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Design and implementation of staff attendance system using finger print technology

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0 Synopsis
The operation of any company is based on the contribution of staff either from executive level or operational level. For example, in a factory, the shop floor operation required full attendance of engineer, technical staff, and operation level staff before they start the operation. Therefore, the attendance system provides the information of the student existing to a particular lecture. Their information will help them to plan the operation and do any changes for any absent.
Attendance can be defined as the action of being present at one place or event
[1] For example present to somebody party or present to work in office. Attendance is one of the important factors in many institutions and organization that need to be followed by people
[2]. Staff attendance tracking is a common practice in almost all organizations or institution. It is highly important for one organization in order to maintain their performance standards.
[3]. In the previous implementation, there are various types of attendance systems that have been developed. For example: attendance systems by using pen and paper, using database, and also biometrics. These implementations still can cause lots of problems such as providing incorrect information to the users.
The purpose of this integrated attendance system is to computerized the traditional way of record attendance. Besides that it is used to create a combination of various types of attendance where users can either choose to use smart card or fingerprint technologies. For example, by using combination of both smart card and fingerprint technologies to record workers attendance, the attendance system can be strongly protected and the inappropriate manner of behaviors can be eliminated. If one of the devices is malfunction, the others can acts as backup.

1.1 Problem statement
For organization that use pen and paper to record their attendance, with the large number of staff in the organization, this will be a problem to the record keeper to keep track on staff attendance because by using pen and paper, one staff can help other staff to sign his/her attendance even though they do not go to work or either the staff are late to work.
With the existing approach, there is only a single input device use to record the student attendance either using smart card or fingerprint. If one university would like to have 2 different input of attendance system to provide interchangeable function, they will need to purchase both systems which will be costly. In addition, if one day the single input device suddenly breakdown, the attendance cannot be recorded.
Therefore, there is a need to develop an integrated attendance system with various type of input to fulfill student needs and requirements because it is flexible and it can bring convenient to the organization to summarize and manipulate staff information. Lack of effectiveness in their methods of record keeping, further compounds the problem.

1.2 Aims and objectives of the study
The aim of the study is to design and implementation of staff attendance system using finger print.
The objectives of this project are:
i. To develop an Integrated Staff Attendance System (ISAS) by using fingerprint technologies.
ii. To provide the potential users with the customize option of using both input device.
iii. To develop an algorithm for the student processing towards attendance system

1.3 Justification for the study
The use of staff attendance system is very important because of human being proneness to error, leaving the staff to write down their names might not be accurate as staff can even write attendance for their fellow staff and their handwriting legibility can be a case when compiling the attendance record at the end of the semester.
The official in charge of attendance collation is highly favored by this system because use of pen and paper as a means of collating staff attendance will leave the official in charge with numerous sheets of paper, which will be hectic as he/she has to start comparing several sheets to record the average attendance for just a staff. The official is going to waste a lot of time compiling the attendance percentage at the end of the semester, mistake can creep in due to the large volumes of papers.
Successful implementation of this project mean the student attendance credibility can be queried or put to test anytime, and result are produce fast and accuracy, without stress.

1.4 Methodology
An embedded system is a combination of softwareandhardwareto performadedicatedtask.Someof the maindevicesusedinembeddedproductsaremicroprocessorsand microcontrollers.In thisproject,afingerprint based attendance systemusingmicrocontrollerisimplemented.Microcontroller forms thecontrolling module and it istheheartofthedevice.Initiallythefingerprintofusers andthatwillbeverifiedwiththefingerprintthatwasgivingatthetime of registration.
Iftheboth fingerprints arematchedthen, it will be confirmed that the person should be mark present.Thetaskrelated instructions areloadedintothe microcontrollerwhichisprogrammedusingembeddedlanguage.The systemconsistsofMicrocontrollerUnit,Fingerprintmodule,LCD,aUSBsystem module to interact with the pc for reading and writing of dataand microcontrollerthatcollectdatafromthefingerprintmodule.Asitisbasedonthefingerprintauthentication thereisnochanceone student writing the name of is friend.
AfingerprintreadershowninFigure.3.1isthe inputdevice.Theflashmemorycomprisesoffingerprint templateandotherdetailsofthe person.
This is the design phase of the Biometric based Staff Attendance Register Software. It involved decomposing thewhole system into modules and defining the relationship among the constituent modules. Top down design approachwas employed which involved dividing the system into subsystems or modules and each subsystem being furtherdivided into even smaller subs. This process of division is repeated until each module is sufficiently small enough tobe conveniently coded (implemented) as an independent entity that performs a clearly defined operation.

