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    The aim of this study was to investigate Audience perception of federal government removal of fuel subsidy in Enugu metropolis. Three main research questions were formulated for the purpose of this study and other sub questions aimed at prying into audience perception, causes and effects of fuel subsidy removal in Nigeria. Survey research method was used because of its convenience, reliability and cheapness. The study population was Enugu Metropolis. A total of 200 respondents were selected, using the purposive random sampling. The number of retrieved questionnaire was 195, representing 97.5% response rate. Statistical analyses of data collected were performed using, frequency distribution, percentages, tables while Chi-square formula was used to test the formulated hypothesis. Results revealed that audience perceived the removal of oil subsidy as an act of selfishness, wickedness and the federal government means of promoting their selfish interest, thereby making the masses to suffer. Corruption in the oil sector and gross mismanagement and also due to few corrupt individuals that are united to promote their private interest among other factors have been found to be the reasons and causes for the removal of fuel subsidy. These in turn have led to increase in prices of fuel pump oil products; increase in prices of food commodities, transportation and increase in operating costs of micro and small enterprises. The researcher recommends that there was a significant relationship between fuel subsidy removal and cost standard of living of the general populace. She suggested that the federal government should look into other sectors of the economy such as agriculture, tourism etc. in other to boost the economy.



    1.1 Background of the Study

    For some number of years, Nigeria enjoyed subsidy on petroleum products. This came to an end on January 1st, 2012, after a declaration from President Goodluck Jonathan that afterwards, the subsidy was to be removed (Zaccheus, 2011). In Nigeria, the issue of appropriate pricing of petroleum product has always been a controversial policy issue. Successive governments have dealt with this problem to no avail. Suffix to say that in Nigeria, subsidy removal implemented by governments had always yielded negative effects on the citizens. According to Centre for Public Policy Alternatives (2012), a subsidy by definition is any measure that keeps the prices

    consumers pay for a good or product below market levels for consumers or for producers above market. The essence of having subsidy in place for products and services is that it has direct positive impact on poverty reduction in the lives of the poor masses who could not afford high prices (Nwaoga and Casimir, 2013).
    Subsidies were introduced in the Nigerian energy sector in the mid 1980‟s. Something of a

    creeping phenomenon, the value of the subsidies has gone from 1 billion in the 1980s to an expected 6 billion Dollars in 2011. In this period the specific products targeted for subsidy have changed. Diesel oil has had its associated subsidy redacted while petrol, gasoline; kerosene continues to enjoy a 54.4 % subsidy over the international spot market price at the Nigerian pump. Economists believed that social welfare is maximized when the price of each good and service is freely determined by the interaction of buyers and sellers in open competitive markets. In practice and especially in developing countries however, policy is often driven more by political consideration than rational economic theory. The risk of social unrest, street riots, and threats of civil war very easily make introduction of market distorting policies justified. Nigeria as a case in point is under increased pressures to grow its economy. Yet countervailing forces of corruption, mismanagement of public resources and poor governance conspire to frustrate efforts to sustain growth in the face of rising population numbers and demands for a democratic dividend by the citizenry (Centre for Public Policy Alternatives, 2012).
    According to Centre for Public Policy Alternatives, the justifications for introduction or removal of subsidies vary markedly. In developed economies Environmental issues, international trade and maintaining competitiveness are the main drivers of policy. Whereas welfare, poverty alleviation and election cycle politics largely underpin the reasons for which subsidies are introduced in developing countries. A new factor in the current mix of policy drivers is the

    renewed emphasis on governance reform championed by the Bretton woods institutions-The World Bank, IMF and the donor community. Lending urgency to this scenario is the global economic downturn and consequent rationalization by lenders, aid granting countries. As domestic demand for funds increase in these countries amounts available for aid, FDI and subsidies diminish. The consequence is a demand for greater efficacy in the economies of the aid receiving countries of which Nigeria is one.
    Furthermore, the issue of fuel subsidy removal has torn this nation into two factions, the government and the economic experts on one hand and the masses on the other hand. The last fuel subsidy removal on 1st January, 2012 sparked an uprising that almost led to a revolution; this attracted a lot of public debate, opinions and reactions leading to NLC strike and demonstrations in various states. Therefore, the major focus of this study is to investigate audience perception of federal government removal of fuel subsidy in Nigeria on January 2012.
    1.2 Statement of the Research Problem.

    Fuel is central to the economic pursuits of Nigerians, whose sustenance daily bread is tied to this bye product of Nigeria‟s rich crude oil deposits. The Petroleum Product Pricing Regulatory Agency (PPPRA) regulates the downstream Oil and Gas industry on behalf of the Federal Government and by the removal of subsidy on Premium Motor Spirit (Petrol), the downstream sub-sector of the Petroleum industry is deregulated for Petrol. Deregulation leaves market forces as the sole determinant of product prices. While over the years, many Nigerians have opposed the implementation of the policy in the Oil and Gas Industry, international finance and donor agencies like the World Bank and IMF have been very harsh in their criticisms of the successive governments that have sustained the policy for a single inherent flaw they condemned as harmful to the growth of the Nigerian economy. However it should be noted that there were obvious

    flaws in the policy at inception and up to January 1, 2012 when it was removed there were more private retailers of petroleum products than the state owned NNPC stations. The regulatory framework (PPPRA) used to enforce the subsidy was weak, under resourced and suffered from the Nigerian disease. The secrecy and lack of transparency by the administrator of the subsidy (the NNPC) did not help matters either. Nigeria still could not make her refineries efficient. This means that Nigeria could not produce enough refined products for local consumption. Finally, due to the weak regulation by the PPPRA, some economic saboteurs/cabal were able to misappropriate the fuel subsidy money and channel it to their own personal pockets instead of using it for what it was intended for. These and more reasons triggered the federal government of Nigeria to remove the subsidy on fuel. By this removal of oil subsidy, the question this study seeks to answer is: What is the perception of the audience with regards to the removal of oil subsidy in January 2012?
    1.3 Objectives of the Study

    The objectives of this study are:

    1. To examine the audience perception of fuel subsidy removal

    2. To examine the cause of the fuel subsidy removal

    3. To ascertain the effects of fuel subsidy removal on the citizens of Nigeria.

    1.4 Research Questions

    The study will proffer answers to the following research questions:

    1. What is your perception of the fuel subsidy removal?

    2. What would you consider to be the cause of fuel subsidy removal?

    3. What do you consider to be the effects of fuel subsidy removal on the citizens of Nigeria?

    1.5 Research Hypothesis

    H1: There is significant relationship between oil subsidy removal and cost/standard of living of the residents of Enugu metropolis.

    1.6 Scope of the Study

    This study investigates audience perceptions of the Federal Government removal of oil subsidy in January 1, 2012 amongst residents of Enugu metropolis. It also investigated how the audience perceived removal of oil subsidy. Decision was then made to conduct this study amongst residents of Enugu metropolis because of proximity to the base of the researcher.
    1.7 Significance of the Study

    The uniqueness of this study is that it will be used to determine the opinions, beliefs, attitudes and general behaviour of Nigerians on the Federal Government‟s removal of oil subsidy. Also, the study will add to the numerous literatures written on the issue of the removal of fuel subsidy by the government. It is also hoped that the findings of this study will help the government to be more alive to their duties, as it should be under a democratic government. Also, this study is significant politically because it will assist government in formulating formidable policies that will bring a more robust relationship with the people as well as engender the needed conducive environment for political and societal development. It will also help our future researchers to use the study as a source of reference for future research academic and other purposes.

    1.8 Definition of Terms

    The following terms that formed the topic of this study are hereby defined conceptually and operationally. The conceptual definitions are the dictionary meanings whereas the operational definitions are their working meanings they include:

    Audience: This means those who are directly or indirectly affected by the removal of the fuel subsidy.
    Perception: The general opinion held by Enugu urban residents about the removal of fuel subsidy by the federal government.
    Fuel Subsidy removal: This means the withdrawer of the policy which made the price of fuel to be reduced for the affordability of average Nigerians.

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    This research work is aimed at analyzing Audience perception of female models in advertising message (a study of always ultra commercials). The research method used was survey method and questionnaires being the instrument. The findings from the questionnaire shows that the audience, especially those in Enugu metropolis, now have positive perception of female models with the aid of the “Always ultra” commercials they watch on their TV sets, after the findings, the researcher recommended that advertising regulatory bodies should scrutinize adverts properly before they are shown on TV.



    1.1 Background of the study

    For any organization, advertising is one of the most important marketing activities, in modern economics; advertising occupies an important market position. The industry (advertising) has grown to become an important economic entity supporting lives of millions of people in the world. Advertising is not only an economic activity, but it articulates, different ideas, attitudes and values, which shape out social life and consumption patterns. Therefore, it can be said that advertising has become and form by virtue of signifying practices. Advertisements, articulates meaning to words and images although this depends on how we interpret them.

    Advertising is such a strong influence in our society that it determines our needs, what we care about, how we raise our children, what our interests are and so on. Advertising plays a role involving a number of relationships, power and satisfaction; in this light, advertising has over the years used women as a tool/ implement to persuade consumers into buying a product and portray the woman beautiful and desirable. As noted by Puranik(2011) “advertising is nothing, but a paid form of non-personal presentation or promotion of ideas, goods or services by an identified sponsors with a view to disseminate information concerning an idea, product or disseminated is called advertisement.

    In present day marketing activities, hardly is there any business in the modern world which does not advertise. However, the form of advertisement differs from business to business.

    Areas (2008) said that “advertising is the structured and composed, no-personal communication of information , usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature, about products, services, and ideas, by identified sponsors, through various mass media like television, billboard, newspaper, magazine, with the aim of creating awareness”. This definition has a close link with that of Dominick (2007), which says that “advertising is any form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods and services, usually paid for, by an identified or known sponsor. Advertising makes use of various media to reach out to the consumers across the globe”. Thus it is seen as the process of persuading potential customers to buy products or promote its services. Wikipedia (2011) give way that any organization that wants its products to be known and looked for, has to create awareness through advertising.

    Wilson, cited in Asemah (2010) said that advertising is controversial in nature and that in the early twentieth century, people clamored for the regulation of advertising. Believing much of it was exaggerated and untruthful. The United Nations conference on women recognized the importance of the mass media on the image of women/ female models. As noted by Ingham (n.d), television is widely known to represent and reinforce the main stream ideology of contemporary western culture: particularly. While television representations of women have changed greatly in the last twenty years alone, in other to accommodate the changing role of women on the society, one is led to ask how much the ideology has changed behind the more modern representations of women. If this is the case, then it is important for us to question how real the representations of women are on television and how this affects the attitudes of those who watch. Some of the most watched and perhaps influential genres of television viewing are advertisements and soap operas, in a world where women are numbered greater than men, can television be said to reflect the world as it is or dictate it?

    Limipinnian (n.d) avers that gender representation on a small scale has always been important for one to understand what it means to be male or female. Looking at it in terms of advertising (possibly considering the most important aspect, powerful and influential medium in this ever-increasing commercial society) is to look at it with a more serious eye from the image inflicted upon us in the patriarchal mass media that surround us, it is assumed that we have been encouraged to mould ourselves into a set ideal. For a woman, that means having beauty, elegance, passivity and good domestic ability. One of the reasons televisions is resistant to the messages as conflicting with women’s desire to consume. Advertisers do not want to present to the audience a liberated woman, because this new woman does not want and thus, will not buy their products. For this reason, the paper critically examines the perception of the audience of female models in advertising messages, using “always ultra” commercials as the study.

    Understanding the concept of advertising

    It is any paid form of non-personal communication link, initiated by an identified marketer, to establish or continue exchange relationships with customers and at times, with other stakeholders. Companies advertise to: build awareness, position a product/brand, build preference, and differentiate their products/ brands. Dominick (2007) sees advertising as any form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods and services, usually paid for by an identified sponsor.
    Wikipedia (2011) gave a comprehensive definition of advertising thus:

    Advertising is the process of persuading potential customers to buy products or promote its services. It is also the branch of marketing that deals with communicating to customers about products, brands, and services. Advertising is a type of communication used to persuade an audience (viewers, readers, or listeners) to take some action with respect to products, ideas or services. Most commonly, the desired result is to drive consumer behavior with respect to a commercial offering, although political and ideological advertising is also common. Advertising messages are usually paid for by sponsors and viewed via various traditional media, including mass media such as newspapers, magazines, television commercials, radio advertisements, outdoor advertising or direct mail or new media such as website and text
    Therefore, the real message, aim/objectives of advertising is effective communication and understanding between producers and consumers.

    1.2 Brief history “Always ultra” product/commercials

    “Always” began in test market in Minneapolis, Minnesota in January 1983. At that time

    (3) pad types were introduced: maxi pads, minipads, and pantiliners. The ongoing market share objective was 25%; by October/November “always” had a 21.5% share; year (1) was 18.9%.The target audience were women between the ages 12-49. Test market result indicated “always” could achieve a 22.5% going share nationally. Competition at the time was intense. Johnson and Johnson was the market leader. Competitive response includes new product line extensions, products improvement, and heavy competitive promotional spending. “Always” also spent very heavily at the time. Consumer awareness of the product was low; consumers who tried “Always” like it, except for the pad.

