Showing all 6 results

  •  4,000.00  2,000.00

    Price: 2000 Naira (BSC, MSC)

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background of the Study
    The effect of the contributory pension Scheme (CPS) in the Nigeria economy since its inception cannot be underestimated. This can be attested to from the drastic reduction in external borrowings and from numerous developments in capital projects embarked upon and executed by the government since the enforcement of PRA 2004 and the level of accessibility to funds by the reputable/quoted companies as well as government to meet their financial needs especially long- term funds.
    The essence of the contributory pension scheme (CPS) is not only to ensure individuals have access to his/her retirement benefits as and when due or to promote saving culture in economy, but essentially to serve as long- term source of fund for government and quoted companies in order to meet their long term financial needs, which the short- term source of finance cannot meet or solved.
    However, the enactment of the Pension Reform Act in 2004 by then Olu-Obasanjo administration and its acceptability and enforcement in the F.C.T, public and private sector of the economy have transformed most real sectors and speed – up the completion of capital projects as result of easy accessibility to long- term fund through Contributory Pension Scheme. Though, many scholars will certainly criticize the impact of the contributory pension scheme (CPS) in the Nigeria economy, but this work is to critically review its impact in the Nigeria economy, basically how the scheme have help in the development and growth in the gross domestic products as well as creation of employment.
    The impacts of the contributory pension scheme have been seen in the reduction external debt/borrowings, increase in developmental projects executed, strong capital market capitalization and financial institution turnaround or re-engineering.
    The contributory pension scheme (CPS) is governed by the Pension Reform Act. Recently, the operating Pension Reform Act 2004 was repealed to reflect and accommodates the exigencies of grail areas that were not in the previous Act. This action warrant the amendments to essential areas of the Pension Reform Act 2004 to ensure total compliance with the new pension Reform Act 2014 that was signed into law in July, 2014.
    Pension is the regular stipend or an amount that is expected either monthly or quarterly basis through any mode of withdrawal s/he chooses at point of retirement to ensure the retiree could still be able live within the standard of living as at when s/he was working.
    Therefore, pension scheme has been in existence prior to emergence of the nation as practiced in the development countries. Its sole purpose is to ensure that retirees (i.e individual who have worked) have/can access its retirement benefits as and when due and promote saving culture.
    The pension framework started with establishment of the National provident fund (NPF) that was operational for years before the emergence of the National Social Insurance Trust Funds (NSIFT) which covered essentially the private companies with mandate to deduct certain percentage of workers emolument and employers’ quota and remit the total contribution to insurance companies via NSITF. The process was not transparent and efficiently managed due to the lack of Investment guidelines and strong regulatory agency to monitor the activities of the then scheme; metamorphosed to the enactment of the Pension Reform Act 2004 that birthed the contributory pension scheme. The birthed of the pension reform in June 2004 dismantled NSITF, the detail of the PRA 2004 will be review in the next chapter. The Act elaborates strict measure of compliance and punitive approaches. It specifies contributory rates for both employers and employees which individuals are expected to open a retirement savings account where the pension benefits can be remitted. The act empower pensions fund administrators to mobilize funds and efficiently manage the pool of funds through investment in financial instruments in appropriate ratios as specified by the regulator i.e National Pension Commission to avoid reckless investments by the Pension Fund Administrators to avoid capital erosion.
    Essentially, the impact of the contributory pension scheme have been seen and felt in the Nigeria economy through:
    (a) Rapid growth in the gross domestic product
    (b) Reduction in external debt/borrowings
    (c) Creation of employment
    (d) Strong source of long- term fund to finance capital projects and good avenue for easy access to funding for quoted companies and government.
    (e) Transparent and efficient management of retirement benefits to ensure workers retire comfortably.
    (f) Cultivate strong/mandatory saving cultures in the economy.
    (g) Strong reserve mechanism.

    1.2 Statement of the Problem
    The contributory pension scheme since its embracement by the concerned entities and possible enforcement to make it operational in the economy witnessed serious setback due to unacceptable dynamism and non- conformity by various sectors. With the success recorded in the industry so far within the short- period of operation in the economy, cannot be compare with desire result pre-supposed to have been attained assuming all affected entities, individuals and states that are yet be enact a bye- law to back its operational and enforcement embrace the scheme. Therefore, the problem of enforcement of the enacted law/act becomes imperative as there is no strong task force or sanctions even though there are paper enacted sanctions for those individuals, entities and government parastatals that refused to embrace into the scheme; but there has been no significant implementation of the act on the affected. This nonchalant attitude on the part of the regulatory agency has really encourage most affected entities to evade or circumvent the scheme that could have serve as a pool of funds for long- term source of funds for infrastructure development, provision of social amenities and other economic growth greed.
    On the other hand, the quoted companies probably complied not because they really want to but as an operational requirement for them to remain in the floor of capital market, but what happen to unquoted companies in which most of them employ large active workforce of the population that have refused to embrace the Scheme. Most of them become compelled to comply because either they require a compliance certificate for contracts bidding, otherwise after then they discontinued to remit for the employees, thereby create unfunded accounts. The Pension Fund Administrators might follow up to recover the unremitted sum; but they are not empowered by the law to compel the employer to pay or remit for the employees. Though, the new Act provides that such companies should be reported to the regulator in the event of non- remittance of pension contribution over a certain period of time (not specific) but most Pension Fund Administrators give a grace period of six (6) months of discontinuity. However, the basic question we should be asking is that, how many of these defaulters have been persecuted or tried is the law court? This reveals the lackadaisical attitude of the regulator in enforcing the provision of the Act.
    Apart from the non- enforcement of the act on the part of the regulator and no strict compliance by the most unquoted companies and government parastatals/states, there is low sensitization and dissemination of information by the Pension Fund Administrators to the public. The investment apparatus set-up by the regulator also constraint the Pension Fund Administrators to really invest the pension funds in real economy to boast the economy growth and development. The National Pension Commission (PENCOM) has strictly set –out percentages of funds under management (FUMS) to be invested in various sectors or markets or financial instruments to guide against Pension Fund Administrators taking unreasonable risk that will erode the pool of funds. As we can reconnect the trends in the capital market during the economics recession where Nigerian capital market and the global market experienced a down- turn in funds. The impairment of funds cannot be overemphasized because of its negative impact on the economy, therefore, the strict measure is put in place by the regulator to safeguard the individuals funds ie pension benefits or fund.
    In this research work, we practically endorse the approach of strict enforcement of the act on all concerns to continue grow the pool of funds that will reduce the existing cost of capital in the market. Because if we have a growing pool of fund it will affords the economic sectors to easily have access to relatively cheap funds to finance their long- term projects that will have positive impact on the economy. There should also be a taskforce and compulsory annual renewal certificate expect of all unquoted and quoted entities to produce in order to remain in operation. It should be given equal jurisdiction of taxation backing to remedy the set- back and evasion of compliance and non- remittance for those entities or employer that have set in.
    The process of bye-law in the states, local governments should be short- cut with timing of the Act. The PFAs should be empowered to send the names of non- complied employers to the industrial counts and not the regulators that are inefficient.
    1.3 Purpose of the Study
    The main objective of this study is to examine the input of contributory pension scheme on the Nigeria economy. Specifically the study focuses to:
    i. Determine the impact of contributory pension scheme (CPS) in economic development of Nigeria.
    ii. Review the impact of the act in compelling all concerns to embrace the scheme.
    iii. Compare the issue in the formal operative scheme and the now contributory pension scheme (CPS)
    iv. To find out whether employers comply with the scheme
    v. To ascertain the import of setting investment limit for the Pension Fund Administrators is the management of funds.
    vi. To find out how the new PRA, 2014 will positively impact in the continuous growth of pension funds in the economy.
    vii. To ascertain whether the enactment and migration from NSITF to CPS has really resulted is transparency and efficient management of pension’s funds in Nigeria.
    viii. To ascertain the process and management of pension funds that creates economic impact and development growth.
    ix. To evaluate the effectiveness of contributory pension scheme in Nigeria
    x. To review the connectivity among the organs in the scheme.
    1.4 Research Question
    Having defined the background to the problem and purpose of the study it is believed that practical answers will be provided to the following question at the end of the study;