Figure 1.1 Fingerprint Reader

1.4.1 Model Formulation
_ Fingerprint Acquisition
At the enrolment phase, the fingerprints would be acquired such that the print of the texture of the first finger (that isthe pointing finger) is obtained twice and analyzed for processing. The fingerprint samples would be stored in aMicrosoft SQL Server database with the aid of an interfaced fingerprint reader/scanner. The fingerprints are then tobe saved inside a database to cater for subsequent need for the various fingerprint analysis during matching.

_ Fingerprint Feature Extraction
In any fingerprint image, there are dark lines which are called ridges, whereas the spaces in between those darklines are called valleys. Ridges and valleys often run in parallel but there are two things that happen to any print. It iseither, the ridges and the valleys terminate or they bifurcate. Termination of a fingerprint is simply the situation inwhich a particular ridge ends abruptly while bifurcation is the situation by which the line splits into two. In the analysisof the fingerprint images during matching (authentication), the pattern of the fingerprint exhibits one or more regionswhere the ridge lines assume distinctive shapes; which are: loop, delta and whorl. If the fingerprint scan matches anyone stored in the database at the enrolment phase, the staff with the fingerprint will be updated as present for the
lecture.
_ Minutiae Extraction
Each fingerprint images in the database after enrolment will be processed in order to extract a unique feature calledminutiae. It is this unique feature that will be compared at the (authentication) matching phase. This requires thefingerprint grey-scale image to be converted into a binary image. The binary images obtained by the process aresubmitted to a thinning stage which allows for the ridge line thickness to be reduced to one pixel. Finally, a simpleimage scans allows the detection of pixels that correspond to minutiae through the pixel-wise computation ofcrossing number.

1.4.2 Workflow Development
1.4.3 Model Evaluation
The system consists of two main modules (phases); the enrolment module and the authentication (the attendance taking) module. The enrolment module can be referred to as the registration module. It starts with the taking offingerprint using the scanner, the fingerprint key features are extracted and the template gotten is then checked toverify if it has been taken before or not. If the fingerprint template is identified, the execution process will go back tothe line of code where fingerprint is being extracted, informing the user that ‘fingerprint template has been collectedbefore’. If the fingerprint template is not found, then it will be saved. This ensures that no single user can be enrolled(registered) more than once. Every successful fingerprint template is enrolled, and user’s details are saved alongsidewith the template. Figure ii depicts the enrollment flow process.
The authentication module verifies a registered (enrolled) user and allows the attendance to be taken. Itstarts with the taking of the finger print; the template of the finger print taken is extracted. The system goes ahead toverify the template to check if it has been pre stored (registered), so that it can match it with an existing templatetaken. If no finger print template has been pre-stored (matching unsuccessful), the system displays “PleaseRegister”. But if the matching is successful, the attendance status for the day is checked. If the fingerprint hasalready been matched for the lecture period, it displays. “Attendance Already Taken for period” and if not it goesahead to take the Staff’s Attendance. This ensures that the attendance cannot be taken more than once by the samestaff for the same lecture. The Admin views and generates reports of the staff using the attendance register of everyuser according to the time table. Figure iii depicts the authentication flow process.

1.5 Scope and limitation of the study
The scope of this study is to design and implement staff attendance system using finger print reader a case study of organization in Nigeria. The limitations of this study are:
1. Unavailability of academic materials
2. Transport problem
3. Lack of financial support
4. Lack of Time
5. Unavailability of programming software such as vb.Net, and Crystal report