    By 1984, “Always” was in national distribution at that time there were (4) four pad types: maxi pads. Minipads, thin minipads and pantiliners. National expansion results were mixed: market share was 14.8% vs. the 16% objective key issues included in-market distribution and out of stock problems to meet the original 22.5% objective. Additionally, awareness among pad-using women was 82% compared to test market at 89%. Television advertising started 7-2- 84 and samples were mailed including a coupon. In 1986, “Always” plus was introduced into the US representing the first line of feminine hygiene pads with panty protectors on the side where leakage is most likely to occur. In 1991,”Always” ultra was introduced into the US market. The ultra pad incorporates a novel super sober technology for feminine hygiene protection. In Europe, the general expansion of the full “Always” product line, including “Always ultra” and pantiliners also began.

    1.3 Statement of the problem

    It is important to know that advertisings increasing sophistication and sophistry are clearly evident

    In today’s world, sophistication is manifested in attention grabbing advertisements copies, which virtually compel recipients to pay undivided attention. The primary stereotypes, is the portrayal of female models as sex objects. Women are often presented in limited roles because of the perception that they are not dependent and do not fit into the business votes or authority settings, they are portrayed to be more feminine. Men or male models are usually placed above the female models, because they (male models/men) are seen as calm and perfect for such roles. Therefore

    the study is after the perception that is how the audience views female models or their thoughts of them in passing advertising messages.

    1.4 Objectives of the Study

    The objectives of the study are:

    a) To examine the role of female models in advertising messages.

    b) To find out audience perception of female models in advertising messages.

    c) To determine the effect “always” ultra commercials has on the advertising perception of the audience.
    d) To find out how “always” ultra commercials have portrayed female models to the audience.

    1.5 Research Questions

    a) To what extent have female models passed advertising messages?

    b) How has “always ultra” as a product helped in terms of advertisements, to portray advertising messages to the audience?
    c) How has “always ultra” commercials influenced the audience?

    d) In what way manner does the audience see female models?

    e) Do models have negative or positive impact in advertising?

    1.6 Scope of the Study

    The essence of this research work is to study how “Always ultra” as a product and its advertisements/commercials has aided audience perception, of female models in passing advertising messages in Enugu metropolis. The study covers the various commercials run by the

    “always ultra” company and how it has helped the audience in making their choice, or giving their opinion on what they think of female models.

    1.7 Significance of the study

    The study will help to determine the extent of knowledge of audience and likewise their attitude towards commercials both on radio and television. Also, the research helps to ascertain the importance of electronic media especially the television as a media of bringing about people’s awareness innovation. As a result of this research/study, it helps to educate the audience on the benefits include positive view of female models in advertising messages, and
    the importance of the product been studied to the audience and finally eliminating the thought of female models as only sex objects and not product promoters.

    1.8 Operational definitions of Terms

    The following terms where used and is defined as follows: Audience
    Perception Female models
    Audience perception Commercials Advertising

    Audience: a group or number of people that come together to watch, listen, or read the same thing.

    Perception: it is an idea, belief, or an image you have as a result of how you understand the true nature of something.

    Female models: a lady or woman that showcases a product/service.

    Audience perception: what a group of people think of the true nature of a thing. Commercials: it is connected with showcasing goods and services and making profit. Advertisement: a notice, picture, or film telling people about a product, job, or service.

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    This project examines the comparative study of the performances of government owned and privately owned broadcasting media organization (A study of FRCN and Raypower Radio stations Enugu). To achieve this, the survey method was adopted as the research method while the instrument of data collection was the questionnaire. The sample size was drawn using the stratified sampling technique. Two hypothesis tested were accepted leading to the conclusion that the emergence of private broadcasting media in Nigeria improves broadcasting generally and that the entrance of private broadcasting is a challenge to government owned broadcast media in Nigeria to a great extent. The researcher recommends among others that private individuals should enter into broadcast media ownership in order to further improve broadcasting in Nigeria especially in the rural areas (rural broadcasting).



    1.1 Background of he Study

    The role of the broadcasters and the broadcast media as agents of rural and national development, especially at the information dissemination level is now generally recognized and accepted by experts and policy makers. What seems quite unresolved in many developing countries is how best to utilize the potentials of the broadcasters and their media to achieve developmental objectives (Nwosu, 1990:119). In Nigeria, there are three main types of media ownership namely; government ownership, private ownership and partnership. In the case of government ownership, the government establishes controls and finances the media outfit, private ownership is when an individual or a group of persons establish, control and finance the media outfit in partnership both the government and private individuals are into some sort of co-ownership regarding the establishment, financing and controlling of the media house.
    There is a symbiotic relationship between the media and the society. It is in the interest of the society to have strong and robust mass media as it is in the best interest of the media to uphold the values and protect the interest of the society from which they derive their impulse, support and patronage. No media institution can survive if it is perceived to be working against its own society (Onukaba 2005:3).
    It is the duty of any media institution to keep the public aware of what is going on around them by providing accurate, factual and timely information at all times. It is also the duty of the media to warn and alert the public about

    impending dangers to interpret events or provide information needed by the public to make every day decision that will make them participate actively in the political, economic and social activities of a community and to assist the public in determining current trends.
    Media institutions are also expected to use their products to educate, entertain, modify public opinions, reinforce attitudes and set agenda for the society. In many societies, people depend on the media to know where to find jobs, where to shop, where to eat, seat out, who to note for etc it is therefore, safe to say that the influence of the media extends to every aspect of human life and society.
    But for media institutions to be able to play these roles effectively, they are expected to uphold the values of objectivity, fairness, justice, accuracy, balance, moderation and decency. The reason governments have often given for their involvement in the media is that the private ones cannot be trusted to faithfully uphold these values of the profession. They accuse them of fostering unrealistic expectations among the populace, heightening anxieties about conditions in the country, mongering etc. of course, these are general criticisms against all media institutions, whether private or public. State media institutions are set up ostensibly to address these weaknesses of the private media as well as to bring government programmes and policies closer to the people and promote peaceful co- existence among the different groups in the society in which they operate. But they are usually limited by their methods of operation (Onukaba, 2005:5).
    The “battle cone” seems to be drawn between those who argue unflinchingly that the best way to use the broadcast as a facilitator of development

    in the third world is to have them owned and controlled by the government and those that believe that the best result will be achieved by making the electronic media dominantly a private sector affair. It is on this fact that the researcher’s topic finds it footing, hence “the comparative study of the performance of government owned and privately owned broadcasting media organization” (a study of FRCN and Ray Power Radio).
    Somewhere between the two extreme rolls are those who belong to what seems to be more pragmatic position that government ownership and control of the media should co –exist with private media ownership and that commercial broadcasting should exist with private media to facilitate the job of broadcasters in the area of socio- economic development of their nations.
    The origin of the current government ownership and control of the broadcast media in Nigeria can be traced to the history, purpose and nature of colonial broadcasting services. It was mainly used for catering for the information and entertainment needs of the predominantly colonial political and educated elites in colonial Nigeria as well as the needs of the very few Nigerians educated elites (Nwosu 1990: 120-121)
    Nigeria has since had its independence in 1960 and has undergone many changes that make it imperative that the broadcast media should change its operations and structure to reflect the change situations. Although, the broadcasting system of Nigeria has changed or broaden its aims, objectives and mode of operation but the ownership and control structures or pattern still remains the same.
    So many reasons have been given by many Nigerian experts and policy makers for the perpetuation of the ownership and control status quo. One of such

    reasons is that the airwaves are limited and should, therefore, be regulated by the government to ensure equity, order and fairness it has also been argued that the role of broadcasting as an instrument of nation- building and development is so important that it should not be left in the hands of private individuals or organizations.
    The fear has also been expressed that because radio and television are powerful instruments of politicization, they careful into the hands of some unscrupulous politicians or political groups who may misuse them to gain and hold political power unfairly or propagate parochial political ideologies or ideas. There is the question of funding proponents of government control and ownership insist that broadcasting in Nigeria can never survive financially if it does not depend on its government for financial subventions.
    It is believed in many quarters that it is the above reason given for exclusive government ownership and control broadcasting in Nigeria that has kept the system unchanged until 1992. Hence, many Nigerians have yielded abundant reasons in support of privatization of broadcasting.
    The dominant belief of those who advocate privatization of broadcasting in Nigeria seem to be that the electronic media practitioners would render the best service when those media are operated as privately owned business or a commercial enterprise. Among the reason given for making this conclusion is that the electronic media would then be able to avoid unsuitable government influence that content of broadcast news or current affairs in today’s Nigeria tend to be politically biased.
    The point that some people make is that private ownership of broadcast media allows for healthy competition which could lead to improved services to

    the masses of Nigeria. Related to this service of the masses is the argument that privately owned broadcast media encourages diversity in production, programming and other areas of broadcasting.
    By 1992, there was a lot of debate and protest against the monopoly of the government in broadcasting business. Thus, there were clarion calls for deregulation and decentralization of broadcast media establishment and ownership. Hence, it was the contention of the people that a media system that does not suffer undue restrictions and interference from government would definitely become the best for the development democracy in the country (Nwosu 1990:22)
    It was not until 24th of august 1992 that the federal military government

    under Babangida’s administration promulgated decrees number 38, which established privatization of electronic media. It was in view of this that Dr. Raymond Dopkesi; established Raypower which started broadcasting in Lagos and later established Enugu station which is one of my study focus.
    It is the development that gave rise to the contention as to which system of ownership is preferable, hence, the relevance of the study at hand.

    1.2 Statement of Research Problem

    Ownership of the media house, its control and recruitment of its principal staff has formed the influential factors consequent upon the programme quality of the media house since the owners of the media house usually determine the aforementioned factor. The media ownership has in some ways influenced the media progrmames and this has posed problems to journalism as a trade.
    In this case, the broadcast media have to function in tune with the whims and caprices of the owner(s). Nothing runs the broadcast media practitioners

    down as having the option of either following the dictates of he owners or face the bitter music of being sacked. Ownership influence on programme content has made many broadcasting media outfit to collapse in operations and has also made them to loose their audience grip. This is mostly true of government owned broadcast media. After the liberation of media started springing up from all corners, one of which is Ray power FM radio station.
    These new privately owned media station produced standard programmes that out bids that of the government owned media stations and as such, many people abandoned government owned broadcast media.

    1.3 Objectives of the Study

    The objective of this study will include:

    i To find out if the emergence of private broadcasting media in Nigeria has improved broadcasting generally.
    ii. To establish if the entrance of private broadcasting is a challenge to government owned broadcast media in Nigeria.
    iii. To know if source credibility affects broadcast media listenership.

    iv. To find out if Enugu radio listenership prefers private radio programmes to government radio programmes.
    v. To check whether the radio listenership use what they hear from the radio.

    1.4 Research Questions

    i. How does the emergence of private broadcasting media in Nigeria improve broadcasting generally?

    ii. To what extent is the entrance of private broadcasting a challenge to government owned broadcast media in Nigeria?
    iii. How does source credibility affect broadcast media listenership?

    iv. To what extent does the Enugu Radio listenership prefer private radio v. programmes to government radio programmes?
    v. To what extent does the radio listenership use what they hear from radio?

    1.5 Research Hypotheses

    The following research hypothesis derives logically from the problem posed in the research questions.
    Hi: The emergence of private broadcasting in Nigeria improves broadcasting generally.
    Ho: The emergence of private broadcasting in Nigeria does not improve broadcasting generally.
    Hi: The entrance of private broadcasting is a challenge to government owned broadcast media in Nigeria to a great extent
    Ho: The entrance of private broadcasting is not a challenge to government owned broadcast media in Nigeria to a great extent

    1.6 Significance of the Study

    The findings of this study “The comparative study of the performances of government owned and privately owned broadcasting media organization” (A study of FRCN and Raypower Radio station Enugu) will help other researcher in carrying out a similar study. It will add to the mass communication literature and

    bulk of knowledge on media performance in Nigeria. The study will help to analyze the pattern of media ownership and its influence on Nigerian development. Finally, it will provide the premise for individuals and stakeholders to make decisions on which form of media ownership is better and needful in Nigeria.

    1.7 Scope of the Study

    The researcher’s scope will center on comparatively studying government ownership of media alongside privately owned media. The study focus will be on FRCN and Ray power radio stations both in Enugu.
    The population

    The population selected is made up of the entire people who listens to FRCN and Ray power radio stations.
    The sample

    The sample size will be on those in Enugu metropolis. Due to time and financial constraints and because the researcher is convinced that since FRCN and Raypower FM are both situated in Enugu, it will offer a good sample for the study.

    1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

    Comparative study:- Based on the study, it means that the researcher will study two media houses government owned (FRCN) and privately owned (Raypower) to find out how similar or different they are.