    1. Does contributory pension scheme affect the development growth of Nigeria economy?
    2. How does the new pension scheme different from the operated scheme i.e NSITF or the government defined benefits?
    3. Do regulator and other organs in the scheme perform their duties according to the pension policies or act?
    4. To what extent has contributory pension scheme affects the Nigeria economy and prospective millennium development goals?
    5. How does the attitude of employers affect the management of contributory pension scheme?
    6. What should be done or put in place to compel all concerns to embrace the scheme?
    7. How does frequent amendment is the pension perform Acts affect the impact of contributory pension scheme.
    8. What should be done to ensure strict compliance in all sectors?

    1.5 Research Hypothesis
    In order to find answers to the questions above this hypothesis is formulated for test.
    H1. There is no significant relationship between the contributory pension scheme and the gross domestic products in the Nigeria economy.
    1.6 Significance of Study
    This study will be of aid to a lot of people. It is believed that the results of its findings will be far reading to the following categories of people. The PFA managers and PFC managers; It will avail them the opportunity of knowing how employers could react to enforcement of the pension scheme on them, the cost implications.
    The auditors will find the result of this study also useful is the course of performing their professional duties in terms of reporting on the financial statement of PFAs and PFCs, especially the investment limit and also the complied employers as regard to contributory rates and regular remittance the financial analysis and economic policy makers will be acquainted with the impact of pension perform Acts on the contributory pension scheme and their multiplier effect on the economy.
    More importantly, the need for strict compliance and observance of the pension reform Act or polices rate applicable and regular remittance with objective by the pension manager will revealed.
    1.7 Scope of the Study
    The research work intends to cover the relevant pension perform Act and the evolution of pension scheme in Nigeria and its impact in the economy the wide coverage of the pension perform Act of 2004 and 2014 with critical analysis of its implication and impact of the contributory pension scheme in the Nigeria economy.
    However, in-depth analysis of data of pension fund mobilization per licensed pension funds Administrators in Nigeria since inception of the contributory pension scheme in 2004 to date. This will reveal the prospect and potential investment for economic growth. It will also look at legal framework and duties as enacted in the law i.e PRA 2004 & 2014 of each organ for transparent and efficient management of pension scheme in Nigeria.
    The survey of the study covers the economy of Nigeria as relate to the adoption and implementation of the PRA 2004 and 2014 in the remittance of pension funds or contributions of employers and employees regularly to the Pension Fund Custodians (PFC) for onward investment by the PFA that stimulates economic impact. The study revolve around the available financial resource at the researcher disposal, the analysis essentially focus on the organizations and government.
    1.8 Limitation of the Study
    This study as a matter of fact is supposed to the thorough and elaborate without persimmon, but the following problems were encountered.
    TIME CONSTRAINTS: This time of approval of the project topic and submission of the completed which was so short forced to limit the study to only organic framework of the contributory pension scheme in Nigeria.
    FINANCIAL CONSTRAINTS: A successful conduct of this work depends on finance which was not forth coming considering the present economic readily of the day.
    LACK OF MATERIAL: It is unfortunate considering the infancy of the pension industry that most operators’ management do not understand the need for research students to use their financial records, as a result, they tend to be uncompromising when it comes to obtaining relevant information and data, without pre-empting them it is believed that the uncompromising attitude of library staff affect the conduct of this study is terms of getting receivable marketer.
    1.9 Definition of Terms
    The following terms used in this work are defined as follows:
    1. Pension Scheme: An arrangement by which an employer and, usually, an employee pay into a fund that is invested to provide the employee with a pension on retirement.

    2. Annuity: A series of payment made at stated interval until a particular event- usually the death of the person receiving the annuity – occurs.
    3. Contributory Scheme: A scheme in which active members are required to make contributions toward the cost of their benefits.
    4. Defined contribution Scheme: Also know as a Money purchase scheme – a scheme where the individual member’s benefits is determined solely by reference to the contributors paid into scheme by or in behalf of the member and to investment return earned on those contribution.
    5. Funding: The provision in advance for future benefit n advance for future benefit liabilities by setting aside money in a trust, which is separate from the employer’s business, to finance the payment of pension.
    6. Investment: The process by which contributions and net income of a scheme are used to increase the value of pension fund assets by means of cash deposits, the purchases and sale of equities, bound’s property and other assess as authorized by the trust dead and by law.
    7. Pension Act: An Act of 2004 & 2014 for the regulation pension schemes, which provides for preservation of benefits, a funding standard in the case of defined benefits schemes, disclosure of information, the duties and responsibilities of PFA, PFC and National pension commission and a pension commission and pension Board to supervise the operatory of the Act.

