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impact of E-publishing in digital era

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study
The process of creating and disseminating information via electronic means including email and via the Web is electronic publishing. Electronically published materials may originate as traditional paper publishing or may be created specifically for electronic publishing. It is also known as: e-publishing, web publishing and internet publishing Kist (1989) defined electronic publishing as “the application by publishers of a computer aided process, by which they find, capture, shape, store and update information content in order to disseminate it to a chosen audience” From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, electronic publishing includes the digital publication of e-books and electronic articles, and the development of digital libraries and catalogues. A popular electronic encyclopedia, Grolier Electronic Publishing, 1995.
The information technology has changed the way that information is stored and disseminated and has threatened the traditional approaches to the library and its services. The digital revolution has taken on the world of publishing also. Now paperless publishing or electronic publishing is gaining more prominence.
In the changing scenario, libraries and librarians will have to play a crucial role in handling conventional and electronic resources. Thus the era of electronic publishing has begun affecting library and information professionals. The ultimate goal of electronic publishing is to provide fast and easy access to the information contained in the objective publications with simple, powerful search and retrieval capabilities.
Thus, e-publishing can be used effectively in the context of Dr. S.R. Ranganathan’s fourth law “Save the time of user” for many purposes. The U.G.C Infonet E-Jounrnal Consortium is a unique ICT programme for facilitating free electronic access to scholarly academic databases and journals to 100 universities
is the largest academic network in the world.
Electronic Publishing
It is basically a form of publishing in which books, journals and magazines are being produced and stored electronically rather than in print. These publications have all qualities of the normal publishing like the use of colours, graphics and images and they are much convenient also. It is the process for production of typeset quality documents containing text, graphics, pictures, tables, equations etc. it is used to define the production of any that is digitized form.
Electronic Publishing = Electronic Technology + Computer Technology + Communication Technology + Publishing
Kist (1989) defined electronic publishing as “the application by publishers of a computer aided process, by which they find, capture, shape, store and update information content in order to disseminate it to a chosen audience” From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, electronic publishing includes the digital publication of e-books and electronic articles, and the development of digital libraries and catalogues.
A popular electronic encyclopedia,Grolier Electronic Publishing, 1995 defines electronic publishing as:
l The term E-publishing refers more precisely to the storage and retrieval of information through electronic communications media. It can employ a variety of formats and technologies, some already in widespread use by businesses and
general consumers and others still being developed. E-publishing technology can be classified into two general categories:
l. one in which information is stored in a centralized computer source and delivered to the users by a telecommunications system, including online database services and videotext represents the most active area in E publishing today, and,
2. another in which the data is digitally stored on a disk or other physically deliverable medium.
1.2 Statement of the Study
The invention of printing technology in mid- 15th century revolutionized the production of books in printed form. Publication of books and journals on magnetic media microfilms and microfiche- followed suit in the 1930s. In fact, space problems, which the libraries were facing, led to the use of magnetic media publication of books. But this media could not find acceptance of their users due to various factors such as strain on eyes, cumbersome retrieval of information, etc. Meanwhile computing technology was developed in 1960s, and with it, some time later towards the end of 20th century, were invented other media such as optical discs, digital versatile discs for recording of information.
The 21st Century Electronic Publishing is basically a form of publishing in which books, journals and magazines are being produced and rendering journals a less than ideal format for disseminating current research. In some fields such as astronomy and some parts of physics, the role of the journal in disseminating the latest research has largely been replaced by preprint repositories. However, scholarly journals still play an important role in quality control and establishing scientific credit. In many instances, the electronic materials uploaded to preprint repositories are still intended for eventual publication in a peer-reviewed Journal. There is statistical evidence that electronic publishing provides wider dissemination. A number of journals have, while retaining their peer review process, established electronic versions or even moved entirely to electronic Publication. Electronic publishing is increasingly popular in works of fiction as well as with scientific articles. Electronic publishers are able to provide quick gratification for late-night readers, books that customers might not be able to find in standard book retailers E-Book format and books by new authors that would be unlikely to be profitable for traditional publishers. While the term “electronic publishing” is primarily used today to refer to the current offerings of online and web-based publishers, the term has a history of being used to describe the development of new forms of production, distribution, and user interaction in regard to computer-based production of text and other interactive media. The impact of electronic publishing on library collections, services and administration is complex. There are, however, many good usable solutions that libraries can learn from each other. No one needs to recreate the wheel to cope with e-publications. How the advent and increasing presence of electronic publishing will impact the people who will read them may ultimately be of more importance than what we will do with the machines, the storage media or the delivery mechanism.
The most recent trend in the book industry is the development of electronic books (or E-Books), which has the potential to be the most for-reaching change since Guntenberg’s invention.
1.3 Aim and Objective of the Study
The aim and objective of this study is to analyse the impact of E-publishing in digital era in our society and also examining and investigate how E-publishing improve the publishing of article, journal and other written content by scholar.
1.4 Significance of the Study
Projects provide a flexible framework for engaging students in exploring curricular topics and developing important 21st century skills, such as communication, teamwork, and technology skills. In addition, students are motivated by the fun and creative format and the opportunity to make new friends around the world. For this project will help in adding new content to body of knowledge and help others for further study.