    Government owned media organization:- This is represented by Federal Radio Co-operation of Nigeria (FRCN) which is part of the researcher’s study focus. It is owned by the federal government of Nigeria.
    Privately owned broadcasting media:- It is represented by Raypower FM, which is also part of the researcher’s study focus. It is owned by Raymond Dopkesi, under the corporate name: DAAR Communications.

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    The title of this project is “Impact of Urhobo Voice Newspaper on Development of Ovwain Community in Udu Local Government Area of Delta State”. To achieve this objective, the study made use of the survey method which involved personal interview and administration of questionnaires on respondents in Ovwain Community and the aim of this exercise was to obtain the data needed for the successful execution of the study. The study made use of table to analyse the data collected from a random sampling of respondents. It also used the simple percentage to analyse the data. The study reveals that Community Newspaper (Urhobo Voice) have impact on Development. It has been able to establish that the Urhobo Voice as a community Newspaper has helped in improving the standard living of the Ovwain people in their community. The study urges both government and private individual to emulate the publisher of the Urhobo Voice by establishing more community newspaper in the rural areas to enable development take place. Finally, the study recommends the granting of soft loans by the government to interested individual to establish newspapers in the rural areas. This with a view to encourage private ownership of the mass media.



    1.1. Background Of The Study

    A community newspaper is that paper established in the rural area with the basic aim of bringing development closer to the grassroots. A community newspaper should b e community in outlook reporting the activities of the community to the outside world. It is also a veritable medium through which the people are informed about government policies and programmes. To this end, it could be rightly said that a community newspaper has significant impact on national development since effective development of any nation commences from the grassroots.
    Igwe (1991:175) agrees with the above postulation when he declares that “a rural or community newspaper serves the information need of a particular locality. Such papers should not be mistaken for provincial papers such as the Calabar-based pioneer. These have a wider coverage and circulation range beyond state boundaries.
    The origin of community newspapers in Nigeria could be traced to 1859 when Reverend Henry Townsend established the first newspaper known as “Iwe Irohin in Abeokuta. According to Akinfeleye (1985:28), which launching the maiden issue of Iwe Irohin, Reverend Townsend said: “my object is to get the people to read… that is to beget the habit of seeking information by reading newspapers”.

    This statement could be interpreted to mean that the aim and objective behind the establishment of the Irohin was for the Egba people to seek information from their environment by reading newspaper.
    Initially, Iwe Irohin was published fortnight in Yoruba Language and later in both Yoruba and English Languages. It has eight pages with four pages in Yoruba languages and another four supplementary pages in English Language translating the Yoruba version of it.
    Akinfeleye (1985:29) throws more light on Iwe Irohin when he says:

    “In January 1866,Iwe Irohim for the first time started publishing two separate editions-one in Yoruba language and the other entirely in English language. It continued with two separate editions until these 1867 when it temporally ceased publication as a result of civil disruption (IFOLE) between the Ibadan and Egba traders…. After a short while, Iwe Irohim resumed publication through under a new management but some title and flag”
    Akinfeleye also points out that in the beginning the news coverage of Iwe Irohim was limited in scope. For instance, it carried only religious news items such as news transfer of preachers from one parish or location to another, coronations of pastors or preachers, weddings, baptisms, confirmations and the like. It later expanded its news coverage and began to run non-religions news in addition to religious items. It began to carry stories and news about trade and commerce, exhibitions, sports, health, hygienic, educational and other news items of national significance.

    fIwe Irohin was particularly informative in its presentation of up-to-date information about schedules of arrivals and departures of slip, cargoes from and to European countries. Crimes reports, nudity, immoral news abstract, alcoholic promotion and the like were unacceptable to the paper.
    Akinfeleye concludes by saying that one of the uniqueness of Iwe Irohin is that, it is still the only native language newspaper in the continent of Africa that has lived for over 120 years without any major prolonged stoppage. Today in Nigeria, copies of Iwe Irohin (though how under another management, but same title) can still be found on sale in several Nigerian newsstands particularly in the southern state of Nigeria. Most of its contemporaries have been closed or ceased publication.
    Igwe (1991:176) says that “more than 20 years after establishment of Iwe Irohin, three other community newspaper came up in Lagos. These were “the Lagos observer”, “the Lagos Times” and “The Lagos standard”. These papers published the pre- independence socio-political conditions in Nigeria. For this reason, they could have been mistaken for national newspaper. But they were “Lagos community newspapers”.
    After the demise of the above pre-independence community newspapers, others sprang up in Nigeria. These could be rightly regarded as post-independence papers. Some of them are already defunct. They are “The Oniwu sun” based in Ikorodu, “The village news” based in Akinale village in the outskirt of Abeokuta, “The Obanta star” and “The Obanta News” based in Ijebu-Ode and “Gaskiya Tafi Kwabo” based in Zaria.
    Also worthy of mention are the Onitsha based “Nigerian mirror” which was established in the mid 1960s, “The Lagos News” and the “City Tempo” based in Lagos;

    the Makurdi based “voice” which circulates in Benue State and the Uyo based weekly, “The pioneer”.
    The introduction/background would be inconclusive without mentioning “the Urhobo Voice” … a community newspaper – belonging to the Urhobo ethic group in Delta State – which happens to be focus of this study.
    The plan to establish “the Urhobo voice was hatched in 1937 by the current Editor in – Chief and publisher, Mr. Ogbemure Imene. However, it was not until October , 1997 that the first copies of the newspaper hit the newsstands. Its first editor was Mr. Godwin Okpubigbo.
    The paper is printed by Uvoh – Amroma International ltd. at No. 1 Orofin Street (Goodday Communication), Maza – Maza, Lagos.
    The aims and objectives of the papers are:

    1. The creation of awareness for the upliftment of the Urohobo nation,

    2. To unite the Urhobo people into one universal spectrum;

    3. To act as an organ of universal information to the Urhobo people and become partners in progress with their neighbour for the betterment of all.
    4. To capture the essence of the Urhobo world,

    5. To champion excellence in grassroots journalism.

    Although, the paper has not joined the Audit Bureau of Circulation (A.B.C.), its distribution is undertaken by Mr. Dominic Onunu who is the marketing manager.
    The paper has approximate circulation figure of seven thousand (7,000) copies.

    At the inception of the paper in 1997, it was published monthly. In April 1999, it became a fortnightly after. Again in September same year (1999) it became a tri-monthly

    newspaper. With effect from January 2000 the management will make it a weekly newspaper.

    1.2. Statement of the Problem

    It is not out of place to say that in most rural communities in Nigeria, there are no community newspapers through which the rural folks could be informed about government policies and programmes and above all mobilized towards improved condition of living. This unfortunate situation has compelled many people to lastly conclude that the print media have no relevance in community development in Nigeria.
    It is also known that there are some other communities in Nigeria which are not development, just like Urhobo community at this jet age when even the smaller countries around us are boasting of continues supply of electricity.
    The researcher does not want this phenomenon to continue to occur and that is why she has carried out this research.
    Also farmers do not have the means of knowing how to make use of the modern farming implements and other things like fertilizer, so farm produce in that community do not yield well. To add to the fact that the traders among them have no means to advertise their products.
    This research is therefore undertaken to find out whether community newspaper has impact on development, with particular reference to the Urhobo voice. And this research will also go a long way to but these problem to an end, if they carry out their role in the community properly.

    1.3. Objective of the Study

    1. To find out whether the community newspaper can be used in the development of our community.
    2. To find out the strategy used by the community newspaper in impacting development on Ovwain Community.
    3. To find out the benefits of having developed community

    4. To examine the factors that many militate against the community newspaper in their effort to help develop our community (Ovwain Community).

    .4. Research Question

    1. Does the employment of Ovwain people by government of Delta State as a result of Urhobo voice?
    2. Does the new developmental project in Ovwain community as a result of sensitize of government by Urhobo voice, like-new school, good road, hospital and creating of awareness etc as a result of how Urhobo voice sensitize the government by Urhobo voice?
    3. Does the Urhobo voice have any consequences in mobilizing the people of Ovwain community toward development?
    4. Does the Urhobo voice encounter hindrance in their effort to develop Ovwain community through Urhobo voice.

    1.5. Scope Of The Study

    This study is restricted to a particular community newspaper in Delta State known as “the Urhobo Voice”.
    The choice is based on it‟s proximity and patronage. Moreover, Urhobo is Ovwain community is in Udu Local Government Area of Delta State.

    1.6. Significance Of The Study

    The rationale/significance for this study is high-lighted as follows:

    1. To discover the role of community newspapers plays in development.

    2. To discover the effectiveness of the Urhobo voice as a medium of information, education, entertainment and for mobilization the Ovwain community towards sustainable development.

    3. To ascertain whether there is alternative channel through which information could be best disseminated to the community under focus.
    4. To unravel the problems and prospects of the Urhobo Voice since it inception.

    1.7. Limitations Of The Study

    The inability of the researcher to visit the Ovwain community in Delta State to solicit the people‟s response to the project topic, due to time constraint is a major impediment. Nevertheless, it does not in any way affect the overall credibility of the work.
    Finance is another limitation. The unfavourable economic climate in Nigeria Limited the acquisition of books on community newspapers and development. Again, this limitation does not affect the credibility of the project since the researcher was able to improvise where necessary.
    A lot of traveling was done in searching for search of materials. This involved enormous spending.
    Finally, booking appointment with media practitioners, scholars and other personalities whose contributions were crucial to the completion of this projection involved a lot of time and energy.

    1.8. Definition Of Terms Impact:
    Impact in this context refers to the effect which community newspapers have on community development. Impact is also the measure of effect or influence of certain event on people.
    Urhobo Voice Newspaper

    Urhobo voice newspaper is a community newspaper belonging to the Urhobo ethnic group in Delta State, which happens to be the focus of this study. Urhobo voice newspaper is also a newspaper covering event in Urhobo land and offering diverse perspectives on Urhobo history.

    The process of economic and social transformation that is based on complex cultural and environmental factors and their interactions.

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    In the dawn of this millennium where communication technologies have taken new and intriguing dimensions, television programmes have taken communication even to a much fascinating plane. The television has made it possible to receive and send information to and from far flung places with the speed of lightening. This study which centres on the effects of ABS television business link programme on the commercial activities of Awka residents at Awka metropolis examined the negative and positive effects of the television programme on the commercial activities of Awka residents. Research methodology used in gathering data and information for the study is questionnaire, presentation of data analysis, testing of hypotheses along with result discussions. The findings revealed that there is a high level of success by the ABS television business link in impacting the desired change in Awka residents and that Awka residents expose themselves to ABS television business link. It recommended that the Government should ensure that ABS television reach those who outside the state so that they can also benefit from it.



    1.3 Background of the Study

    Most people accept the idea the media can influence people but the degree of that influence as well as who is most impacted, how and why, have been the subject of great debate among communication scholars for nearly a century. Media effects refer to the many ways individuals and society maybe influenced by both news and entertainment. Mass media including film, television, radio, newspapers, books magazines, websites, games and music. Although in this study, the medium used is television.
    Media effect has been studied by scholars in communication, psychology, sociology, political, science, anthropology, and education among other fields. Many early communication models designed to explain the process of message dissemination were simple-one-way and linear (Shannon and weaver, 1994), positioning the medium or message as the cause and the behavioural, emotional, or psychological response as the effect (Bryant and Thompson, 2002, pp. 4-5). Morden conceptualization, however, typically illustrate a two-way process that is more transactional or interactive in nature in which the message or the medium affects the recipient(s) , but the audience, in turn, influences and shapes the senders.
    In the early part of the 20th century, concerns about political propaganda, manipulation by

    the elite and the rising popularity of the electronic media led to the so called „cultivation‟ theory, which envisaged media message as strong drugs or potent weapon that could have powerful effect on helpless audience ( LA swell, 1991; Lippmann, 1992). However, while

    these theories explained some behaviour, they did not account for the different responses individual may have to the same media source. In the 1950s and 60s, empirical research began to uncover the moderating power of predispositions and peer group, concluding that the media‟s impact was small often referred to as the „limited effect theory‟ (Klapper, 1960; Lazars Feld Bergeson, 1998 and Gaudet, 1998). In the 1970s and 80s, prominent scholars begins to look more closely again at the media relationship to knowledge, opinion, attitudes and level of violence, concluding that media effect could be significant in some cases even if not all powerful.. Scholars also came to agree that some vulnerable groups such as children may be more heavily influenced by media than others (Bryant and Thompson, 2002; Mc Combs and Shaws 1994; Mc Luhan, 2000).
    The above leads to the medium of communication (ABS television) that will be used to influence the behaviour of Awka residents.
    The word television (TV) is derived from mixed Latin and Greek roots meaning „far sight‟. Greek tele, far and Latin Visio, sight. From video, (vis-to-see, or to view in the first person). It is widely used telecommunication used for transmitting and receiving moving images, either monochromatic (black and white) or colour. Usually accompanied by sound. Television has been regarded as a spontaneous, most effective media that can be used to disseminate information with a lasting impression on the minds of the audience. Television has made tremendous effort in broadcasting to the Awka residents because of its audio/video ability which is appealing to the viewer.
    Awka is a city in Anambra state Nigeria with so many commercial trades. Some of these trades are ignorant of the best method of rendering services to the public. In Nigeria especially in Awka, most ignorant men and women are unaware of the kind of implication

    of the kind of business they engage themselves in, that is why the television from the broadcast media was established to put such people in the right path.
    With the creation of Anambra and Imo state in 1967, Anambra broadcasting service was born. The federal government acquired the television area of the station in 1977, re- baptised it Anambra broadcasting corporation (ABC). The radio wing was left behind, in1982, ABC radio 2 Onitsha was born.
    Gov. Jim Nwobodo in 1981, established another television station. In 1985, the radio merged with the television with appellation, ABS radio/ TV Enugu. In 1991, ABS could boast of ABS radio 1 Enugu, ABS radio 2 Onitsha, ABS radio 3 FM Enugu, ABS TV channel 5-0 Enugu and ABS channel 2-7 Onitsha.
    With the creation of the new AnambraEnugu states in 1991, and the subsequent disengagement of the staff on March 16, 1992, the Anambra broadcasting service (RITV) Awka.
    After the state creation, the first movement was to Ontisha-4 park road- the location of our AM station. From Onitsha, the headquarters moved to St. Paul‟s university college Awka, in January, 1993. The movement continued to party house, okpuno in January 1994. However, Anambra broadcasting service (ABS) moved to its permanent site on the Enugu/Onitsha expressway in Awka in January, 2002.
    There are three other operational areas:

    • The broadcasting house at 4 park road, Onitsha.