    8. Unfunded Scheme: A scheme under which advance financial provision for the payment of benefits is not normally made.
    9. Pension: Is a fixed sum to be paid regularly to a person, typically following retirement from service.

    1.10 Organization of the Study
    This study id divided into five sub-headings. The first chapter was on the introduction in which we have overview, statement of problem, the purpose of the study, significance of the study, organization of the study, scope of the study, limitation of the study, hypotheses, research question and definition of the terms were all discussed.
    The second chapter dealt with the reviews of contribution of related literature on the impact of contributory pension scheme in the Niger economy and its related pension reforms Act as well as duties of organism the scheme.
    The third dealt with research methodology and tools utilized in the study. It explained to research designed, sample procedure/sample size determination, data collection techniques and data analysis method.
    Furthermore, chapter four deals with presentation of data analysis and interpretation of data so collected also include the hypothesis testing and findings for better decision.
    Finally, chapter five presents the summary, conclusion, and suggested recommendation of the research.

    Get Complete Materials

    Add to cart
    Add to Wishlist
    Add to Wishlist
  •  4,000.00  2,000.00

    Price: 2000 Naira (BSC, MSC)

    ABSTRACT

    From the title of this work, it will be seen that the work is geared towards
    finding out the impact of small scale firms on industrial development of
    Enugu Urban. The aim of the this study is to examine and identify in detail
    the problems, prospects effect and the importance of the development of
    small scale firms towards industrial development of Enugu Urban. This work
    has five chapters, with each chapter focusing in a specific objective. Chapter
    one tells us the history of small scale firms, chapter two examine other
    people’s work on small scale firms under these sub-headings characteristics
    of small scale firms, availability of resource, the impacts or importance,
    financing the small scale firms, Government and its agencies, and so on.
    Chapter three examines the type of research design and methodology used by
    the researcher. Chapter four, the researcher used two techniques of data
    analysis the percentages and chi-square at 0.05 level of significance. Chapter
    five summarizes the findings, making some conclusion and some
    recommendation as to how the problems of the small scale firms will be
    solved.

