problems. The problems were identified after series of interviews and examination of documents after which analysis was made and a computerized procedure recommended. This project will also suggest how to successfully implement the computerized procedure and to overcome the obstacle that would hinder the successful implementation of the system. The new system was designed using PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor) and MYSQL. This language was chosen because of its easy syntax and features for developing web-based applications.

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Introduction
    Due to the dynamic nature of the world technology today i.e. the age of computerization of our society, there has been a need to automate the education systems. Broadly speaking, the computer has effectively attracted a lot of attention in recent time, due to its automation processes and its effects on our society today.
    Hence, the computer is an electronic device that works under the control of a stored program, automatically accepting information, which is the outcome of the processor.
    Developments in Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have made impact in all sectors of the society, including education. In higher education, application of ICTs in form of e-learning is changing the mode of learning and teaching processes. School management is now done online, records are being kept in databases that are accessible through the web. Also Registration, payment of schoolfees, generating timetables and much more are done using the web. The world of IT has gone far and wide that now makes us see the importance of using automated system rather than manual system.
    Referring to the problem of school fees and hostel allocation as the Automatic Payment Portal System (APPS) problem. Given the large number of students that are typically involved in such problem, there is a growing interest in automating the process of payment using centralized matching schemes that incorporate efficient algorithms for APPS. Examples of similar automated systems are in use in several universities.
    In recent years, the advancement of technology has thus brought us into a new era of Web based systems. These systems are also known as enquiry systems and have the ability to input data, with a guaranteed response time and an assurance that the information is accurate and timely, then one is said to have a “Real Time System”. A real time system is also a Web based system and comprises mainly of four (4) main components:
    i. A data-gathering component that collects data from the external environment.
    ii. An analysis component that transforms the received information as required by the application.
    iii. A control component that responds to the external environment.
    iv. A monitoring component that co-ordinates all other form of these components so that real-time response can be achieved.
    Due to these advancements, organization need no longer be centralized when information services can reach the home and offices for processing from a number of geographical locations. However, Web based systems have helped tremendously in every field of human existence today.
    1.2 Statement of the Problem
    Due to lack of online education payment system, the sector has been encountering some problems which include:
    a. The mentality of carrying out jobs manually which is inefficient, cumbersome (difficult or complicated), time-consuming and at times inaccurate.
    b. Problem of poor communication between the various departments involved.
    c. Problem to ensure that payers who need information can obtain it accurately and on time.
    d. Difficulty to ascertain (find out for certain) the real amount a student has paid.
    e. Problem of proper identification of payers
    f. Poor funding by government to generate revenue
    g. Problem of logistics
    h. Lack of adequate enlightenment to payers
    j. Tuition evasion i.e. willingly refusal to pay fees.
    1.3 Motivation
    The existing system or mode of payment results to stress due to the factors and conditions encountered during registration. Every new and returning student has to register at the beginning of every session.
    Most students are in a state of confusion during registration either because they do not currently have the money to pay for their school fees or will have to come down to school to pay during process with no guaranteed accommodation or send the money to a friend who is in school.
    Based on these observations, a Web based system for Payment which will enable students overcome these problems during registration is designed and implemented. The system will allow a student to open an account at a designated bank and keep his/her school fees in the account anytime and any day. Due to the present situation of the country, parents can also keep their children’s entire school fees in their account. Therefore, the system allows you to keep your school fees incrementally or at once. The development of this Web based system will eliminate the major problems of the existing system.
    1.4 Aim
    The aim of the project is to develop an Automatic Portal Payment System (APPS) that allows students securely and comfortably pay their school fees and accommodation fees during registration.
    1.5 Objectives
    The main aim and objective of designing this system is to satisfy the user’s need as follows:
    a. To satisfy the user need and requirement cost as effective as possible.
    b. A system that will be easy to use i.e. user-friendly.
    c. A system that will process data accurately, so that the user can be confident of the information stored in the file database.
    d. System that will take proper records of the number of students’ payee to avoid double payment.
    e. A system that is capable of checking error verification and validation. Verification is the checking of transcription error while Validation is the checking of data to ensure that they conform to rules that apply to them.
    f. To ensure against loss of information, security measures will be taken to prevent loss of information form files by user error or physical damages.
    g. System that will be easy to maintain and update.
    h. A system that will be flexible so as to adapt to changes, and prevent unauthorized users from tampering with important files.
    1.6 Scope
    The scope of online payment portal is to use an online or net based-payment system to carry out some of the activities of school that consumes time and that has been carried out manually which is tuitions collection.
    1.7 Research Methodology
    The proposed research method that would be adopted is as follows;
    i. Requirement Assessment -: A thorough assessment of the current existing system will be carried out and the requirements of the new system will be clearly defined by interviewing some students and lecturers.
    ii. Application Program -: At this stage, the design work flow will be converted to code and debugged.
    iii. Testing and Development -: The completed application will be tested and deployed on remote web host, ready for use.
    1.8 Significance
    Advantageous process of online payment system is to make sure that the duties of the sector under study is been carried out diligently and also to reduce the rate of manual method and time-consuming. Automation of a system that is net-based (online system) for tuition payers is introduced to save time and also ensure accuracy processing.
    Literature asserts that, for nearly every business, the simple act of collecting payments from consumers is actually quite complex and yet organizations want to make it easy and convenient for customers to pay, so they offer multiple choices of payment types and channels.
    Therefore, this project proposed the development of an alternative platform that enables students and their sponsors securely pay university fees online from wherever during registration. This will reduce the lengthy queues, and congestion at banks for payments. Sponsors of students will also be able to save their wards school fees before the period of registration and as such will make it easier to cater for their wards.
    1.9 Limitation of the study
    Some limitations found during this research include:
    a. Financial Limitation: – This is one of the major constraints, which has limited the extensiveness of this work, but due to my hard work and efforts, I was able to bypass it.
    b. Time constraints: – The time given for this research work was not enough to get comprehensive information about the study because it is a broad work to be carried out.