1.6 Glossary of Operational Terms
Management: It is the co-ordination of all the resources of an organization through the process of planning organization, directing and controlling.
System: Physical component of a computer that is used to perform certain task.
Data: Numbers, Text or image which is in the form suitable for Storage in or processing by a computer, or incomplete Information.
Information: A meaning full material derived from computer data by organizing it and interpreting it in a specified way.
Input: Data entered into a computer for storage or processing.
Output: Information produced from a computer after processing.
Information System: A set of interrelated components that collect (or retrieve), process, store and distribute information to support decision making and control in an organization.
Computer: Computer is an electronic device that accepts data as Input, processes data and gives out information as output to the user
Software:-Software is set of related programs that are designed by the manufacturer to control the hardware and to enable the computer perform a given task.
Hardware: -Hardware is a physical part of a computer that can be touched, seen, feel which are been control by the software to perform a given task.
Database: -Database is the collection of related data in an organized form.
Programming:- programming is a set of coded instruction which the computers understands and obey.
Technology: -Technology is the branch of knowledge that deals with the creation and use technical and their interrelation with life, society and the environment, drawing upon such as industrial art, engineering, applied science and pure science.
Algorithm: A set of logic rules determined during the design phase of a data matching application. The ‘blueprint’ used to turn logic rules into computer instructions that detail what step to perform in what order.
Application: The final combination of software and hardware which performs the data matching.
Data matching database: A structured collection of records or data that is stored in a computer system.
Data cleansing: The proactive identification and correction of data quality issues which affect an agency’s ability to effectively use its data
Data integrity: The quality of correctness, completeness and complain with the intention of the creators of the data i.e. ‘fit for purpose’.
Enrollment: The process of an individual to enroll in an agency. Involves the initial collection of identifying details

1.8 projects Organization
This project consists of five (5) chapters. Chapter 1 discusses on the introduction of the system. The purpose of this chapter is to briefly explain about the overview system that is developed. This chapter also supply with the problem statements, objectives and the scope of the study.
Chapter 2 is literature review. As the name given the purpose of this chapter is to reviews the previous research works which was conducted by other researches. All the relevant journal, thesis and books taken from those researches will be discussed in detail.
Chapter 3 is research methodology;this chapter reveals the techniques, algorithms and related software that will be used for the project development. Besides that, it will also discuss about the process flow in detail of this research. Chapter 4 is implementation and testing. This chapter documenting all the process that involved in developing this system and the testing made to the system. Lastly, chapter 5, the conclusion concludes and come out with a summary about the developed project.

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Price: 6000 Naira (MSC)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0 Synopsis
The operation of any company is based on the contribution of staff either from executive level or operational level. For example, in a factory, the shop floor operation required full attendance of engineer, technical staff, and operation level staff before they start the operation. Therefore, the attendance system provides the information of the student existing to a particular lecture. Their information will help them to plan the operation and do any changes for any absent.
Attendance can be defined as the action of being present at one place or event
[1] For example present to somebody party or present to work in office. Attendance is one of the important factors in many institutions and organization that need to be followed by people
[2]. Staff attendance tracking is a common practice in almost all organizations or institution. It is highly important for one organization in order to maintain their performance standards.
[3]. In the previous implementation, there are various types of attendance systems that have been developed. For example: attendance systems by using pen and paper, using database, and also biometrics. These implementations still can cause lots of problems such as providing incorrect information to the users.
The purpose of this integrated attendance system is to computerized the traditional way of record attendance. Besides that it is used to create a combination of various types of attendance where users can either choose to use smart card or fingerprint technologies. For example, by using combination of both smart card and fingerprint technologies to record workers attendance, the attendance system can be strongly protected and the inappropriate manner of behaviors can be eliminated. If one of the devices is malfunction, the others can acts as backup.

1.1 Problem statement
For organization that use pen and paper to record their attendance, with the large number of staff in the organization, this will be a problem to the record keeper to keep track on staff attendance because by using pen and paper, one staff can help other staff to sign his/her attendance even though they do not go to work or either the staff are late to work.
With the existing approach, there is only a single input device use to record the student attendance either using smart card or fingerprint. If one university would like to have 2 different input of attendance system to provide interchangeable function, they will need to purchase both systems which will be costly. In addition, if one day the single input device suddenly breakdown, the attendance cannot be recorded.
Therefore, there is a need to develop an integrated attendance system with various type of input to fulfill student needs and requirements because it is flexible and it can bring convenient to the organization to summarize and manipulate staff information. Lack of effectiveness in their methods of record keeping, further compounds the problem.