    • The television station at Awada.

    • The booster station at Enugwu-Ukwu.

    Anambra broadcasting service transmits on the following frequencies;

    Television- ABS TV channel 27 Onitsha, ABS TV channel 24 Awka.

    With two television and two radio stations, both at Onitsha and Awka, ABS can boast of wide coverage reaching out to neighbouring states e.g. Delta, Edo, Enugu, and Imo and beyond.
    Even with Anambra broadcasting service (ABS) it is not certain the kind of impact it has on these commercial traders. For instance, Janis and Hovland (1959) discussed various factors associated with „persuasive‟ and suggested that „persuasive‟ effects might depend, amongst other things, on the prestige of the source, or on the significance of the message for the receiver, or on the attitude of the receiver to the source.
    Also Kelman (1961) comes closer to this in his analysis of social influence, suggesting that three main processes might be involved in opinion change. One of these „compliance‟ refers to the acceptance of influence in the expectation of some reward or to avoid punishment „identification‟, occurs when an individual wishes to be more like the source and hence imitates or adopt behaviour accordingly. A third „internalization‟, is intended to describe influence guided by the receiver‟s own pre-existing needs and values.
    The television could affect these traders positively or negatively. Therefore, for positive result, it is the job of the media houses to give well programmed and packaged information to the audience (commercial consumers and he consumer at large). These commercial activities of Awka residents are their major means of survival. So the commercial developmental programmes should be well broadcasted so that it will foster the spirit of hard work and high productivity with the view of arising creativity and inquisitiveness in the people.

    Many researcher adopt functional approach to the study of communication process from the perception of the receiver rather than the sender (Wimmer and Dominick, 2003; 407). These researchers base their investigation on the „users and gratification‟. Theory of media effect which posits that audience do not take media messages for granted (Tsao and Sibley, 2004: 788-87) but is at least.
    As active as the sender (Fiske, 1990: 151). Fiske Firther argues that the message is what the audience make of it and not what the sender intends.
    For a successful programme, „programming‟ is needed. Programming and determine where to broadcast such material. Programming means determining the kind of programme to make, the belt or slot in which to bring them out, the target audience, the ratio or mix of other programme types in relations to the ones produced, the general objectives of each programme type.
    In packaging a potent programme, the producer should endeavour to focus more on how the service of the broadcast media are of benefit to the audience rather than concentrating on the product features.
    Media houses in Awka like Anambra broadcasting service (ABS) has its functions steamed from the understanding that it is the source from which the Awka residents choose what commercial trades suit them best and method of doing the business.
    Nevertheless, there is no denying the fact that the effect of the television has on the Awka resident is powerful but sometime ineffective because of the location of some of the commercial traders. A recent study conducted show that some commercial traders especially in the rural areas do not have television sets to watch „ABS business television

    link programme „while other prefer to get ideas for their trade themselves without the help of information from television.
    The adoption of the „modus operandi‟ (mode of operation) by the three commercial traders can be seen in the method they use in approaching their business. One great difficulty for researcher is how to measure media effect. Television consumption may affect a person‟s thought, emotions or behaviour in ways could be direct or indirect, immediate or delayed, fleeting or lasting. It is impossible for scientist to control for all the mediating factors from levels of television consumption to demographics such as age, race, and socio-economic status, to harder to measure variables like environment, upbringing, values and previous experiences.
    It is envisage that at the end of this study the outcome in formulating and packaging of television programmes for commercial traders, business men and women etc. it will give them the knowledge on the effect of ABS television business link programme on their commercial activities. All above, the study will increase existing and good talk shows on how to develop the commercial activity of Awka residents.

    1.4 Statement of Research Problem

    There has been a concerted effort by the Anambra Broadcasting service (ABS) to create a positive impact on the Awka residents concerning their commercial activities for instance, the Awka television station, „Anambra Broadcasting Service‟ has used so many method to increase the growth of the commercial activities of Awka residents. These Awka residents include the sellers and the consumers of the goods and services. This medium communication (television) helps these people positively by giving them the right feel about a business or commercial activity of Awka.

    Broadcasting programming is a problem in a broadcasting media i.e. Television. According to Olugboji (1997), little attention is paid to producing cultural relevant local programmes that could contribute meaningfully to the development of the society. The television station strives to give broadcasting to Awka residents on what suits them best in terms of the commercial activities.
    In view of the effectiveness of television programmes in bringing knowledge and changes to Awka residents, it became evident to discuss its short comings which is to say that in spite of all the efforts made by the television station, it is not known for certain if this medium of communication is making an impact on people‟s lives positively.
    Since research is systematic search for knowledge the primary aim of this study is to find solution to the envisaged problem of Awka traders. This is because proper identification to a problem directs the study.

    1.5 Objectives of the Study

    Needless stressing that everything we do is aimed at achieving some objectives. It is very true and applicable in this study.
    In order to achieve the goals, the Awka residents should be well informed and motivated Anambra Broadcasting service (ABS) should primarily be:
    1. To investigate the extent or level of successes business link programme have impacted on the commercial traders in Awka metropolis.
    2. To monitor trends and development in production process with a view to arousing creativity and inquisitiveness in the people of Awka or the Awka residents.
    3. To review business link programme impact on Awka residents including the traders and consumer i.e. the positive and negative effect on the people.

    4. To know the capacity at which business link programmes affects the Awka residents, whether it attracts large audience or influence opinion and behaviour.
    5. To foster the spirit of hard work and high productivity with the view of raising the quality of the life of the people.

    1.6 Significance of the Study

    In this study, it is imperative to know the significance.

    The Awka commercial traders and consumer will benefit immensely from the research study in terms of gaining knowledge on how best to run their business and make gain. The research study will be an added information material for other electronic media researchers. The research study will also make room for developmental programmes and can create employment to the general public because they have been enlightened. It will make for increase in quality of programme production on how to develop ones occupation.

    1.7 Research Questions

    1. To what level of success does Anambra Broadcasting Service television business link programme impact the desired change in Awka resident/ traders?
    2. Do Awka residents expose themselves to Anambra Broadcasting Service television business link programme?
    3. How do Awka commercial traders react to the Anambra Broadcasting Services developmental programmes?
    4. How does Anambra Broadcasting Service television business link programme influence Awka residents commercially?

    1.8 Research Hypotheses

    H0: There is low level of success by the ABS television business link programme in impacting the desired change in Awka residents/traders.
    H1: There is high level of success by the ABS television business link programme in impacting the desired change in Awka resident/traders.
    H0: The Awka residents do not expose themselves to ABS television business link programmes.
    H2: The Awka residents expose themselves to ABS television business link programmes.
    H0: The Awka commercial traders react negatively to ABS television business link programme.
    H3: The Awka commercial traders react positively to ABS television business link programme.
    H0: The less influence the ABS television business link programme has on Awka resident commercially.
    H4: The more influence the ABS television business link has Awka resident commercially.

    1.9 Operational Definition of Terms.

    1. Impact: the impact of this study refers to any of the consequences of ABS television business link programme operation whether intended or not and its effectiveness in term of its capacity to achieve given objectives, whether this be attracting large audience or influencing opinions and behaviour or influencing opinions and behaviour.

    2. Abs Television: in this study the ABS television which is a station owned by Anambra state government is a major contributor to direct change of individual opinion, attributes or behaviour or to be a direct cause of crime aggression or other disapproved social phenomena.
    3. Commercial Activities: in this study, the commercial activity of Awka resident involves their means of livelihood. The kind of trade they do and are known for.
    4. Business Link Programme: in this study, business link programme is a thirty minute programme that is aired on ABS television. It tries to promote small and medium scale business by going to their business places to interview them and then let the city know about their business.
    5. Awka Residents: these Awka residents are to be studied in this research work.

    There are over a million people within Awka metropolis.

    1.10 Assumptions of the Study

    In assuming the study, the likely are assumed and the action to take or how to go about such problem is assumed.
    1. The television has been assumed to be the best medium to affect or influence the Awka residents. It is seen as the best that can be used to foster the spirit of hard work and productivity with the view of raising the quality of the people in terms of their commercial activities.
    2. It has been assumed that effectiveness of business link programme depends on the presentation of business link i.e. if the programme is well packaged, if the times of the programme tallies with the time commercial traders are at home and if the presentation is perfect.

    3. It is also assumed that the impact of business link programme on the commercial activities of Awka residents is positive but has its short comings too. These positive impact and shortcoming are studied to get the kind of effects that can influence the Awka residents.

    1.11 Delimitations of the Study

    The scope of this study boarders on the impact of ABS television business link programme on the commercial activities of Awka residents. It borders on the reaction of the residents to the programme.
    This study due to financial constraints did not attempt going beyond Awka for its findings. In essence, this study covers only Awka residents. No consideration was given to other parts of Anambra states. There are some materials which one could not lay hands on during the research due to lack of time.
    These factors were constraints to researcher which affected or influenced the researchers finding and recommendations in some way.

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    This study probes the impact which TV has on the cultural behaviour of idah polytechnic students. It specifically tackles the impact of channel O musical TV programes on the cultural behavior of idah polytechnic students. The research posits that the current trends in cultural behaviour of youths in Nigeria as observed among idah polytechnic students, kogi
    state is significantly associated with their perception of western culture and exposure to channel O musical TV programmes. The assumption that foreign media content has direct powerful effects that is shared by optimistic modernization theory. The research applies the theory of acculturation along with the culturation hypothesis. Acculturation of Nigeria youths take place as a result of exposure to western TV (channel O) which influence the perception of TV reality and alters self-image. From the review of related literature, the following hypotheses emerged for testing HI: More exposure to TV will tend to identification of western television stars as models. H2: The improvement of Local TV movies industries will increase Nigerian youths’ preference for local TV product. Research
    hypotheses 1 and 2 received statistical support from the analysis of collected data using the survey research method for proper analysis, descriptive and inferential statistical tools of measuring data were used in findings of the study, its shows that a positive relationship which means that as television explosive tends to go up, identification with western television stars especially American television stars also tends to go up. It is also confirm that students discard Nigerian norms and values and become manifestly consistently with western behavior in keeping with their perception of cultural values. From the conclusion, the researches of this research problem have shown that youths of Nigeria can confront the problem of channel O musical programmes destroying our cultural values.
    A policy should be formulated to ensure that only professionals take change of the business of films movies production. Recommendations to check the cultural genocide for further research were preferred.