    CHAPTER ONE

    1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
    Development of firms has been a matter of great concern and priority
    to many nations of the world. It could be understood from economic history
    that many advanced countries of the world which has attained the height of
    industrialization started as a more small and medium scale enterprises which
    later metamorphosed into giant cooperation. In the past, industrial
    development process were slow and painful and the advancement in
    technology in developed countries resulted from the survival of the cottage
    firms which were nurtured, pampered and breastfed to grow up as big
    industrial corporations today.
    Since the early, 1990’s a number of initiatives have come to dominate
    the economic growth agenda of many donors and public agencies. These
    initiatives arose as a response to, or an interpretation of, the increasing effects
    of market globalization on the economies of developing countries. Analyses
    that only looked at domestic markets were no longer adequate to
    understanding the dynamics that affected the incomes and livelihoods of poor
    households almost anywhere in the world. With the increase in globalization,
    resource-driven comparative advent-age diminished in importance, while
    competitive advantage, created by private and public stakeholders, rises. And
    with its rise, the importance of theories that could help us understand and
    manipulate the dynamics affecting economic growth including competitiveness, value chain analysis, and economic cluster theory.
    As a result of increased globalization and a shift in jobs from
    developed to developing economies ethical issues emerged. These were
    largely in response to labour and environmental concerns.
    Since then, competitiveness initiatives, value chain analysis, and
    cluster development approach have proved to be quite effective at increasing
    micro, small and medium enterprises productivity and competitiveness into
    global markets, as well as national and local markets.
    Developing countries as a whole have now realized that they lag much
    behind than the developed nations of the world, not only in industrial base but
    also in national standard of living. As a result, these countries now seem to
    have hastened up the pace of their industrial development process in other to
    increase their living standard and thus reduce the present rate of
    unemployment, (Klatt 1973).
    Nigerian’s desire to concentrate on developing the small and medium
    scale enterprises (SME) have always been buttressed by and reflected in a
    wide range of economic policies. In-fact, the present consciousness on the
    part of the every segment of the society including the government for small
    and medium scale industrial growth cannot be under emphasized and the
    delay in appreciating this sector as an economic catalyst is frustrating. (Ani
    B.N. and Nwandu E.C. 2001).
    Yearly, government initiate policies that will not only help the
    development of small scale firms but also bring legislations for small and
    medium scale firms protection. Most government economic policies on
    imported goods have been targeted at discouraging such importation and
    protect the establishment, existence and survival of cottage firms. The
    essence of the protection is not to allow it face the competition posed by
    foreign goods in the market.
    It is true that we are operating in a system where savings and
    investment are quite low; this is as a result of low capital base, mass
    unemployment and low per capital income. But government has not relented
    on its effort to ensure the success of small and medium scale firms. Tax
    holidays and tax concessions are many at times being offered by government
    to small and medium scale firms to enable them survive. Grants and loan
    facilities are another key ways of assisting small and medium scale (SME)
    industries so that funds needed for current operations and investments may
    not be an impediment.
    If critically viewed, more efforts of government were geared towards
    the establishment of industries which would provide employment to the
    teaming populations, provide earnings to the country through export profiles,
    enhance standard of living of the citizenry and in turn results to provisions of
    infrastructural facilities.
    It is equally of important to note at this juncture that small and medium scale
    enterprises means different thing to different people, group, society and
    government hence.
    1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
    The under-development of Nigerian economy is as a result of
    inadequate industries in Nigeria and manufacturing of the existing one’s
    owing to poor implementation, supervision and execution of government
    policies and programmes, subject to corruption and lack of appropriate
    machineries for later implementation.
    The government (both at state and federal level) at various intervals
    have initiated policies measures to encourage the development of the small
    scale industries. Some of these policies included the operation feed the nation
    (OFN) of 1973, the Green Revolution of 1977, the National Directorate of
    Employment (NDE) of 1986 and others. All these geared towards assisting
    the firms technically, financially and managerially.
    Given that industrial development has been so slowly generally in
    Nigeria, and that government has been doing something positive to increase
    the industrial base of the country; the researcher therefore is challenged to
    prove whether or not a small and medium firm will lead to quick industrial
    development in Enugu Urban and Nigeria in general.
    The researcher will find out why most government industrialization
    and mobilization policies inaugurated in the past, failed to achieve grass root
    industrialization and mobilization among Nigerians and also how to address
    the problems of entrepreneurship facing small scale industries in Nigeria and
    Enugu State in particular.
    1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
    The impact of small and medium scale enterprise towards industrial
    development have been a controversial issue owing to its significant to
    Nigerian economy. In view of this, the researcher intends to present the
    following questions.
    (1) What are the factors militating against the growth and development of
    small and medium scale enterprises in Enugu Urban?
    (2) Do Government and its agencies fund small scale firm adequately in
    relation to its promises and policies as to industrializing in Enugu
    Urban?
    (3) Do government give financial assistance to small scale firms?
    (4) Do good management contribute to the success of small scale firms in
    Enugu Urban?
    (5) How much loan do government give to small scale firms?
    (6) Do small and medium scale enterprises contribute in waste
    management disposal and extended usage of by-product that may not
    haven been useful without the existence of SME’s?
    1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
    This study intends to investigate various problems associated with
    establishment and growth of small and medium scale enterprises towards the
    development of industrialization in Enugu State. This research will attempt to
    (1) To discover and determine the factors militating against the growth and
    development of scale and medium enterprises in Enugu Urban.
    (2) To discover if government and its agencies fund small scale firms
    adequately in relation to its promises and policies as to industrializing
    in Enugu Urban.
    (3) To find out if government render financial assistance to small scale
    firm in Enugu Urban.
    (4) To find out if good management contribute to the success of small
    scale firms in Enugu Urban.
    (5) To find out if government give loans to the small scale firms.
    (6) To discover whether small and mediums scale enterprise contributes in
    waste management disposal and extended usage of by-product that
    may not have been useful without the existence of SME’s.
    1.5 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
    The hypothesis to be tested against their alternatives will be formulated
    from the statement or problem to serve as an effective guide:
    Ho Small and medium scale enterprises does not have any factor militating against its growth and development in Enugu State.
    Hi Small and medium scale enterprises does have any factor militating
    against its growth and development in Enugu State.
    Ho Small scale and medium enterprises does not have any effect to the
    development and growth of industrialization in Enugu State.
    Hi Small scale and medium enterprises does have any effect to the
    development and growth of industrialization in Enugu State.
    Ho Individuals does not have roles to play towards promoting government
    policy to achieve industrialization and stability in the economy of the
    state.
    Hi Individuals have roles to play towards promoting government policy to
    achieve value chain of industrialization and stability in the economy of
    the state.
    Ho Small and medium scale enterprises (SME) does not contribute in
    waste management disposal and extended usage of by-product that
    may not have been useful without the existence of small and medium
    scale enterprises.
    Hi Small and medium scale enterprises (SME) does contribute in waste
    management disposal and extended usage of by-product that may not
    have been useful without the existence of small and medium scale
    enterprises.
    Ho Government does not have any position towards assisting, promoting and stabilizing small and medium scale enterprises (SME) in other to
    unlock value chain approaches to our economic boom.
    Hi Government does have any position towards assisting, promoting and
    stabilizing small and medium scale enterprises (SME) in other to
    unlock value chain approaches to our economic boom.
    Ho Environmental factors does not have influence in the establishment,
    growth and stability of small scale enterprises (SME)
    Hi Environmental factors does have influence in the establishment,
    growth and stability of small scale enterprises (SME)
    1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
    No matter the amount of resources committed in this study, its
    importance as to the resources imputed cannot be compared. This is true
    because it is a study that deals with rudiments and fundamentals of economic
    growth and stability. Its centered on business prosperity, which if achieved
    will reduce the personal problem of unemployment and poor standard of
    living. It deals with the production of goods and services, provision of
    necessary tools for infrastructural facilities and this helps to enhance
    industrial development. It creates earning sources to the government and for
    the general administration. Above all,
    1. This research will give an insight into the natural implications of
    existence of small and mediums scale enterprises in Enugu Urban.
    2. This research work will also assist researchers, scholars and future
    managers on the above subject matter.
    3. This research work will expose any short comings that has been
    militating against the establishment, growth and development of
    industrialization in Enugu Urban
    4. This research will expose opportunities that have not been exploited to
    intending investors and entrepreneurs in search of opportunities.
    1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
    This research work has been limited to a reasonable researchable scope
    considering a lot of constraints during the time of the study. The study aims
    at identifying the problems and prospects of firm using selected small scale
    firms in Enugu as a case study.
    A lot of problems are likely to be encountered during the process of
    putting this work together. These problems include:
    (1) Finance: A lot of money is required at all stages of the study, as a civil
    servant, it is a big problem.
    (2) Time constraint: As a civil servant, I have a limited time to put this
    work together due to other numerous engagements.

    Get Complete Materials

    Add to cart
    Add to Wishlist
    Add to Wishlist
  •  4,000.00  2,000.00
    Add to cart
    Add to Wishlist
    Add to Wishlist
  •  4,000.00  2,000.00

    Price: 2000 Naira (BSC, MSC)