1.2 Aims and objectives of the study
The aim of the study is to design and implementation of staff attendance system using finger print.
The objectives of this project are:
i. To develop an Integrated Staff Attendance System (ISAS) by using fingerprint technologies.
ii. To provide the potential users with the customize option of using both input device.
iii. To develop an algorithm for the student processing towards attendance system

1.3 Justification for the study
The use of staff attendance system is very important because of human being proneness to error, leaving the staff to write down their names might not be accurate as staff can even write attendance for their fellow staff and their handwriting legibility can be a case when compiling the attendance record at the end of the semester.
The official in charge of attendance collation is highly favored by this system because use of pen and paper as a means of collating staff attendance will leave the official in charge with numerous sheets of paper, which will be hectic as he/she has to start comparing several sheets to record the average attendance for just a staff. The official is going to waste a lot of time compiling the attendance percentage at the end of the semester, mistake can creep in due to the large volumes of papers.
Successful implementation of this project mean the student attendance credibility can be queried or put to test anytime, and result are produce fast and accuracy, without stress.

1.4 Methodology
An embedded system is a combination of softwareandhardwareto performadedicatedtask.Someof the maindevicesusedinembeddedproductsaremicroprocessorsand microcontrollers.In thisproject,afingerprint based attendance systemusingmicrocontrollerisimplemented.Microcontroller forms thecontrolling module and it istheheartofthedevice.Initiallythefingerprintofusers andthatwillbeverifiedwiththefingerprintthatwasgivingatthetime of registration.
Iftheboth fingerprints arematchedthen, it will be confirmed that the person should be mark present.Thetaskrelated instructions areloadedintothe microcontrollerwhichisprogrammedusingembeddedlanguage.The systemconsistsofMicrocontrollerUnit,Fingerprintmodule,LCD,aUSBsystem module to interact with the pc for reading and writing of dataand microcontrollerthatcollectdatafromthefingerprintmodule.Asitisbasedonthefingerprintauthentication thereisnochanceone student writing the name of is friend.
AfingerprintreadershowninFigure.3.1isthe inputdevice.Theflashmemorycomprisesoffingerprint templateandotherdetailsofthe person.
This is the design phase of the Biometric based Staff Attendance Register Software. It involved decomposing thewhole system into modules and defining the relationship among the constituent modules. Top down design approachwas employed which involved dividing the system into subsystems or modules and each subsystem being furtherdivided into even smaller subs. This process of division is repeated until each module is sufficiently small enough tobe conveniently coded (implemented) as an independent entity that performs a clearly defined operation.

Figure 1.1 Fingerprint Reader

1.4.1 Model Formulation
_ Fingerprint Acquisition
At the enrolment phase, the fingerprints would be acquired such that the print of the texture of the first finger (that isthe pointing finger) is obtained twice and analyzed for processing. The fingerprint samples would be stored in aMicrosoft SQL Server database with the aid of an interfaced fingerprint reader/scanner. The fingerprints are then tobe saved inside a database to cater for subsequent need for the various fingerprint analysis during matching.

_ Fingerprint Feature Extraction
In any fingerprint image, there are dark lines which are called ridges, whereas the spaces in between those darklines are called valleys. Ridges and valleys often run in parallel but there are two things that happen to any print. It iseither, the ridges and the valleys terminate or they bifurcate. Termination of a fingerprint is simply the situation inwhich a particular ridge ends abruptly while bifurcation is the situation by which the line splits into two. In the analysisof the fingerprint images during matching (authentication), the pattern of the fingerprint exhibits one or more regionswhere the ridge lines assume distinctive shapes; which are: loop, delta and whorl. If the fingerprint scan matches anyone stored in the database at the enrolment phase, the staff with the fingerprint will be updated as present for the
lecture.
_ Minutiae Extraction
Each fingerprint images in the database after enrolment will be processed in order to extract a unique feature calledminutiae. It is this unique feature that will be compared at the (authentication) matching phase. This requires thefingerprint grey-scale image to be converted into a binary image. The binary images obtained by the process aresubmitted to a thinning stage which allows for the ridge line thickness to be reduced to one pixel. Finally, a simpleimage scans allows the detection of pixels that correspond to minutiae through the pixel-wise computation ofcrossing number.