    1.1 Background of the study

    This study is on Impacts Of Channel O Musical Television Programmes On The Cultural Behavioural Of Federal Polytechnic Students Idah. The term culture has been defined differently by different people. The different definitions attached to culture are based on the differences in the orientation of the people.
    According to Ekeh (1989), culture is construct used in an attempt to analyze and integrate events and ideas in broad spectrum of areas of society. Jekayinka (2002), states that from wider perspective, culture includes the total repertoire of human action which are socially transmitted from generation to generation. Obiora (2002), says the transformation of culture is gradual and not sudden. He contends that culture is a continuous process of change. It changes exactly the same way as the human being change. It is dynamic, learned, acquired, transmitted or diffused through contact or means of communication flow from generation to another. The Nigerian culture is observed to be fading out as a result of the acceptance and adaptation of the modernist’s solution on to underdevelopment. One of such theories which relates to this subtle method of assault international communication is given by Lerner (1956). In his concept of “empathy”, Lerner states that the inhabitants of third world nations must learn to empathize with the West for modern transformation of their societies to be possible. Schramm (1964), on the other hand, developed an interesting model in which he equates the level of social development of communication to various nations. Access to these modern mass media (Radio, Television, films, telephone, and

    newspapers) is linked to individual modernity. Nigeria and other third world countries have reacted to these finding by inventing a substantial amount of their foreign exchange earnings to import radio and television transmitters and sets. The television programmes especially provide many powerful models for children and abundant opportunities for observational learning.
    The television programmes include:

    . Depiction of sex

    . Violence

    . Drug and Alcohol used

    . Vulgar Language – behaviours that most parents do not want their children to imitate.
    Studies ( have been found by early adolescence that the average Nigerian children have watched thousands of dramatized murders and countless other acts of violence on television. For many years, psychologists have debated the question of whether watching violence on Tv have detrimental effects on children. A number of experiments both inside and outside the laboratory have found evidence that viewing Tv violence is relayed to increased aggression in children. Nigerians as exemplified by trends in Idah Polytechnic, Kogi State where Western exports of television entertainment and information are shown in NTA Idah, ESBS Television, Minaj Channel, Cartoon Network, ESPN – “Expanded Sports programmes Network” channel provided by various satellite transmission operators as DSTV, Multi – Choice, Music television, Euro – sports, etc, have raised Nigerians eyebrows to such Western television programmes. Such exposure make students to behave like them, associate with them and even speak like them. Even our generation that is shown on NTA Enugu and the youth perspective on

    ESBS/TV are presented by youth and replete with music video of Western origin dominated by rape stars as (Late) Tupac, Nicky Minaj, The Game, 50- Cent, Sean Paul, Lil Wayne, Snoop Dogy Dog, etc. It is the researcher’s believe that channel O musical television especially American television exports have a strategic “weapon” aimed to over power the cultural values of Nigerian youths.

    1.2 Statement of the research problem

    Impact of channel O musical television programmes on the cultural behaviour of Idah Polytechnic students have been said to be a serious problem facing Nigerians. Some of these problems are:
    . Inadequate policy to guard the youths towards Western Tv programmes.

    . There is an erosion of the cultural values.

    . The imitation of Western cultures especially the American cultures.

    . The Nigerian youths are faced with brain wash.

    Therefore, if the above problems are not been taking care off, it will lead to a total destruction of the Nigerians culture

    1.3 Objectives of the study

    The researcher’s objective is to conduct an in-depth research on the impacts of channel o musical television programmes on the cultural behaviour of federal polytechnic students idah with an insight to determine its implication to the cultural values of Nigerian youths are:
    1. To show how the contents of channel O musical television programme affects Nigerian University students.
    2. To examines its pervasive impact on the cultural behaviour of Nigerian University students.

    3. To know how to isolate Western (channel O) television programmes from Nigeria.

    1.4 Research Questions

    The research question are question posed by the researcher, answers to which would lead to the solution of the problem. Research question are as well structured and constructed questions designed to guide the researcher in other to provide solution to the problem identified. For a researcher to achieve her aim, the following question should be used.
    1. Do Nigerian youths expose themselves more to the contents of channel O Tv programmes than other media?
    2. Do they prefer channel O musical Tv programmes to its impact on the cultural behavior of Nigeria University students?
    3. Do Nigerian youths identify more with locally or foreign Tv stars as models?
    4. Will improvement of local Tv/movies industries improve Nigerian youths preference for local Tv product?

    H1: Research Hypotheses

    1. Hi: More exposure to channel O Tv programmes lead to identification of Western Tv stars as models.
    Ho: More exposure to channel O Tv programmes does not lead to identification of western Tv stars as models.
    2. Hi: The improvement of local Tv /movies industries will increase Nigerian youths preference for local Tv product. Ho: The improvement of local Tv/ movies industries will not increase Nigerian youths preference for local Tv product.

    1.5 Significance Of The Study

    1. The research will help in possible dilution, domination and finally absorption of the African/Nigerian culture which until the present has been characterized with good neighbourliness, respect for elders, virtuousness, community orientation and collectivism.
    2. It will enable the government and policy makers to put adequate measures in place to check the movement of Western (channel o) television programmes into Nigeria.
    3. It will help remove the idea of imitating Western cultures or ways of life from Nigeria.
    4. The conduct of this research will enable the government to know what role the media can play in the development of a country and therefore, harness the mass media especially Tv in the democratic process and development process in general.

    1.6 Delimitation Of The Study

    The scope of this study is to find out how channel o musical Television Programmes affect the Cultural Behaviour of Nigerian Youth using Idah Polytecnic Students as a case study.
    The institution is been noted for a constant influence of channel o musical television programs on their cultural behaviour. Hence, the need for choosing the institution as a case study commenced.
    In the cause of the research, oral interview were consulted on both staffs and students of the institution. But the research depends more on the questionnaire which were distributed to students and staffs and were completed and returned. The researcher also consulted some textbooks, Newspapers and journals which provided a lot of information pertaining to the study.

    1.7 Assumptions Of The Study

    The following were the assumption of this study:

    1. A greater number of Nigerian University Students watch Tv.

    2. Channel o musical Tv programmes have a greater appeal to Nigerian University Students than locally produced programmes.
    3. That the programmes contents of channel o Tv project symbiotic forms of social reality.
    4. The western Tv is having a greater acculturation on Nigerian University Students in particular and on Nigerian youths in general.
    5. That the improvement of local Tv/ movies industries will change Nigerian youths attitudes towards Western Tv programmes.
    1.8 Operational Definition of Terms.

    1. Youth: It is defined as students in various universities in Nigeria and who fall between the ages of 15 -30
    2. Media: The media is operationalised as Tv. Broadcast used to generate or circulate information to the public.
    3. Cultural identify: It is those commonly shares socio-political interpretation and meanings related to the beliefs, norms, values, attitudes and behaviours within Nigeria.
    4. Cultural dominance: it means the conscious and unconscious domination by Western (channel o) Tv media on the media system of Nigeria.

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    The aim of this study was to analyze the “Impact of Ekiti Radio campaign against human trafficking in Ido community of Ido-Osi Local government area. The study made use of survey research method. The study answered three research questions. From the research findings, it was observed that the programmes aired on Ekiti Radio helps in discouraging the practice of human trafficking. Survey research method was used because of its convenience, while Chi- square formular was used to test the formulated hypothesis. The study recommend that the government should embark on putting effort to ending human trafficking especially among women and children.



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    This research work examined the impact of radio on voters mobilization with Enugu North municipality as a case study. The survey method was used for the study, this method was done to enable the researcher discuss findings especially as there is a widespread variables. In this research, the random sampling technique was used to draw a sample of 100 respondents from ten(10) wards in Enugu North municipality and 12 items questionnaire were used for data collection. Data was analyzed based on 100 returned copies of the questionnaire. Finding has revealed that radio has effectively mobilized voters based on the findings in table 7 reveal that at of 100 respondents 84 percentage of the sample population agreed that radio message gas great impact on them while 16 respondents disagreed that radio has no impact on them. Findings also shows in table 9 that 20 percent of the total sample population agreed that the radio has not been alive to the responsibility. In the conclusion from findings, radio is supposed to be a very effective tool for voters mobilization but until radio become alive to its social responsibility to the public by adopting better and effective strategies that will enhance effective mobilization of voters during election.



    1.1 Background of the Study

    The electronic media began with radio transmission services. According to Agba (2006), radio began between 1887 and 1888, a German scientist Heinrich Hertz (1857-1894) and a scientific breakthrough to demonstrate the liberation of electric curren6t into space in the form of waves like beams. He was laying the foundation for the transmission of sound through radio waves.
    Marconi successfully proved Hertz’s theory of electromagnetic waves by making a compass needle turn at the same time a spark jumped between two wires on the other side of the room, constructing a more elaborate transmitter, Marconi sent signals across the hillside outside the family home near Bologna (Bitnner 1989:93). So in 1906 it was possible for the Canadian immigrant to USA, Reginald Hessenden to broadcasr human voice and music over the air waves, which could pick up by crystal set receiver, (Agba, 2006) thus the birth of radio station in the world.
    Radio as a means of mass communication has become one of the most effective means of communication in the world since its discovery, especially because of its reach as its transcends geographical linguistic and traditional barriers Odo(2008). Radio is part of the mass media and so outside its traditional role of educating, informing and entertaining

    the public it has other salient responsibility to the society. One of which is to mobilize the populace in the times of need. Today, Nigeria is among the third world countries with practicing democracy.
    Elections in the country have always been married with irregularities which have gone a long way to vote for candidates of their choice during elections as they believe that whether they vote or not, a predetermined winner will still emerge and so this has given greater responsibility to the mass media as an agent of social change to double its efforts in mobilizing and sensitizing voters on the need to come out massively to vote for candidates of their choice, which would help in strengthening democracy and bring development to the society.
    The social responsibility theory of the mass media as propounded by Siebet, Peterson and Scram (1963) propose a functional model for the analysis of the function of media in political evolution and maintenance of a genuine democracy. They are as follows:
    a) Enlightening the people on the need and importance of democracy.
    b) Creating an enabling environment for the economy to grow strong especially through advertising.
    c) Adhering strictly to the code of ethics laid down by the press council of Nigeria as this will motivate the journalist sufficiently enough to withstand the pressures of government interest and other special interest.

    d) Entertaining the public with information and other well packaged programmes.
    This responsibility has placed on the shoulders of the media, an enormous task in democratic regime as ours and efficient mobilization of voters is part of that responsibility.
    1.2 Statement of the Problem

    The electronic media as part of the mass media has a role to play in any democratic process. Part of its function includes mobilizing effectively the Nigeria populace to come out and vote massively for the candidate of their choice who will be accountable to them. This role makes the radio a key player in any democratic process and so it is expected that it carries out this responsibility with all amount of dedication so as to strengthen and entrench democracy in the country. Especially the 2011 general elections in most polling units, only twenty or thirty percent of the registered voters actually came out to vote.
    This situation has forced many to ask if actually the media especially the electronic media has actually performed its function of mobilization.
    1.3 Objectives of the Study

    The objectives of the study are to:

    i. Ascertain the impact of radio messages on voters especially for the purpose of political mobilization.
    ii. Examine the role of radio as a tool for social mobilization.

    iii. Establish strategies that will effectively help in improving voter mobilization during elections using radio.
    iv. This work is set out to study this development.

    This project therefore seeks to find out how effective has (E.S.B.S) radio carried out this responsibility of mobilizing the electorates during election especially in Enugu North municipality where it signals are received by most of the residents.
    1.4 Research Questions

    For the purpose of carrying out this research, the following questions have been formulated to serve as guide to this study.
    i) What impact does E.S.B.S radio message have on voters especially for the purpose of political mobilization.
    ii) How does radio serve as a tool for social mobilization.

    iii) What strategies is ESBS radio using to mobilize voters?

    1.5 Significance of the Study

    In a country with a nascent democracy like Nigeria this study is significant because it will reawaken the consciousness of media practitioners to their responsibility to the public which will in turn help to strengthen the democratic system in our country, Nigeria. This work will also help in the formulation of policy recommendations that will help the ESBS radio and other radio stations to have sustainable impact on their listeners especially as it concerns mobilization during elections.
    1.6 Limitations of the Study

    This work will explore thoroughly the impact of the electronic media on voters’ mobilization in Enugu North and the radio station selected is ESBS radio Enugu, it was selected because of its proximity to the researcher which helped to save cost and time. ESBS radio is a government owned media which broadcasts twenty four hours everyday and the 2011 and Enugu North municipal council was used as a case study because of its population proximity to the station. The major limitations in the course of carrying out this research were finance, time and high demand of other academic work.
    Also, the seeming difficulty of some respondents to give adequate and relevant information to help in carrying the research was also a major limitation to the study. Finally the difficulty that encountered in getting relevant materials to elicit information was also a major limitation.
    1.7 Definition of Terms

    To aid proper understanding, the following definition of terms were undertaken in the work.
    i. Radio

    ii. Impact

    iii. Voters

    iv. Mobilization

    Radio: Radio can be defined as the process of sending and receiving message through the air using electromagnetic waves. It is also a cheap, portable device that can be carried around.
    Voters: Voter can also be defined as a person who votes or has the right to vote especially in a political election. It is also a group of individuals that elect their representative.
    Mobilization: Simply means the process in which people work together in order to achieve a particular aim.
    Impact: According to chambers dictionary, impact means strong effect or influence. It also means the striking of one body against another collision.
    ESBS: Enugu State Broadcasting Service “an electronic media that transmits message through airwaves based in Enugu State, Nigeria.

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    This study was informed by the necessity of research in the impact of integrated marketing communication on brand building. A study of the transition of Zain to Airtel. The theory that was used during this research is the learning theory which postulates that exposure of certain models or message to a particular audience which was applied to this study. It was also observed that the audiences of Airtel were able to imitate or act in accordance to the message in which they are exposed to Airtel. Survey method was used in this study. Three hundred and ninety nine questionnaires were also administered to respondents during this research. The data collected were analyzed using the chi-square analysis. Research hypotheses findings reveal that integrated marketing communication is an effective tool for brand building even during brand transition. The respondents from the sample population size were randomly selected audience in which it has created a platform for recommendations to be made. Based on the findings in this research, the researcher recommends that IMC messages should be carefully put together, in terms of central theme, media planning and usage. Also, recommended that an integrated marketing communications should be applied in brand building, a combination of Advertising, Public relation, direct marketing, event sponsorship, sales promotion and personal selling is required in brand building.