    Most constraints experienced during the course of writing this project is that of detailed information about their major operations, the staffs were a little diplomatic in answering questions in order not to reveal information that may indent the school’s image, though that did not stop me from writing and researching for detailed information.

    1.10 Organization of the Project
    The project is divided into five (5) chapters. Chapter One is introductory chapter that includes the motivation, scope, research methodology, aims and objectives of the work, Chapter Two is the literature review, Chapter Three talks about the system analysis and design of the work, Chapter Four is the system development, implementation and testing and finally Chapter Five entails the recommendation and conclusion.
    1.11 Definition of terms
    ONLINE:- the Oxford Dictionary define bn s Online as controlled by or connected to a computer, and as an activity or service which is available on or performed using the internet or other computer network. Or online indicates a state of connectivity.
    PAYMENT: – a payment is the transfer of an item or value from one party (such as a person or company) to another in exchange for the provision of goods, services or both, or to fulfill a legal obligation.
    PORTAL (ARCHITECTURE):- a gate, door, or the extremities (ends) of a tunnel
    A MAGICAL OR TECHNOLOGICAL:- a doorway that connects two locations, dimensions, or points in time.
    ENTERPRISE PORTAL:- a framework to provide a single point of access to a variety of information and tools
    INTRANET PORTAL:- a gateway that unifies access to all enterprise information and applications
    PORTAL RENDERING:- an optimization technique in 3D computer graphics
    WEB PORTAL:- a site that functions as a point of access to information on the Internet
    PORTALS NETWORK PROGRAMMING API:- a high-performance networking programming interface for massively parallel supercomputers
    PAYPAL:- PayPal is an America, international digital wallet based e-commerce business allowing payments and money transfers to be made through the internet.

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    ABSTARCT

    This project study is focused on the design and development of security package for the Biotech Communication Limited.
    This research work came to existence the time when internet café business is becoming very popular and vast. The principal objective of this project is to stop or deny access to an unauthorized user and also to ensure proper accountability of cash received by the ticketers. Therefore the design and development of this internet security package for Biotech commucation Limited is worthwhile.
    This project covers all the general procedure involved in the design and development of a reliable in-house software application package that will provide automated Customer services for a cyber café. These procedures include the initial Design, Coding, Testing, Implementation, Maintenance and Enhancement of the new system. Thus this software will provide an accurate timing and billing information at any point in time for a cyber café operation. The New system was developed using Microsoft visual basic 6.0 programming language. This language was chosen because of its easy syntax and features for developing windows based application.

    CHAPTER ONE

    1.0 INTRODUCTION
    This is an introduction to the many threats that computer system and users face on the internet. Methods that users can implement to protect themselves are also explored. The security measures are used to gather, store, and distribute information as it is implemented differently across the web. Many companies and corporations that collect sensitive data do not have proper security protocols put into place, which may compromise personal information. Common errors that online businesses make when processing transactions will include information security and the protocols that they should put into place both in terms of their computer infrastructure, data collection and the establishment of personnel protocols, such as the handling of sensitive information and password changes. The transaction between the client and server will be examined along with the protocols used in the sharing of information, such as secure socket layers and their different certificates, encryption and security measures that are utilized. E-commerce firms must ensure that they control access to their networks by designing and implementing controls that will diminish the dissemination of sensitive information.