1.5 Research Question
1. what is the impact of E-publishing in this digital era.
2. How did E-publishing improve the publishing of journal and other written content.
1.6 Research Methodology
This study shall majorly be constituted of articles culled from newspapers, journals, write-ups, opinions of authors and jurists and internet materials. This is due to the newness of this topic. However, some textbooks from some notable authors will also be considered.
1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The scope of this study is centred on the impact of E-publishing in digital era. In pursing this investigation and study, lots of impediments and obstruction were encountered as the research progressed. All these impediments brought about a conspicuous clause with the research work. They include, time constraint and financial conditions. Time was also limited to the researcher in carrying out the study effectively and efficiently. Financial condition prevailing within the economic system was a serious impediment. This includes transportation fare to and from school to get material. Also that of extracting the essential information either through printing or photocopying of relevant materials. Finance, thus contributed immensely to limit the entire scope of the research.
Although all these obstructions were envisaged and experienced, efforts were made to carry on with the research to achieve the expected and desired result.

1.8 Definition of Terms
Electronic Books (E-Books): The book is quiet popular document to meet the academic needs of user community. Publishing a book electronically is to achieve quick publishing and dissemination of information. A book may not have contemporary value that a journal has but it certainly has an archival and reference value.

Electronic Periodicals: Electronic Periodicals are accessible to all users regardless of geographic location. Anyone in the world with services and the proper computer software and browser services can access online journals.

Electronic Database: With the emergence of computers and communication technologies the strength of academic information system in the development of modern database has taken new shape. The holding of the academic library database consisting of books, periodicals, reports and theses can be converted to electronic form that allows access for public use through digital networks. The online electronic library card catalog (OPAC) shows how information could be published and that enable user to search the document with various access points like author, title, subjects.

Electronic Publishing on CD-ROM: CD-ROM has provided new dimension for information storage and retrieval. Publishing information mainly abstracting sources are quiet common in CD-ROM. Although much of the work on e-journals has concentrated on distribution via the Internet, there has been some work on CD-ROM as well.

Print-on-Demand (POD): Print-on-Demand is a new method for printing books. It is a mix of electronic and print publishing. The book is held by the publisher in electronic form and is printed out in the hard copy form only on order. This method helps free publishers from the process of doing a traditional print run of several thousand books at a time.

Digital Content: Digital Content Generally refers to the electronic delivery of fiction that is shorter than book-length, nonfiction, and other written works of shorter length.

Email Publishing: Email publishing is designed specifically for delivering regular content-based email messages. Email publishing, or newsletter publishing, is a popular choice among readers who enjoy the ease of receiving news items, articles and short newsletters in their email box.

Web Publishing: Web publishing is not a novel practice any longer, but it continues to change and develop with the introduction of new programming languages. HTML is still the most widely used web programming language, but XML is also making headway. XML is valuable because it allows publishers to create content and data that is portable to other devices. Nearly every company in the world has some type of website, and most media companies provide a large amount of web- based content.