    1.1. Background of the Study

    A critical part of brand building is communication and the most effective and productive way of managing this effort is through a concept called Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC).
    Due to societal changes over the past fifty years, today’s organizations are being forced to adjust their brand/marketing strategies. Not surprisingly, many have turned to integrated marketing communications (IMC). Why? Old assumptions about the role of advertising promotion and media have fallen by the way side because change remains the only constant thing in the world. Thoughts about how branding and promotion should be organized have been upside-down. And organizations, marketing executives and the media are scrambling to accommodate their new roles, ever since, integrated marketing communication (IMC) has been part of business. Clow & Baack (2004) define IMC as “the coordination and integration of all marketing communication tools, avenues and sources within a company into a seamless programme that maximizes the impact on consumers and other end users at a minimal cost”.
    In addition, Arens (2004) defines integrated marketing communications (IMC) as: The process of building and reinforcing mutually profitable relationship with employees, customers, other stakeholders, and the general public by developing and coordinating a strategic communications programme that enables them to make constructive contact with the company/brand through a variety of media or other contacts…

    From the above definitions, it can be deduced that IMC unifies all communication effort from an organization to produce an identifiable source (brand) in the minds of its audience while some observers think that so long as a company is involved in a variety of promotional activities (e.g., advertising sponsorships, public relations etc), it is practicing IMC. But this is not the case using IMC means looking at the whole where there were once only parts. If calls for re-aligning communications and seeing constant flow of information from a single and identifiable source. An effective IMC process comprises the following steps:
    • Identify the target audiences: This requires a well throughout market segmentation and targeting process which may includes secondary and/or primary market research.
    • Determine the communication objectives: This can range from generating brand awareness to countering the competition.
    • Design the message content: This is an absolutely critical component. Effective messages can make or break a promotional effort.
    • Select the means for communications, whether advertising, public relations, direct marketing sponsorship etc.
    • Define the mix of media, budget and priorities

    • Measure the effectiveness of the efforts.

    IMC and Brand Building

    Based on the foregoing, the brand building aspects are the focus of this study. As consumers are bombarded with a variety of products to meet the same need, branding provides a way for consumers to reduce their decision making to consider only those

    products that they feel are relevant to them or that have met their needs acceptably in the past.
    There is no question that a strong brand is an important corporate asset. Spaeth (1993) asserts that “Brand equity cannot be measured in Naira and kobo but rather, it is a direct result of how consumers value a brand based on their experiences and perceptions”. It is these experiences and perceptions that permit the brand to earn greater volume or margins than it could without the brand name. The most basic function of integrated marketing communication (IMC) is to identify brands, their sources and products, and differentiates them from others. For example, Airtel and Glo may offer the same function as a GSM service provider with similar services to a consumer. Integrated marketing communication (IMC), through sales promotion, appeal and logo (branding) differentiates one product from the other. Therefore, it can be argued that IMC helps create brand awareness and brand loyalty.
    Integrated marketing communication encourages brand loyalty and helps nurture good customer/stakeholder relationship with brands Airtel formally Zain was not the first GSM operator in Nigeria. Through integrated marketing communication, it encouraged and created awareness to its customers about its transition from Zain international to Airtel. This enabled it to retain and add considerably to its market share in the telecommunication industry in Nigeria.
    Integrated marketing communication (IMC) builds brand value, preference and loyalty. Airtel, through its exciting advertisements, intuitive sales promotion and public relations have created strong brand awareness in affirming its transition from Zain to Airtel. When people think of GSM in Nigeria today, Airtel will likely come to mind. It has

    top-of-mind awareness. It is noted worthy that other factor may have contributed to this brands acceptance despite its recent transition. For instance, the fact that it’s one of the fastest growing networks in Africa (especially in Nigeria), and its unalloyed customer relationship and compensation through various promotions and event sponsorship. Branding Defined
    A brand is a distinguishing name or symbol designed or identify a product’s origin differentiate from others or competitors and protest its customers against imitation. Speath (1993) went on to define branding as “a process of creating an association between symbol, object emotion, perception and a product/company with the goal of deriving loyalty and creating differentiation”.
    Branding builds emotional responses thus, when a brand is thought of, it evokes certain emotions. For example, in the auto-mobile, industry, it can be argued that Ferrari, Mercedes, Benz and Lexus brand evokes prestige in the minds of the users and on the lookers.
    Consumers are bombarded with variety of products and brands meeting the same need or functions. Branding provides a way for consumers to reduce their decisions to products or services they is relevant or have met their need before.

    1.2. Statement of the Problem

    With increased competition and saturation in the market, coupled with the growth of other promotional channels such as event sponsorship and advertising, the budget share of other relevant tools of integrated marketing communication (IMC) has continued to dwindle.

    In a recession, some tools of integrated marketing communication (IMC) are the first to feel the burn. Most financial managers believe that integrated marketing communication (IMC) activities cannot be measured in profits; therefore, it is a waste.
    Also, some critics believe that integrated marketing communication is not effective in brand building. Ries and Ries (2002) asserts that “advertising (which is one of the tools of IMC) may not be effective in brand building they posit that it lacks credibility to build brands”.
    This study therefore, intends to evaluate the impact of integrated marketing communication in the branding of Airtel and to measure the effectiveness of that campaign.

    13. Objectives of the Study

    The objective of this is to assess how integrated marketing communication has been effective in branding and transition of Zain to Airtel. The specific objectives are:
    1. To explore how much awareness Airte, has been able to create due to integrated marketing communication (IMC).
    2. To examine the public’s perception of the Airtel brand.

    3. To explain in what ways, has integrated marketing communication (IMC) been able to impact on people’s attitude towards Airtel.

    1.4. Significance of the Study

    Integrated marketing communication (IMC) is one of the areas in mass- communication in Nigeria. The findings from this study can provide an example of the role played by integrated marketing communication (IMC) in creating brand awareness and

    identify. It can also add to the literature in the area of integrated marketing communication (IMC) effectiveness in building brands.
    Integrated marketing communication (IMC) is a major activity in an economic system. This research provides a feedback through which integrated marketing communication (IMC) organization and clients can assess IMC effectiveness.

    1.5. Research Questions

    In conducting this research, the following research questions will enable us provide meaningful answers to the impact of Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC) on brand building.
    1. Is integrated marketing communication (IMC) effective in creating brand awareness of Airtel?
    2. Can a consumer’s exposure to integrated marketing communication (IMC) bring about brand preference?
    3. Can integrated marketing communication (IMC) help retain brand loyalty despite brand transition?

    1.6. Research Hypotheses

    H1: Integrated marketing communication (IMC) is effective in creating brand awareness of Airtel?
    H0: Integrated marketing communication (IMC) cannot be effective in creating brand awareness of Airtel?
    H2: A consumer’s exposure to integrated marketing communication (IMC) can bring about brand preference

    H0: A consumer’s exposure to integrated marketing communication IIMC) cannot bring about brand preference?
    H3: Integrated marketing communication (IMC) can help brand loyalty despite brand transition?
    H0: Integrated marketing communication (IMC) cannot help retain brand loyalty despite brand transition?

    1.7. Scope of the Study

    This research will be restricted to Onitsha, Nnewi and Ihiala in Anambra State, Nigeria. Emphasis is on testing consumer brand awareness and perception as a result of exposure to integrated marketing communication from Airtel formally Zain especially during its brand transition.

    1.8. Limitation of the Study

    As the researcher carries out this study as a research there are some vital things which may tend to limit the researcher on the study some of which are:
    Time: Time is a factor which limits an individual to do what you want. The researcher has a lot to carry on with little time.
    Finance: During the course of this study, the researcher tends to spend money more than he bargained for at the end of the day.
    Information: At times, the information being disclosed to the researcher is little or not sufficient-enough and the researcher is to strive and source for information from all directions.

    1.9. Definition of Terms (Operational)

    Impact: The impact of this study refers to any of the consequence of integrated marketing communication IMC on brand building whether intended or not and its effectiveness in terms of its capacity to achieve given objectives, weather this can be attracting larger audience or influencing opinion and behavior
    IMC: in this study, integrated marketing communication IMC was taken to mean a management concept that is designed or fashioned to make all aspect of marketing communication such as advertising, sale promotion, public relations, and direct marketing work together as a unified force, rather than allowing each to work on its own.
    Brand building: in this study brand building was taken to mean a process of convincing your prospective customers to see you as the only provider of solution to their problem through a consistent and effective communication effort.
    Transition: here transition means the period within which Zain changed to Airtel.

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    1.1 Background of the Study

    This study “Impact of Pornographic Materials on Youths” aims at identifying the influence of pornographic materials on the youth, with particular emphasis on the youths in University of Nigeria Nsukka. The study will help to ascertain whether pornographic materials have adverse effect on the moral behaviour of youths. However, this study will be narrowed down to pornographic films only.
    In view of the foregoing, films began in the minds of people who came long before the film pioneers themselves. The attempt to capture and recreate motion can be traced to when civilization began. The cave drawing which showed a horse with eight legs, the fleeting arrow from a hunter‟s bow and even carefully detailed drawing of kings with one foot outstretched suggest motion.
    Bittner (1989) said that history is somewhat not clear as to who deserved the glory of inventing still motion pictures, but that William Dickson and Thomas Edison were associated with the efforts to create motion pictures.
    The earliest forms of pornographic films were seen in France during the 1920s. The development in France brought about fun and all sorts of condemnation from the public. For instance, Dellu cinema owner and also French man said that the exhibition of such pornographic films contributed to melancholy, fatal condition, social and other negative attitudes among the people.

    Down here in Nigeria, pornographic films started pervading our country in the late 1960s and became more rampant in the 1970s. Today, pornographic films have become so prevalent that access to them is easy.
    “Film, according to Black African greatest film producer Ousmene Senibene is tool or communicator of social change and culture.” He went further to stress that “a film is but a driving belt, a vehicle that conveys an idea and by this we will see that communication and ideas help people make their own decisions about the environment they live in.
    Film as a genre of mass communication is therefore, associated with the enormous influence of the mass media. To buttress this, Walter Lippman (1922, p. 588), also said that the media do not only tell the people what to think, but what to think about. That is to say the media shape the picture in our heads. There is no consensus of opinion on the power of the media to propagate sexual abuse, crime, violence etc, among youths by way of projecting such message to them.
    The stand which one takes on this issue depends on individual perception towards the controversial topic. But the aim of this research is to investigate this issue scientifically keeping emotion aloof, that is, to find out if there is any relationship between youth exposure to media portrayals of pornographic and sexual perversion among the youth.

    1.2 Statement of the problem

    Undoubtedly, social scientists who are interested in the study of mass media particularly film effects have been involved in the efforts to find out the relationship

    between media and anti-social behaviour like crime, violence, sexual behaviour perversion, abuse and rape. There has been series of research works which show that audio-visual media can be described as an all powerful, all pervasive and all manipulative medium capable of producing the most effective emotional reaction through the portrayal of pornography, violence and other immoral acts.
    This project is geared towards ascertaining if sexual crimes, perversion and abuse among the youths could be attributed to their exposure to pornographic films. Therefore, in which way can the viewing of pornographic materials be stopped?

    1.3 Objectives of the study

    This study is aimed at the following:

    a. To find out the reasons why youths watch pornographic films.

    b. To assess the extent youths practice behaviors acquired from viewing pornographic film.
    c. To make suggestions and recommendations on what can be done to stem the viewing of pornographic materials.

    1.4 Research questions

    1. What are the reasons why youths watch pornographic films?

    2. To what extent do youths practise behaviours acquired from viewing pornographic films?
    3. Should the Nigerian government ban pornographic films because of its negative influence on the youths?

    1.5 Scope of the Study

    This study is limited to youths in University of Nigeria Nsukka. But since the characteristics of youths are generally similar in many ways, the findings of the study would therefore be generalized to include all youths in Enugu.

    1.6 Significance of the study

    This study will be of great benefit to Nigerian students in the tertiary level. This study will be of significance to the students because it will help them to know the effects of pornographic films.
    Furthermore, it will be of benefit to both governments because it will help the government to understand ways in which they can control and eradicate this social vice.

    1.7 Operational definition of terms

    The variables for this study, “Impact of Pornographic Materials on Youths” are operationally defined as follows:
    The Impact Operationally Defined

    The operational definition of impact as the powerful effect that something has on somebody.
    Pornographic Materials Operational Defined

    The operational definition of pornographic materials are films that are made solely for sexual arousal and featuring nudity and explicit sexual acts.

    Youths Operational Defined

    The operational definition of youths is the time of life when a person is young having the characteristics of the young.