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    1.0 GENERAL INTRODUCTION All over the world, the public service as a matter of experience has not been known for their capacity to create wealth. Consequently, public enterprises have usually been perceived as drain pipes, thus creating budgetary strains and avoidable burden on the economy. It became a national policy imperative therefore to disengage the public sector from those areas where the private sector has the comparable advantage to perform, while letting the State concern itself with the provision of infrastructure, security and the enabling environment for business to thrive through enhanced wealth creation. It is important to observe that for many developing countries like Nigeria, it was perhaps unavoidable for the government, in an earlier epoch, to promote the initial investments in the early phase of national development when the private sector was almost non-existent. Unfortunately, the government got herself so involved in business that could best be tackled by the private sector, that government could no longer perform her traditional functions: the provision of infrastructure and security through the maintenance of law and order as well as the promotion of an enabling and conducive environment for investments and wealth creation. (Any a, O. A., 2000 p4) 1). The import of this economic step is anchored on “the belief that entrepreneurs can manage the industries and can operate services more efficiently and at a lower cost than the public enterprise. (Onodugo,V.A. 1995 P3).
    The introduction of privatization and commercialization fourteen (14) years ago has provoked a lot of public attention and discussion. However, it is clear that as opposed to the 1980s when there were two strong schools of thought on privatization – one for and another against, dissenting voices are much fewer these days. This perhaps, may be an indication of the widespread acknowledgement and acceptance that the merits of privatization and commercialization far outweigh its demerits. It is therefore the purpose of this study to critically analyze this government policy of privatization and commercialization, with a view to finding out whether it has the economic remedy, for which it is meant. In doing this, the researcher will carry out investigation using two government parastatals namely – The Nigerian Telecommunication Limited (NITEL) and National Electric Power Authority (NEPA), both of which have been commercialized. 1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The economic depression of the late 1930’s with it’s deep and severe consequences coupled with the revolution in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) led to a situation where governments, that hitherto had no business in running enterprises, dabbled into business. This became possible when private sector enterprise, especially in Western Europe collapsed due to the recession. Nigeria, like many African countries on attaining independence, embarked on establishment of public enterprises. The oil boom of the 70’s further accelerated the growth of the public enterprises. Government presence was felt in virtually every aspect of our economy such that “it became the largest producer, the largest consumer, the biggest employer, the biggest owner of property, the biggest investor, the biggest insurer and the biggest debtor’ (Ubaigboma 1995 P. 8).
    However, by the 1980s, it was clear that a nightmarish mistake has been done indicated by the common features of the public enterprises, which are huge annual losses, gross inefficiencies, low returns, mismanagement etc. All these necessitated a move towards competitive market system by the use of economic tools of domestic Deregulation, Privatization and Commercialization (Iromantu, 1999). Privatization has become a major element of economic reform and an important instrument for advancing the global competitiveness of nations. It is therefore, the problem of this study succinctly examine and analyze the extent to which the objectives of the privatization and commercialization programmes have been achieved with special reference to the Nigeria Telecommunication Limited (NITEL) and the Nigeria Electric Power Authority (NEPA). The above problem brings to the fore the following sub-problems: – 1. What effect will the privatization and commercialization of public enterprises have on the economy of Nigeria? 2. Whether the privatization and commercialization programmes has improved management efficiency? 3. Whether the parastatals have achieved the much-needed economic objectives for which it was set out to pursue? 4. Are the structures put in place for the proper implementation of the privatization and commercialization programme adequate? 5. What do the general public stand to benefit from the privatization and commercialization programme? 1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY:
    This Study is essentially a critical evaluation of the privatization and commercialization exercise in Nigeria with a view to identifying the problems associated with the implementation of the programmes and therefore come up with solutions to them as related to NITEL and NEPA. Based on these and following the problem statement above, it is therefore the specific objective of this research work:1. To identify any organizational structure of NITEL and NEPA that is interfering with the effective realization of the objectives of the privatization and commercialization programmes. 2. To examine the incessant interference of government and their agencies on these parastatals and establishing whether it contributes to their inefficiency. 3. To ascertain the public assessment of the economic policy, using their perception of the services rendered by NITEL and NEPA. 4. To examine the reasons these public enterprises suffer from lack of purpose, role conflict and misplaced objectives. 5. To determine the extent to which the privatization and commercialization programme have had a positive impact on the operations of NITEL and NEPA. 1.3 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS: For the purpose of achieving a reasonable degree of accuracy and relevance in this research work, the following hypothesis have been posited and tested.
    1. That NITEL and NEPA have not attained higher productivity levels since implementation of privatization and commercialization. 2. That there has been no improvement in economic growth as indicated by increases in government income, per capita income and GDP since the implementation of the programme. 3. That there has not been marked improvement in the management efficiencies of NITEL and NEPA since privatization and commercialization.
    4. That the services rendered by NITEL and NEPA have not improved reasonably since the privatization and commercialization programme was implemented. 1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The services sector has enlarged to become a dynamic sector whose importance has continued to rise in most economies in the late 1980s and the 1990s. The sector currently represents over 60% of GNP in most of the developed economies. There is no doubt that these public enterprises are growing in importance over the years. In Nigeria, the number of public enterprises has increased tremendously and now occupies a central position on the economy and has therefore become major instrument of development (Project Work). These have necessitated increasing investments in these enterprises by the government but inspite of these investments, the returns have been extremely poor. The public sector has thus gained the reputation of constituting sources of waste, and being inefficient coupled with bad attitude to work, undue interference, corruption and low morale. It is therefore the objective of this study to determine the root cause of these problems and to proffer probable solutions or directions to follow. In the view of this, it is therefore hoped that the study of the effect of the privatization and commercialization programmes in two parastatals NITEL and NEPA both in Enugu, will help the management and indeed the government in the formulation of effective policies to enable them continue the implementation of these programmes. It is also hoped that workers, the society and especially scholars who might wish to conduct further research on the subject matter in the future will find it very reliable.