    1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
    The Internet has been described as the most revolutionary communication development of last century. It has changed everything about every type of business and there seems to be no end in sight to the advantages this phenomenon can bring to the enhancement of business communications. The Internet is a system for providing communication links between computers via local companies referred to as Internet of computer networks that is changing the way organizations and individuals communicates and do business.
    However, the major drawback is the security risks associated with it. The Internet suffers from a significant and widespread security problems. Perhaps, most important of all reason adduced for the poor security facilities on the internet may be the fact that it was not designed to every secured open access for the purpose of research was the prime motivation for the internet at the time of its conception. Other factors responsible for the security lapse of the internet are based on the TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) suite of protocol. A number of TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol) suites of protocols and a number of TCP/IP services are not secured and compromised by knowledgeable hackers. A number of security problems can be remedied or reduced through the use of this software and control for host security.
    1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
    Some of the problems associated with the internet security are as a result of inherent vulnerabilities in the services (and the protocols that the services implement), while others are as a result of host configuration and access controls that are poorly implemented or too complex to administer. Additionally, the role and importance of system management is often short-changed in job description resulting in many administrators begin at best, part-time and poorly prepared.
    Furthermore, the unavailability of experts who will carry the jobs for the people. Also the cost at which people or individuals will undergo before acquiring one will also arise to be a problem.
    1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT
    The objective of this research work is to develop an Internet Security Package consisting of a client billing software program with modification of existing software and eliminating the entire obstacle in previous versions of the numerous existing clients billing software program. Apart from producing an enhancement,
    It will also:
    i. Prepare daily account of all transactions with clients
    ii. Produce analyzed report for decision making
    iii. Provide security to enhance system lock when credit expires.
    iv. Automatically generate numbers as ID’S and allocate time and payments by clients.
    v. Enable the system within the network to identify user with particular name and password.

    1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT
    Like any other application development the significance of this project is to make internet café business much more profitable and easier to the investors.
    An internet café without effective security will gradually die because of pester and cashier stall time spent by clients.
    This software is intended to stop the death of internet café’s with attendant unemployment in the space. This will be facilitated by the development of automated technique i.e. café billing to check time automatically.

    1.5 SCOPE OF STUDY
    This project work or study is aimed at designing and developing an Internet Security Package consisting of a time billing software for the Access Point Communication Limited.
    Furthermore, it is also aimed at saving the management of the Access Point Communication Limited the troubles and difficulties in running an internet café manually.

    1.6 LIMITATION
    The main problem encountered or the constraints in the course of this research were with the initial difficulty in grasping the knowledge of the field, which was quite alien to the researcher. Though this was overcame within a short period of time.
    Also, the obtaining of accurate and complete information from the case study (Access Point Communication Limited) was somewhat inhibited. The researcher had to do some independent investigations and internet browsing to ensure that relevant information was used.
    Finally, the issue of time cannot be forgotten. There was a very limited time to carry out the research for the project and also limited time to produce the project work.

    1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
    DATABASE: A collection of interrelated data stored with controlled redundancy to serve one or more applications.
    E-MAIL: The term electronic mail is used to describe various system of sending data or message electronically via the telephone Network or other data network, through a central computer without the need to post letters.
    FLOWCHART: This is the diagrammatic representation of the program components using standard symbols.
    HACKING: A hacker is people who attempt to invade the privacy of a system. Hackers are normally skilled programmers.
    HARDWARE: This is the physical part of a computer system.
    INTERNET: The internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard internet protocol suite (often called TCP/IP) to serve billions of its users worldwide
    METHODOLOGY: A methodology is a collection of procedure techniques, tools and documentation aids which will help the system developer in their effort to implement a new information system, Abdul J.I (2004).
    MICROSOFT VISUAL BASIC: This is the software which allows you to develop your own software.
    NETWORK SERVERS: These are devices used to manage how the various resources on the network are shared.
    NEWS GROUP: These are meeting places for people discussing special topics.
    OFFLINE: This is the process of the computer not connected to the internet.
    ONLINE: This is the direct connection to the computers through the internet and under the influence of the computer C.P.U.
    SECURITY: This is an act of safeguarding a file or a document in order to prevent unauthorized access.
    SOFTWARE: This is the program that controls the computer operation.
    WWW: – This stands for World Wide Web which consists of the different websites which you can visit.

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