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    The aim of embarking on this study was to provide a well detailed account on the Impact of Radio Nigeria Enugu‟s awareness campaign on global warming using Emene community as the study area. The researcher used survey research design in the collection of data because it is easier to sought people‟s opinion using questionnaire. Stratified sampling method was used to get the sample size for this study which is 150. Data gathered from the study were analyzed, tested and interpreted using simple percentage, frequency tables and chi- square goodness of fit test which is used to test the hypothesis. The researcher was able to find out that majority of the respondents own radio set and listen to Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report. It also influence them positively. The theory that led support to this work is the agenda setting theory. The researcher therefore recommends that programmes on global warming report should be aired with local languages so as to make the message more effective and understandable by people of such communities. This will go a long to enhancing the campaign on global warming. And also more airtime should be allocated to the broadcast or report on global warming by Radio Nigeria Enugu.



    1.1. Background of the Study

    Global warming has become the most pertinent and most significant contemporary issue in the entire globe. Today, the world is currently under the threat of global warming. Its challenging nature can never be over emphasized neither can the world‟s vulnerability to its effect be argued. Experts contend that the various manifestations of climate change occur in many ways than one. These include average global temperatures, which have increased by 0.8 centigrade since 1990; the last decade was the warmest year on record in the southern hemisphere.
    Effects of climate change are numerous including declining agricultural productivity, insecure harvest, rising product prices, reduced productivity of farm labour, increasing

    tendency of feeding on spoiled food items, increasing risk of dehydration, reducing milk yield in dairy farms and these short comings have far- reaching negative effects on human health and existence.
    Global warming could be referred to an increase in the average temperature of the earth‟s atmosphere especially a sustained increase sufficient to cause climate change. It can also be caused by gaseous discharges from industries, indiscriminate and open burning of waste, bush burning, burning of fossil fuels, use of defoliants, crude oil spillage, gas flaring, indoor cooking, emissions from generators, mining activities, exploitation of energy for domestic(use of charcoal, fuel, wood, pole). Major air pollutants include Cox, Nox, particulates H2s, CFCs, Hcfcs, Dixons and furans. As a result of these emissions from generators, mining activities, the ozone layer is gradually losing its potency and this has led to an increase heat of radiations from the sun on the earth, which is called global warming. Other results of these emissions apart from dangerous changes in weather patterns including flooding, which has become unprecedented in history, persistent rise in sea level, alarming rate of desertification, gully erosion, crop failure and a number of other negative impacts.
    These are the modern day plagues threatening the very existence of humanity unless Government and the people address them squarely urgently institute drastic and urgent measures, except that all humans will eventually become vagabonds. In a keynote address on the ministry of environment‟s 2nd summit on climate change.
    Fashola states that:

    “There will be threat to global food supply and even the legal order as we know it today about immigration control and border securities may give way to anxious, displaced and angry millions of refugees who will be in an uncontrollable race in search of safety and survival.”

    Climate change model projection summarized I the latest intergovernmental panel of climate change (IPCC) reports indicates that global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 1.1 to 6.40 centigrade (2.0- 11.50f) during the 21st century. However, warming is expected to continue beyond year 2100 even if emissions stop; because of the large heat capacity of the ocean and long life time of carbon- dioxide (Co2) in the atmosphere. Today, most National Governments have signed and ratified the Kyoto protocol aimed at reducing greenhouse gases.
    Radio help to enhance people‟s general knowledge by providing them with information from all over the world. It is also the fastest means of passing information. Its portability cannot be over emphasized. Radio serves as the best means of speedy spread of news about important incidents or events taking place. What has happened in the remotest corner of the world can reach within minutes. Hence, there is need for this research to find out the impact of Radio Nigeria Enugu awareness campaign on the people of Emene Community. Climate Change
    The history of the scientific discovery of climate change began in the early 19th century

    when ice ages and other natural changes in pale climate were first suspected and the natural greenhouse effect first identified. In the late 19th century, scientists first argued that human emissions of greenhouse gases could change the climate, but the calculations were disputed. Many other theories of climate change were advanced, involving forces from volcanism to solar variation.
    In the 1960‟s the warming effect of carbon dioxide gas became increasingly convincing, although some scientists also pointed out that human activities, in the form of atmospheric aerosols (example “pollution”), could have cooling effects as well. During the 1970‟s,

    scientist opinion increasingly favored the warming viewpoint. By the 1990s, as a result of improving fidelity of computer models and observational work confirming the Milankovitch theory of the ice ages, a consensus position formed: greenhouse gases were deeply involved in most climate change and human emissions were bringing serious global warming.
    Since 1990s, scientific research on climate change has included multiple disciplines and has expanded, significantly increasing our understanding of casual relations, links with historic data and ability to numerically model climate change. The most recent work has been summarized in the assessment reports by the intergovernmental panel on the climate change.
    Regional changes, antiquity through 19th century from ancient times, people suspected that

    the climate of a region could change over the course of centuries. For example, Theophrastus, a pupil of Aristotle, told how the draining of marshes had made a particular locality more susceptible to freezing, and he speculated that land became warmer when the clearing of forests exposed them to sunlight. Renaissance and later scholars saw that deforestation, irrigation, and grazing had altered the lands around the Mediterranean since ancient times; they thought it plausible that these human interventions had affected the local weather.
    The most striking change came in the 18th and 19th centuries, obvious within a single

    lifetime. The conversion of eastern North America from forest to crop lands. By the early 19th century many believed the transformation was altering the region‟s climate probably for the better. When sodbusters took over the Great Plains they were told that “rain follows the plough”. Not everyone agreed. Some experts reported that deforestation not only

    caused rainwater to run off rapidly in useless floods, but reduced rainfall itself. European professors, alert to any proof that their Nations were wiser than others, claimed that the Orientals of the Ancient near east had heedlessly converted their once lush lands into impoverished deserts.
    Meanwhile, national weather agencies had begun to compile masses of reliable observations of temperature, rainfall and the like. When the figures were analyzed they showed many rises and dips, but no steady long term change. By the end of the 19th century, scientific opinion had turned decisively against any belief in a human influence on climate. And whatever the regional effects, few imagined that humans could affect the climate of the planet as a whole.

    Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria

    The Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria was originally founded in 1933 by the British colonial Government, named the diffusion service; it allowed the public to hear the British Broadcasting Corporation‟s foreign radio service broadcasts in certain public locations over loudspeakers.
    In April 1950, the RDS became the Nigerian Broadcasting service and introduced radio stations in Lagos, Kaduna, Enugu, Ibadan and Kano. This service was re-organized into the Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation (NBC) on April 1, 1957 by Act of Parliament. Its mission was to provide, as a public service, independent and impartial broadcasting services.
    By 1962 the NBC had expanded its broadcast stations into Sokoto, Maiduguri, Ilorin, Zaria, Jos and Katsina in the North; Port Harcourt, Calabar and Onitsha in the East, and Abeokuta, Warri, and Ijebu- Ode in the west. Each of these stations was considered a

    subsidiary station of a regional station. The subsidiary stations broadcast local interest programmes during part of the day, and then relayed programming from their regional station during the rest of the broadcast day. National programs were broadcast from two shortwave transmitters and one medium wave transmitter located in Sogunie, near Lagos. In the late 1960, the federal parliament amended the NBC ordinance to allow the sale of commercial advertisements. The first adverts ran on October 31, 1961 and were broadcast from Lagos. By 1962 regional and provincial broadcasters began selling adverts to local businesses. The goal of allowing radio advertisements was to help provide additional funding to NBC stations beyond that received from the Government.
    The federal parliament approved the creation of Voice of Nigeria (VON) external shortwave service in 1961. Broadcasts began on January 1, 1961 from Lagos State. Its initial operations were limited to two hours a day to West Africa, but by 1963 VON had expanded both its coverage and transmission times with the addition of five additional transmitters.
    In April 1961, with financial assistance from the ford foundation and technical assistance from the British Broadcasting Corporation, NBC began National school broadcasting service in April 1961. The NBC schools unit broadcast lessons in various school subjects for primary and secondary schools as well as special programs for teachers training college. The schools unit was based in Ibadan. The NBC and the Broadcasting Corporation of Northern Nigeria (BCNN) were merged in 1978 to become the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN).

    Medium wave transmitters previously owned by the NBC were transferred to the individual state Government where the transmitters were located. At the same time, the State transferred short wave transmitters to the FRCN.
    IN 1996, VON installed three high power transmitters at its Ikorodu transmitter site, allowing worldwide transmissions for the first time.

    FRCN medium wave service, Radio Nigeria, has 25 stations located throughout the country and together with voice of Nigeria considers itself to have the largest Radio network in Africa.
    In 2007, FRCN began introducing FM transmitters in some locations and plan to begin upgrading and modernizing its shortwave and medium wave transmitters in the coming year.

    1.2. Statement of the Research Problem

    For many year now, series of human activities such as industrial and other economic activities of man on the surface of the earth have been going on ignorantly without putting into consideration the adverse or negative effect of all these activities on the planet in particular and the environment in general.
    Today, these human activities on earth or environment have degenerated to what is now called global warming which has now posed a serious challenge to the survival of man in the whole world.
    The problems therefore are as follows;

    To determine the extent Emene community has been exposed to Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report.
    To know the level of acceptance of these reports by Emene community.

    To determine the level of application of the Radio Nigeria weather reports by Emene community.

    1.3 Objectives of the Study

    The objectives of the study are;

    1. To identify how Radio Nigeria Enugu has been able to influence people‟s attitude towards information on weather change.
    2. To identify whether Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report has played any role in changing the perception of the people of Emene community on information on Global warming.
    3. To understand the economic advantages of Radio Nigeria Enugu‟s awareness campaign on global warming on the people of Emene community.

    1.4 Research Questions

    The following research questions were used by the researcher as a guide.

    1. To what extent has Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report influence the attitude of the people of Emene community towards environmental management?
    2. To what extent has Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report been able to change people‟s perception on information on Global warming?
    3. What is the level of awareness on global warming created by Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report?

    1.5 Research Hypotheses

    Hi: Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report has influence on the attitude of Emene residence on their environmental management.
    Ho: Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report has no influence on the attitude of Emene residence on their environmental management.
    H2: Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report has been able to change people‟s perception on information on global warming.
    Ho: Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report has not been able to change people‟s perception on information on global warming.
    H3: Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report has created high level of awareness on global warming.
    Ho: Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report has not created high level of awareness on global warming.
    1.6 Scope of the Study

    This research is focused on the challenges and possibility of creating awareness of the dangers which human activities pose on the environment using Radio Nigeria Enugu as a study Area. The study is limited to Emene community in Enugu East Local Government Area, Enugu State. That is those who are exposed to Radio Nigeria Enugu news programme from January to June 2014.

    1.7 Significance of the Study

    This study is justified by the need to highlight the importance of Radio involvement in the campaign on global warming. It would be a reference material to students and other researchers who carryout studies in the same field.
    The study will provide information on how to control global warming.

    The result of the study will sensitize media managers on the importance of weather report. The study will help to determine the rate at which the programme changes perception of Emene community about global warming.
    It highlights how Radio Nigeria Enugu awareness campaign on global warming encourages a forestation among Emene community.

    1. 8 Operational Definition of Terms

    Impact: The feelings of the people of Emene community after been exposed to Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report from January to June 2014.
    Radio: Electromagnetic wave carrying information from Radio Nigeria Enugu to the people of Emene community.
    Awareness: The level of information about global warming by the people of Emene community.
    Campaign: Series of Radio Nigeria Enugu weather reports exposed before Emene community.
    Global warming: The rise in temperature of Emene Community from 37c to 39c from January to June 2014.

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    1.1 Background of the Study

    That the mass media plays a vital role in the development process of a country is not again saying. The mass media generally regarded as a channel of communication that are capable of reaching heterogeneous audience simultaneously with uniform message. They regularly cover all sorts of issues such as health, music, fine art, crime, sport, entertainment, political events among others (Meyer, 2002, Soela 2004). The mass media transmits ideas and new information to target audience in the society. Tosanisunmi (2004) has observed that the mass media educate, inform and entertain beyond these functions as they also persuade and catalyze for social mobilization. In other words, the mass media can be regarded as powerful service of information because they have the capability to penetrate every segment of society. They have the ability to disseminate messages about issue, ideas and product.

    Furthermore, the mass media has that capability to create awareness and knowledge about issues of national interest. The traditional mass media usually consist of radio, television, newspaper and magazine while the news media involves the internet technologies. Contextually, these media have the responsibility to mobilize for national development. In other words, social mobilization for development largely depends on the media for success. Crusade for change and dissemination of useful information against corruption, bad governance and terrorism depend on the mass media. Ogwezzy (2010) states that it is a common knowledge that the media is the engine of mass communication and the avenue through which the public could be reached.