    1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY: This Study is aimed at investigating the government’s economic policy of Privatization and Commercialization with a view to determining the extent to which the set objectives have been attained in these establishments – The Nigeria Telecommunications Limited and the National Electric Authority both in Enugu. Whenever a research of this nature is being conducted, there is bound to be some constraints militating against the study. A major area of limitation was the attitude of respondents most of which were non-cooperative, nonchalant, illiterate and ignorant about the subject of study and this heavily hindered the completion of the questionnaires. Another major area of limitation was the unavailability of secondary sources of data considering the fact that both parastatals are yet to be privatized.. This constituted a major set back as there was basically nothing on which judgments and inferences could be based on.
    Finally, this study was also constrained in terms of time, money and logistics and of which none came cheap. 1.6 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF CASE STUDY: THE NIGERIAN TELECOMMUNICATION LIMITED (NITEL), ENUGU The Nigerian Telecommunication Limited (NITEL) started as a postal branch of the British Post Office in 1851 and in 1885 an internal telecommunications arm with better system of telecommunications was established to serve the interest of the colonial masters. In 1966, the Postal and Telecommunications (P&T) a quasi-commercial department of the Ministry of Communications was formed and backed by Decree 22 of the miscellaneous provisions. In 1985, the Nigeria Telecommunications limited was formed.
    The external telecommunications concerned with the provision of direct telegraph services between Nigeria and London, made possible hi 1886 by the African District Telegraph (ADT) and the Cable and Wireless Company of London. In 1997, the Federal Government acquired 51% equity ownership of the Cable and Wireless Company and changed its name to Nigerian External Telecommunications (NET) Limited. By 1972, the government acquired the remaining 49% and made it a Federal Government wholly owned company which was to provide external telecommunications services. In 1984, P&T and NET were merged and incorporated as a Limited Liability Company under the companies Decree of 1968. This merger saw the birth of the Nigerian Telecommunications Limited (NITEL), which officially kicked off on 1st January 1985. On 22nd May 1992, there was a contract agreement between the Federal Government, NITEL and the Technical Committee on Privatization and Commercialization (TCPC), now known as the Bureau of Public Enterprises (BPE). This agreement marked the beginning of the era of Privatization and Commercialization of NITEL, which will now become NITEL Plc. On incorporation, the company had an authorized share capital of N 4,000,000 shares of N 1.00 each with N 2,000.000 fully paid up by Government. This was reviewed in 1992 when the company was re-registered as a Public Limited Company with an authorized share capital of N 5.5 billion all of which was fully paid. In almost a century of providing telecommunications services, Nigeria could boast only of 250,000 lines most of which were of the analogue technology. The transmission link was also mainly of the analogue system while the two gateways located at Oyo State and Kaduna State were aging and going out of fashion.
    NITEL was also characterized with other problems such as undue interference from the government, labor turnover, management inefficiency, fraudulent practices by some staff, abandoned projects, uneconomic investment decisions, low returns, inadequate network capacity, low tariff structure and delayed dial tone. To overcome these problems and more, long term development strategies were mapped out during the formative years, but these strategies hardly saw the light of day because of the limited power of NITEL, as they relate to decision making and policy implementation.
    To overcome these, the Government decided to embark on commercialization of the company, which took off in May 1992. This action granted NITEL autonomy especially as regards business oriented and customer oriented decisions. This enabled it embark on network expansion and to adequately maintain existing facilities and modernize others. The effect of these developments resulted in the provision of digital facilities in Abuja (20,000 lines), Lagos (45,000 lines), Kaduna (10, 000 lines), Enugu (30, 000 lines) and Ibadan (25, 000 lines). NITEL also extended its services to the rural areas with the installation of digital exchanges using the colophony technology. On the part of International Connectivity, NITEL established dual antenna (digital) satellite earth stations in Lagos and Enugu and a third to be finished in Kaduna. In addition to the conventional services of telephone, telex and fax, NITEL also introduced value-added services like Mobile Cellular Phone System, Voice mail, Paging Services and Internet services. FUTURE NITEL has set itself challenging targets for the future in its effort to improve on its services to the masses.
    These include: i) To have a revision from the present 90% dependence on telephone to 70% telephony and 30% data services. ii) To extend the cellular mobile telephone services which at present covers Enugu, Lagos and Abuja to the entire country. iii) To include value-added services like fax and data packet switching into the cellular network. To achieve these and more, NITEL has a set of corporate objectives that are guiding them and they include: – a) To ensure the development of telecommunications technology as an infrastructure facility for the economic development of the country.
    b) To improve the efficiency and availability of telecommunications services. c) To carry on for profit, the business of internal and external or overseas telecommunications common carriers and to that end, to conduct telecommunications services of all kinds within Nigeria and to such points outside Nigeria as the company shall see fit and to this end, to administer plan, provide and operate all kinds of telecommunications services to all parts of the Federation and beyond including ship to shore in an efficient, co-ordinate, economical and profitable manner. d) To generate, borrow or raise money for the purpose of the company’s business by the sale of services, issue of debenture, debenture stock (perpetual or terminable), bonds, mortgages or any other securities founded or based upon all or any of the property and rights of the company or without any such security, and upon such terms as the company shall think fit. (Omeata, E. C., 1995).