1.4.2 Workflow Development
1.4.3 Model Evaluation
The system consists of two main modules (phases); the enrolment module and the authentication (the attendance taking) module. The enrolment module can be referred to as the registration module. It starts with the taking offingerprint using the scanner, the fingerprint key features are extracted and the template gotten is then checked toverify if it has been taken before or not. If the fingerprint template is identified, the execution process will go back tothe line of code where fingerprint is being extracted, informing the user that ‘fingerprint template has been collectedbefore’. If the fingerprint template is not found, then it will be saved. This ensures that no single user can be enrolled(registered) more than once. Every successful fingerprint template is enrolled, and user’s details are saved alongsidewith the template. Figure ii depicts the enrollment flow process.
The authentication module verifies a registered (enrolled) user and allows the attendance to be taken. Itstarts with the taking of the finger print; the template of the finger print taken is extracted. The system goes ahead toverify the template to check if it has been pre stored (registered), so that it can match it with an existing templatetaken. If no finger print template has been pre-stored (matching unsuccessful), the system displays “PleaseRegister”. But if the matching is successful, the attendance status for the day is checked. If the fingerprint hasalready been matched for the lecture period, it displays. “Attendance Already Taken for period” and if not it goesahead to take the Staff’s Attendance. This ensures that the attendance cannot be taken more than once by the samestaff for the same lecture. The Admin views and generates reports of the staff using the attendance register of everyuser according to the time table. Figure iii depicts the authentication flow process.

1.5 Scope and limitation of the study
The scope of this study is to design and implement staff attendance system using finger print reader a case study of organization in Nigeria. The limitations of this study are:
1. Unavailability of academic materials
2. Transport problem
3. Lack of financial support
4. Lack of Time
5. Unavailability of programming software such as vb.Net, and Crystal report

1.6 Glossary of Operational Terms
Management: It is the co-ordination of all the resources of an organization through the process of planning organization, directing and controlling.
System: Physical component of a computer that is used to perform certain task.
Data: Numbers, Text or image which is in the form suitable for Storage in or processing by a computer, or incomplete Information.
Information: A meaning full material derived from computer data by organizing it and interpreting it in a specified way.
Input: Data entered into a computer for storage or processing.
Output: Information produced from a computer after processing.
Information System: A set of interrelated components that collect (or retrieve), process, store and distribute information to support decision making and control in an organization.
Computer: Computer is an electronic device that accepts data as Input, processes data and gives out information as output to the user
Software:-Software is set of related programs that are designed by the manufacturer to control the hardware and to enable the computer perform a given task.
Hardware: -Hardware is a physical part of a computer that can be touched, seen, feel which are been control by the software to perform a given task.
Database: -Database is the collection of related data in an organized form.
Programming:- programming is a set of coded instruction which the computers understands and obey.
Technology: -Technology is the branch of knowledge that deals with the creation and use technical and their interrelation with life, society and the environment, drawing upon such as industrial art, engineering, applied science and pure science.
Algorithm: A set of logic rules determined during the design phase of a data matching application. The ‘blueprint’ used to turn logic rules into computer instructions that detail what step to perform in what order.
Application: The final combination of software and hardware which performs the data matching.
Data matching database: A structured collection of records or data that is stored in a computer system.
Data cleansing: The proactive identification and correction of data quality issues which affect an agency’s ability to effectively use its data
Data integrity: The quality of correctness, completeness and complain with the intention of the creators of the data i.e. ‘fit for purpose’.
Enrollment: The process of an individual to enroll in an agency. Involves the initial collection of identifying details

1.8 projects Organization
This project consists of five (5) chapters. Chapter 1 discusses on the introduction of the system. The purpose of this chapter is to briefly explain about the overview system that is developed. This chapter also supply with the problem statements, objectives and the scope of the study.
Chapter 2 is literature review. As the name given the purpose of this chapter is to reviews the previous research works which was conducted by other researches. All the relevant journal, thesis and books taken from those researches will be discussed in detail.
Chapter 3 is research methodology;this chapter reveals the techniques, algorithms and related software that will be used for the project development. Besides that, it will also discuss about the process flow in detail of this research. Chapter 4 is implementation and testing. This chapter documenting all the process that involved in developing this system and the testing made to the system. Lastly, chapter 5, the conclusion concludes and come out with a summary about the developed project.

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