    In the other hand, election is an important element of democracy; elections enable the individual to express a sense of belonging to a political system. Elections provide forum for the discussion of public opinion on important issue. Elections allow an exchange of influence between leaders and the electorate (Nwaozuzu 1999:18-22). This statement captures the relevant functions of the broadcast media in elections which serves as a mobilizing of all the different people in society and at the same time to co-ordinate the activities as they are made to express their views about candidates who are contesting for political position. The broadcast media through their programmes create avenue through which the people express their views about candidates. There may be phone calls in programmes like radio link, state of the Nation, or debate programmer responsible or

    otherwise and has made people pass on topical political issues. Also the broadcast media (Radio and Television) provide platforms through which individuals or member of society contribute on issues of public interest. They may be based on stewardship of political offices holders wishing to recontest for elections or it may have to do with electoral law that are perceived to be capable of fermenting violence. Ebo (1997:132) maintain that: the broadcast media play decisive roles in the lives of the citizens no matter where they are located and whatever their stage of development. The broadcast media are the most potent and sensitive sector of the communication industry considering the reach and influence they have on their viewers and listeners.

    This statement succinctly explains which relevance the broadcast media is to all the components of the society, a power it acquired from its inception and not only during political campaigns. It is this power that grants it the ability to mobilize people and make them participate in mass in political processes. To further explain the power of the broadcast media in mobilizing the citizens towards conforming to expected behavior and participation in electoral processes. The media force attends to certain issues, they build up images of political figures, they are constantly presenting objects, suggesting what individuals should think about, know about, having feelings about. Clang an Lang 1959:103- 112).

    This means the dominant thought that the people carry about, is influenced by the media‟s constant projection of what they should be thinking especially concerning the electoral process. This comment conforms to the agenda setting thereby which provides explanation to what or how the media can sway the behavior of the people in the society. Given this power therefore, it will not be out of place to say that, the failure of success of any electoral process lies largely in the hands of the mass media, to which the broadcast media is a strong component. Innis (2003:298) in support of this state that; while an unbiased and responsible system can contribute to the success of the electoral process, a bias and irresponsible media contributes to the failure of elections.

    On the same power of the media, Orhewere‟s (2003:140) argues; the Nigerian media in the past did not show enough commitment to professional ethic there by contributing to electoral crisis in Western Nigerian in 1965 and subsequent elections. The relevance of Orhewere‟s comment is that not only does the Nigerian Broadcast media posses‟ enormous powers, but its role as an instrument of mobilization dates back to as far as 1965. In other words, the media has been a very active instrument in democratic processes in Nigeria over a stretch of time, until the military dictatorship took the shine from it. However, with the re-entry of civilian rule in 1999, the media viz the broadcast media have resumed its active role of mobilizing the populace for elections. The media or

    broadcast media played very important role in elections written 1999 and 2003, Therefore, to print out that, the roles the media often plays is either responsible or otherwise and has made people pass judgment or often ascribed to failed outcome of elections ascribed to failed outcome of elections to it. That is the success or failure of elections are often judged by the role of the media for instance, Chinua Achebe (1993:78) allege that; the two previous at conducting election under civilian rule generated crisis, which culminated to the collapse of the republics due to several electoral frauds some of which allegedly were aided and abetted by the media. Chinua Achebe‟s comment however begs for serious questions at to, how does a watch dog become a conspirator. In other words, how does a media aid and abet fraud, perhaps they will form another basis for a study. However, it is important to note that, indeed the broadcast media has very strong roles to play in elections. To this Burns (1977:45) state that; The media in a civilized society occupy a very important and powerful position with capacity that can easily influence the opinion of the masses. While Rivers (1971) state that, it is expected to be the condolence of the people where divergent views are expressed in order to serve as a check against autocratic and totalitarian rule

    Therefore, it is against the above background that this project seeks to examine the impact of television broadcasting on electioneering campaigns using 2011 presidential campaigns on NTA Abeokuta.

    1.2 Statement of Research Problem

    The role of media in every society is often to educate, inform and enlighten. It is assumed that, where those roles are adequately carried out, elections are bound to be free and fair. However, in Nigeria, several elections have been marred the question is how the mass media has mobilized the Nigerian populace. How come electoral processes have not been successful? Is the broadcast media system not commensurate to other media systems elsewhere? These and many others are questions that this study hopes to identify.

    1.3 Objectives of the Study

    1. To ascertain the level of equal media coverage given to political parties to candidates.

    2. To ascertain the significant relationship between mass media & electioneering campaign.

    3. To ascertain the significant level of mobilization of mass media towards elections.

    4. To determine the significant level of agenda setting programme of mass media town elections.

    1.4 Research Questions

    The following research questions were considered:

    i. What is the significant level of equal media coverage given to political parties?
    ii. What is the significant relationship between media coverage and a free & fair election?
    iii. What is the significant level of media expose of electoral misconduct?
    iv. How does the media play the role of agenda-setting during election?
    v. What is the significant level of media mobilization during electoral process?

    1.5 Significance of the study

    On the completion of this project the end result will benefit academics, students of communication studies and other researchers that may want to carry out further research on this study.

    1.6 Scope of the Study

    The scope of this research work will only cover the people within Abeokuta metropolis. This focus will be on the people living around Oke-Ilewo, Post- Office and Panseke axis of the city.

    1.7 Limitations of the Study

    The research work may be faced with time & fund constraints being an academic based research. The time allocated for this study is not enough as in combining the work on this study with daily academics routine. Also, the study will be limited to some areas due to the problems of funds,, shortage of texts, journals and information relevant to the study.

    1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

    1. Impact: This refers to a significant or strong influence on massmedia towards election.

    2. Television broadcasting: This can be defined as the dissemination of information, idea, opinion, before, among others through the use of television medium.

    3. Electioneering Campaign: This refers to the act or process of soliciting for support or votes for a given political party or candidate during election.

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    This research work is aimed at analyzing the impact of village square meeting on
    agricultural development in Gakem, Bekwarra Local Government Area of Cross River State. The research method used was survey, and questionnaire the instrument. The researcher adopted the systematic random sampling technique to select a sample size of 200 which was used in the study. The findings gotten from the questionnaire shows that the people of Gakem, Bekwarra Local Government are exposed to agricultural messages passed through the village square meeting and that it was as a result of adherence to such messages that they advanced in agricultural practice. It is therefore recommended that the village square medium should advance in the dissemination of agricultural messages in Gakem.



    1.1 Background of the Study

    The village square meeting is one o f the mediums of traditional media of communication in the rural communities. It channels a lot of information on day to day activities which takes place in the rural communities. Village square meeting takes place in the village square, where a lot of issues that affects the community are being discussed. Such information includes; Agricultural innovation programmes, burial ceremony or burial arrangement, coronation, naming ceremony, market days and product available for sales, visit of a prominent member of the community such as; a member representing the community in the state and Federal housing, local government chairman, party aspirant and party manifestos to mention a few. For the purpose of this study, Agricultural innovation or development programmes as affected by the village square meeting as a medium of traditional media will be the focus.

    The village square meeting is one of the mediums of traditional communication that helps to service the society or the rural communities through proper information that help the community in their daily interactions.
    Ever before the emergence of modern mass media, viz, print and broadcast and their introduction to Africa, people in African societies or communities did not live in isolation from one another, there exist many other mediums and channels viz the family, market place, town crier, visits, religious association, gun shot, bush burning, dance display etc. which makes it easier for people to interact and exchange opinions, ideas thoughts and feelings in their local communities. Acknowledging this facts, Ebeze (2002), write that “before the introduction of modern mass media in Africa, there exist other channels of communication that enable people in ancient African communities to interact and maintain a stable system of living. These channels as mentioned earlier has helped in shaping African communities, the channels are used as a medium for inculcating the norms and values of the community social mobilization, political mobilization, economic mobilization, cultural mobilization, and the transfer of cultural heritage from generation to generation or from old members of the community to new comers. All these information carried by the mediums which the village square is one, has helped in rapid development of rural communities in Africa.
    The village square meeting for instance brings people from different kindred, clans, sub-communities, families and dynasty together in the village square to discuss pressing issues.

    Meeting days are communicated to the members of the communities through various medium such as the town crier, gunshot, family, dance, bush burning, market place, visits, religious association and youth association.
    According to Eluwa (2010) “The village square is a special square, set aside for communal meetings and activities”. People converge here to discuss topical issues and events that affect their lives. Here important messages are passed to the members of the community.
    Messages being passed in the village square include; agricultural innovation messages, which will be critically looked into in this study to be able to ascertain how effective is the village square meeting in disseminating agricultural development programmers in the rural communities.
    Agriculture is said to be the art and science of crop and animal production. Development to an economist is all about economic change that realistically enhances people’s earnings in addition to raising their living standards via large scale of production of goods and services.
    In the perspective of the philosopher’s development is conceptualized as the attainment of a meaningful degree of mental alertness and the sophistication of human faculties to the level the individual can not only reason well but also, adopt a logical approach to issues arising from human society.
    Agricultural development is therefore, all about agricultural change that realistically enhances the ruralites earnings in addition to raising their living standard via large scale production of crops and animals. It is also the attainment of meaningful degree of mental alertness, and the sophistication of human faculties to

    the level that the individual in the society or rural community cannot only reason well but adopt a logical approach to agricultural problems or issues arising in the rural community.
    Agricultural development as been affected positively by the village square meeting will be properly looked into in this study.

    1.2 Statement of the Research Problem

    Agriculture has from time immemorial remained the major sources of income and revenue generation in the rural area. The production of crops such as yam, cassava, beans, rice vegetable, tree crops like cocoa, banana, plantain palm produce, rubber etc. and animal such as; cattle’s, goats domestic fowls, Snails, fish, Agric fowls, duck, turkey, guinea fowl, pigs to mention a few, has remain the base for economic advancement in the rural communities in Nigeria. In spits the enormous contributions of various media both traditional (old media) and the mass media (new media) of communication, viz the village square as a medium of traditional media, some rural communities are still lagging behind in agricultural advancement. Though, a lot of agricultural innovation programmes have been initiated by the federal, state, and local government, poor planting methods, poor method of pesticide, herbicide application etc. have been constraint to agricultural development in the rural area.
    This research work strives to investigates if the village square meeting as a medium of traditional communication has really contributed in mobilization and

    sensitization of the ruralites on agricultural innovations, if not, it will be of important to suggest a vibrant medium that will be more effective for agricultural development in the rural area since it is statistically proven that about 75% of Nigerians reside in the rural area and often rely on agricultural productivity to be able to contribute to national development.

    1.3 Objectives of the Study

    The objectives of this study are;

    (1) To determine the role of village square meetings in promoting effective agricultural development in the rural area.
    (2) To find out how people react to agricultural messages received in the village square meetings.
    (3) To determine the influence of agricultural messages passed in the village square meetings on the attitude of farmers in Gakem, Bekwarra L.G.A.

    1.4 Research Questions

    The research questions are as follows:

    (1) To what extent has village square meeting helped in enhancing agricultural development in Gakem?
    (2) How has the people of Gakem reacted to agricultural development messages passed to them through village square meeting?

    (3) How has the agricultural development messages disseminated in the village square influenced your farming attitude?

    1.5 Research Hypotheses

    The research hypotheses include;

    H1: Village square meeting has helped in enhancing agricultural development in Gakem.
    H2: Agricultural messages passed in the village square meeting influenced the attitude of the farmers in Gakem?

    1.6 Scope of the Study

    This study is based on effective use of village square meeting for agricultural development in rural area. The method and techniques of disseminating information in the rural area using the village square meeting, remains the base of this study.
    The study covers Gakem community of Bekwarra North L. G.A in Cross River State.

    1.7 Significance of the Study

    This study will be relevant to national and rural agricultural development agencies such as the National Agricultural Development Agencies (NADA) at the national level, and State Agricultural Development Agencies (SADA) at the state level. The study will also help environmental activist, bankers, educators, economist, politicians, teachers, media practitioners etc. to be able to ascertain and evaluate the

    strength and weakness of the traditional media and to device the best means or channels of disseminating information in the rural area, since findings from these study will reveal new trends on the impact of village square meeting in the rural area.
    The study will also contribute immensely to all academic fields whose activities are affiliated with the rural communities. The study will help government, NGOs and other bodies who are interested in agricultural development in the rural area to identify the village square meeting as an important medium of packaging agricultural development programmes, that will lead to high agricultural productivity and rural development.
    The study will to a very large extent be of benefit to future researchers who wish to carryout study in this area, since this study when completed is subject to replication as criteria in research.
    Findings from this study will also help the Government (Federal state and local government) to device a means of enhancing agricultural innovation programmes through the village square meeting and other viable mediums of traditional media.

    1.8 Definition of Terms

    The following terms in this study where operationally defined thus;
    (1) Impact

    (2) Village square meeting

    (3) Agricultural Development

    (4) Rural Development.

     Impact: Impact in this study has to do with how village square meeting has contributed to agricultural development.
     Village Square Meeting: Village square meeting in this study is a gathering of the rural dwellers which gives them the opportunity to discuss issues affecting them.
     Agricultural Development: It is an improvement in the method or style of agricultural practice to enhance high productivity.
     Rural Development: This has to do with the positive transformation that enhances the living standard of the ruralites.

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