    Get Complete Materials

    Add to cart
    Add to Wishlist
    Add to Wishlist
  •  6,000.00  4,000.00

    Price: 4000 Naira (BSC, MSC)

    ABSTRACT

    Diversity is increasingly recognized and utilized as an important organizational
    resource in regards to whether the goal is to be an employer of choice, to provide
    excellent customer service, or to maintain a competitive edge. Workplace
    diversity is a multi-faceted concept that will continue to evolve as more industries
    move toward a global marketplace. It also has proven to have led to a perception
    of being fundamental for employee performance. This fundamental belief forces
    managers to embrace and comprehend the concept of workplace diversity, its
    barriers and benefits.
    The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of work force diversify
    towards employee performance in an organization which focus into air line
    industry. The research also focuses on workforce diversity which includes the
    gender, age, ethnic and education background of the employees which is the most
    critical variables among all the others. The investigation was done by distributing
    300 questionnaire to the air line industry„s management team. The questionnaire
    results show that there is a significant impact on performance when different
    workforce is working in the airline industry.

    CHAPTER 1

    INTRODUCTION

    1.0 Introduction
    Advances in technology and the advent of a global economy bring the people of
    the world closer together than ever before. Given this fact, businesses, educational
    systems and other entities are investigating ways to better serve their constituents.
    This includes being able to attract and retain the best and most qualified workers.
    Organizations that can develop and employ the necessary policies and procedures
    to do this will maintain a competitive advantage among their counterparts and
    increase their effectiveness. To achieve success and maintain a competitive
    advantage, we must be able to draw on the most important resource such as the
    skills of the workforce. With the increasing richness of diversity in the workforce,
    we need to expand our outlook and use creative strategies to be successful.
    Employees can provide this resource. This study identifies the effect of workforce
    diversity toward employees‟ performance in Malaysia‟s airline industries.
    Workforce diversity refers to organizations that are becoming more heterogeneous
    with the mix of people in terms of gender, age, race, and education background
    (Robbins, 2009). A diverse workforce for instance, includes gender, age, ethnicity,
    and education background According to Robbins (2009), workforce diversity has
    important implications toward management practices and policies. Frequently,
    diversity is viewed in a limited fashion, primarily addressing issues of race or
    gender differences, and linked to the laws providing protected status to certain
    groups. We have used a very broad definition of diversity, to encompass most
    characteristics that individuals possess that affect the way they think and do
    things.
    Today‟s managers are responsible for both leading employees and responding to
    the needs of customers who are more ethnically and culturally diverse, older, and
    in greater need of child and elder care. Leaders in both the public and the private
    sectors are focusing more attention on the issue of diversity. Whether the goal is
    to be an employer of choice, to provide excellent customer service, or to maintain
    a competitive edge, diversity is increasingly recognized and utilized as an
    important organizational resource.
    Leaders and managers within organizations are primarily responsible for the
    success of diversity policies because they must ensure that the policies are
    effective. Instead of treating every employee alike to recognizing and responding
    to those differences, it is a way to ensure employee retention and greater
    productivity. The most important issues of workforce diversity are to address the
    problems of discrimination in terms of gender, age, ethnicity and education
    background. When diversity is not managed properly, there will be a potential for
    higher turnover, difficult in communication and interpersonal conflicts. Overall, it
    will be adversarial to organization‟s performance, profitability and reputation.
    1.1 Research Background
    The main objective of this research is to identify the factors that affect the
    workforce diversity towards employees‟ performance in an organization. It
    distinguishes the factors that can affect the employees‟ performance mainly
    focuses on Malaysia‟s airline industry. This research would also act as a guideline
    for the potential new entrants who wish to enter the industry on issues that will
    need to be considered before starting the business.
    Other than that, our purpose is to develop a methodology that can be applied to the
    analysis of workforce diversity towards the employee performances. Based on our
    analysis, an airline is a multi product firm, with each of its products corresponding to travel in a particular origin-destination city-pair market. The purpose of this
    study is to examine the factors of workforce diversity can potentially affect the
    employee performance. Firstly, a brief review of the factors such as gender, age,
    ethnicity and education background. Secondly, a past research findings on
    workforce diversity will be summarized and applied to the employees‟
    performance. Then, the result of an empirical study of airlines industry, which
    examines issues related to workforce diversity and employees‟ performance.
    Lastly, recommendations will provided concerning the effect of workforce
    diversity towards employees‟ performance in an airlines industry.
    1.2 Problem Statement
    Today, workforce diversity is a global workplace and marketplace topic. Any
    business that intends to be successful must have a borderless view and an
    underlying commitment to ensuring that workforce diversity is part of its day-today
    business conduct (Childs, 2005). Besides, understanding the impacts of
    diversity on organizational outcomes, such as organizational performance,
    employee satisfaction, and turnover, has become essential (Sungjoo and Rainey,
    2010). When these trends were first identified in the mid-1980s, they were
    proclaimed as an opportunity for organizations to become more creative, to reach
    previously untapped markets, and in general to achieve and maintain a
    competitive advantage (Loriann and Carol, 2007; Cox, 1994; Robinson and
    Dechant, 1997; Thomas and Ely, 1996).
    Erasmus (2007) mentioned that diversity management and workforce diversity is a
    forced integration that creates conflict and uncertainty in the workforce as
    leadership is not skilled in the discipline of diversity management and its
    principles. As a result, managers do not know how to effectively practice diversity management, and what factors contribute to effective diversity management and
    task that can deal with diversity related issues in the work place.
    Even though companies train employees upon hire, conduct ethics test, online
    training and targeted anti-harassment training, employees still make decisions to
    break the rules with their behavior when it comes to diversity (Victoria and Mary,
    2010).
    According to Dahm (2003), diversity within the workplace can evoke an array of
    emotions as, some view diversity as something to be dealt rather than a tool to be
    used to improve the organization. Even though, many will agree that the results of
    a diversity-conscious organization add value to the employee and organization,
    yet research evaluating diversity for the sake of developing training interventions
    does not exist (Dahm, 2003). Hilary and Elaine (2000) suggested that
    organizations should embrace diversity in their workforce and work towards
    achieving it by creating a culture where difference can thrive, rather than working
    simply for representatives and assimilation.
    For instance, CIMB group’s chief executive officer Datuk Nazir Razak reported in
    The Star Online that Malaysia needs to build on its diversity and its strength and
    review the affirmative action policy created under the New Economic Policy.
    However, according to an article in The Star online, most of the Malaysian
    companies are not doing enough in retaining women professionals by creating
    conducive working environment. Based on a report from a Ranstad 2010 World of
    Work, many women in their 30‟s were choosing to leave their workplace to find
    balance between work life and their home life (Lee, 2011).
    Most attention on diversity management focused on the organizational decision
    maker who is prejudiced against certain groups and who allows these prejudices to
    influence how he or she treats employee. Moreover, they become embodied in organizational policies and practices that systematically disadvantage some
    employees (Loriann and Carol, 2007). As an extension, employee diversity does
    not necessarily boost creativity, market share, or competitive advantage. In fact,
    research suggests that left un-managed, employee diversity is more likely to
    damage morale, increase turnover, and cause significant communication problems
    and conflict within the organization (Loriann and Carol, 2007; Jackson, 1991;
    Jehn, Neale, and Northcraft, 1999; Tsui, Egan, and O‟Reilly, 1992; Zenger and
    Lawrence, 1989).
    According to Kochan, Bezrukova, Ely, Jackson, Joshi, Jehn, Leonard, Levine, and
    Thomas (2003), people began to realize that visible, legally recognized,
    demographic differences such as race and gender were not only types of
    differences that affected work relationships among employees. Furthermore, most
    studies show that training programs on workforce diversity management ,that
    presumed to enhance decision making, problem solving, and creativity at work;
    rarely leads to the desired long-term changes in attitudes and behavior.
    As a conclusion, decades of research on the effects of diversity within teams and
    small groups indicate that diversity can have negative effects, as well as positives
    ones (Kochan et al. 2003). Moreover they elaborated that the lack of evidence
    linking workforce diversity to employee performance may be that the relationship
    between diversity and the bottom line is more complex than is implied by the
    popular discussion. Therefore, this study focuses on the relationship among
    gender, age, ethnicity, and education background towards employee‟s
    performance in an organization.
    1.3 Research Objectives
    Establish better understanding on the antecedents of employee performance and
    its relationship with demographic variables.
    1.3.1 General Objective
    The first aim of this research is to provide insights and in-depth
    understanding of the workforce diversity that will affect the employee
    performance in an organization. Secondly, the purpose of this research is
    to identify whether the variables include gender, age, ethnicity and
    education background would affect employee performance in an
    organization. Lastly, the specific objectives of this research are as follows:
    1.3.2 Specific Objectives
    The objectives of this proposed study are to:
    1. Investigate the relationship of gender towards employee
    performance in an organization.
    2. Investigate the relationship of age towards employee performance
    in an organization.
    3. Investigate the relationship of ethnicity towards employee
    performance in an organization.
    4. Investigate the relationship of education background towards
    employee performance in an organization.
    5. Investigate the impact of independent variables towards the
    dependent variable.
    6. Investigate which independent variable has greater influence on the
    dependent variable.
    1.4 Research Questions
    The research questions of this proposed study are:
    1. What is the relationship between gender and employee
    performance?
    2. What is the relationship between age and employee performance?
    3. What is the relationship between ethnicity and employee
    performance?
    4. What is the relationship between education background and
    employee performance?
    5. What is the relationship between workforce diversity and employee
    performance?
    6. What are the factors affecting the employee performances in the
    airline industry?
    7. What are the factors affecting the employee performances in Air
    Asia and Malaysia Airlines?
    1.5 Hypothesis of the Study
    In this study, employee performance is our dependent variables. Meanwhile
    gender, age, ethnicity and education background will be our independent
    variables. Thus, our hypothesis is that there are significant relationship between
    these dependent variables and independent variables. Either one of these
    independent variables or some of them do have positive effect to influence
    employee performance in an organization.
    H1 : There is significant relationship between gender and employees
    performance
    H2 : There is significant relationship between age diversity and employee
    performance
    H3 : There is significant relationship between ethnicity and employee
    performance
    H4 : There is significant relationship between education background and
    employee performance
    H5 : The four variables (gender, age, ethnicity, and education background)
    are significant in explaining the variance in employee performance.
    1.6 Significance of the study
    Organizations that view diversity as part of their key strategy rather than a
    business expense will benefit far greater than the organization that does not, and
    will reap the benefit of cost reduction in attrition and increased revenues (Brown, 2008; Stalinski, 2004). The importance of this study is explained by Choy (2007);
    diversity would lead to synergistic performance when team members are able to
    understand and appreciate each other, and capitalize on one another‟s experiences,
    knowledge and perspectives. Through effective communication, members would
    be able to evaluate problems and situations from various viewpoints, determine
    underlying cultural assumptions and create a common social reality, ascertain and
    explain culturally synergistic alternative solutions appropriately, and establish
    agreed-upon norms for interaction (Choy, 2007; Adler, 1980; Maznevski, 1995).
    According to Pitts, Hicklin, Hawes and Melton (2010), diversifying workers from
    different education background creates opportunities for greater innovation and
    more creative solutions to problems (Richard, 2000; Richard, 2003; Watson,
    1993). Consequently, the management is diversified and work on the effects of
    increasing diversity is the key to assuring that the organization will be able to fully
    benefit from bringing underrepresented groups into the organization. Some
    organizations have adopted diversity management initiatives as a way to improve
    the ability of diverse groups to work together, and limited empirical research has
    demonstrated that diversity management can improve outcomes in diverse
    organizations (Kalev, 2006; Ng and Burke, 2005; Pitts, 2009).
    Furthermore, workforce diversity is closely related with Human Resource
    Management in airline industries to attract and recruit the most talented people
    from a pool of diverse workforce. Such a diversity-driven approach towards
    recruiting a range of qualified candidates is needed not least because of the
    country‟s diverse population of age and gender (Soltani, 2010). According to
    Soltani, diversified human resources contribute to determining and realizing
    strategic objectives of the organization, and a systemized approach for making a
    linkage between organization excellence and effective people management is
    critical to organizational continuity (Berger and Berger 2003).
    Moreover, this study improves the understanding toward culture difference and at
    the same time promotes to a better communication with workers from different
    races. For example, one of airline industry in Malaysia, namely Malaysian
    Airlines encountered cultural differences when dealing with United States
    companies (Clarke, 2004). By nature, Asians are quiet and do not like to confront
    issues so, when contentious issues needed to be discussed with the US vendor, it
    was often difficult for these to be addressed openly and directly. Consequently,
    vendors do not understand the root of the problem and the significance of the
    concern. In some ways, having a third party project manager and a foreign
    business implementation manager as part of the team meant that these
    negotiations were made easier for all concerned. It allowed for a mediator to
    communicate between the two cultures effectively and efficiently.
    On the other hand, implementation of workforce diversity promotes to political
    stability by unlocking the potential for excellence among all the workers by
    providing them tools, resources and opportunities to succeed (Raatikainen, 2002;
    Crockett, 1999). According to Todd and Peetz (2001), Malaysian population is
    made up of three major ethnic groups which are Malay, Chinese and Indian; with
    the Malays comprising 61 per cent of the population, the Chinese 30 per cent and
    Indians 8 per cent. Ethnic grouping, as much as class, has been important in
    Malaysian politics. As an extra effort, Malaysia‟s government established labour
    union to maintain a satisfactory relationship between the three ethnic groups by
    giving equal opportunity and rights as workers regardless of age, race, education
    background and gender. Therefore, there is less conflicts between ethnics group in
    Malaysia.
    The optimum outcome of this study is to benefit the airline industries in Malaysia
    by getting along with the top management and workers from different
    backgrounds that would find the information in this research study useful in
    accessing the value of workforce diversity in their organization.
    1.7 Chapter Layout
    This research is structured as follows:
    In chapter 1, the researchers present the overview of the study context and explain
    the research problem. This chapter addresses the research objective to be
    achieved, the research question to be answered and briefly explain about the
    importance or contribution of the research.
    Chapter 2 focuses on the literature review of the theoretical argument from
    secondary sources such as journal, articles and etc. The empirical studies will be
    done in this chapter to enable the researchers to construct the hypotheses and
    conceptual framework of the research.
    Chapter 3 is conducted to describe how the research is carried out in terms of
    research design, population, sample and sampling procedures, data collection
    methods, operationalization and the methods of data analysis.
    The results of the analysis presented in chapter 4, will be using the data and results
    generated from the procedures set in chapter 3.
    Finally, chapter 5 concludes with overall findings and provides the
    recommendations of the present research. Besides, the limitation in carrying out
    this research will also be included as well as the suggestion for the future research.
    1.8 Conclusion
    In this chapter, it is the introduction about the few variables of the workforce
    diversity (gender, age, ethnicity, and education background) and on whether these
    variables affect the employee performances in an airline industry, more
    specifically Air Asia and Malaysia Airlines. Thus to better understand the concept
    of workforce diversity and what its effect on employees performance in the airline
    industry, a review of literature and a testing of framework should be conducted, in
    which will be revealed in the following chapters of this study.

    Get Complete Materials

    Add to cart
    Add to Wishlist
    Add to Wishlist
  •  4,000.00  2,000.00
    Add to cart
    Add to Wishlist
    Add to Wishlist