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Price: 6000 Naira

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study
The process of creating and disseminating information via electronic means including email and via the Web is electronic publishing. Electronically published materials may originate as traditional paper publishing or may be created specifically for electronic publishing. It is also known as: e-publishing, web publishing and internet publishing Kist (1989) defined electronic publishing as “the application by publishers of a computer aided process, by which they find, capture, shape, store and update information content in order to disseminate it to a chosen audience” From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, electronic publishing includes the digital publication of e-books and electronic articles, and the development of digital libraries and catalogues. A popular electronic encyclopedia, Grolier Electronic Publishing, 1995.
The information technology has changed the way that information is stored and disseminated and has threatened the traditional approaches to the library and its services. The digital revolution has taken on the world of publishing also. Now paperless publishing or electronic publishing is gaining more prominence.
In the changing scenario, libraries and librarians will have to play a crucial role in handling conventional and electronic resources. Thus the era of electronic publishing has begun affecting library and information professionals. The ultimate goal of electronic publishing is to provide fast and easy access to the information contained in the objective publications with simple, powerful search and retrieval capabilities.
Thus, e-publishing can be used effectively in the context of Dr. S.R. Ranganathan’s fourth law “Save the time of user” for many purposes. The U.G.C Infonet E-Jounrnal Consortium is a unique ICT programme for facilitating free electronic access to scholarly academic databases and journals to 100 universities
is the largest academic network in the world.
Electronic Publishing
It is basically a form of publishing in which books, journals and magazines are being produced and stored electronically rather than in print. These publications have all qualities of the normal publishing like the use of colours, graphics and images and they are much convenient also. It is the process for production of typeset quality documents containing text, graphics, pictures, tables, equations etc. it is used to define the production of any that is digitized form.
Electronic Publishing = Electronic Technology + Computer Technology + Communication Technology + Publishing
Kist (1989) defined electronic publishing as “the application by publishers of a computer aided process, by which they find, capture, shape, store and update information content in order to disseminate it to a chosen audience” From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, electronic publishing includes the digital publication of e-books and electronic articles, and the development of digital libraries and catalogues.
A popular electronic encyclopedia,Grolier Electronic Publishing, 1995 defines electronic publishing as:
l The term E-publishing refers more precisely to the storage and retrieval of information through electronic communications media. It can employ a variety of formats and technologies, some already in widespread use by businesses and
general consumers and others still being developed. E-publishing technology can be classified into two general categories:
l. one in which information is stored in a centralized computer source and delivered to the users by a telecommunications system, including online database services and videotext represents the most active area in E publishing today, and,
2. another in which the data is digitally stored on a disk or other physically deliverable medium.
1.2 Statement of the Study
The invention of printing technology in mid- 15th century revolutionized the production of books in printed form. Publication of books and journals on magnetic media microfilms and microfiche- followed suit in the 1930s. In fact, space problems, which the libraries were facing, led to the use of magnetic media publication of books. But this media could not find acceptance of their users due to various factors such as strain on eyes, cumbersome retrieval of information, etc. Meanwhile computing technology was developed in 1960s, and with it, some time later towards the end of 20th century, were invented other media such as optical discs, digital versatile discs for recording of information.
The 21st Century Electronic Publishing is basically a form of publishing in which books, journals and magazines are being produced and rendering journals a less than ideal format for disseminating current research. In some fields such as astronomy and some parts of physics, the role of the journal in disseminating the latest research has largely been replaced by preprint repositories. However, scholarly journals still play an important role in quality control and establishing scientific credit. In many instances, the electronic materials uploaded to preprint repositories are still intended for eventual publication in a peer-reviewed Journal. There is statistical evidence that electronic publishing provides wider dissemination. A number of journals have, while retaining their peer review process, established electronic versions or even moved entirely to electronic Publication. Electronic publishing is increasingly popular in works of fiction as well as with scientific articles. Electronic publishers are able to provide quick gratification for late-night readers, books that customers might not be able to find in standard book retailers E-Book format and books by new authors that would be unlikely to be profitable for traditional publishers. While the term “electronic publishing” is primarily used today to refer to the current offerings of online and web-based publishers, the term has a history of being used to describe the development of new forms of production, distribution, and user interaction in regard to computer-based production of text and other interactive media. The impact of electronic publishing on library collections, services and administration is complex. There are, however, many good usable solutions that libraries can learn from each other. No one needs to recreate the wheel to cope with e-publications. How the advent and increasing presence of electronic publishing will impact the people who will read them may ultimately be of more importance than what we will do with the machines, the storage media or the delivery mechanism.
The most recent trend in the book industry is the development of electronic books (or E-Books), which has the potential to be the most for-reaching change since Guntenberg’s invention.
1.3 Aim and Objective of the Study
The aim and objective of this study is to analyse the impact of E-publishing in digital era in our society and also examining and investigate how E-publishing improve the publishing of article, journal and other written content by scholar.
1.4 Significance of the Study
Projects provide a flexible framework for engaging students in exploring curricular topics and developing important 21st century skills, such as communication, teamwork, and technology skills. In addition, students are motivated by the fun and creative format and the opportunity to make new friends around the world. For this project will help in adding new content to body of knowledge and help others for further study.

1.5 Research Question
1. what is the impact of E-publishing in this digital era.
2. How did E-publishing improve the publishing of journal and other written content.
1.6 Research Methodology
This study shall majorly be constituted of articles culled from newspapers, journals, write-ups, opinions of authors and jurists and internet materials. This is due to the newness of this topic. However, some textbooks from some notable authors will also be considered.
1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The scope of this study is centred on the impact of E-publishing in digital era. In pursing this investigation and study, lots of impediments and obstruction were encountered as the research progressed. All these impediments brought about a conspicuous clause with the research work. They include, time constraint and financial conditions. Time was also limited to the researcher in carrying out the study effectively and efficiently. Financial condition prevailing within the economic system was a serious impediment. This includes transportation fare to and from school to get material. Also that of extracting the essential information either through printing or photocopying of relevant materials. Finance, thus contributed immensely to limit the entire scope of the research.
Although all these obstructions were envisaged and experienced, efforts were made to carry on with the research to achieve the expected and desired result.

1.8 Definition of Terms
Electronic Books (E-Books): The book is quiet popular document to meet the academic needs of user community. Publishing a book electronically is to achieve quick publishing and dissemination of information. A book may not have contemporary value that a journal has but it certainly has an archival and reference value.

Electronic Periodicals: Electronic Periodicals are accessible to all users regardless of geographic location. Anyone in the world with services and the proper computer software and browser services can access online journals.

Electronic Database: With the emergence of computers and communication technologies the strength of academic information system in the development of modern database has taken new shape. The holding of the academic library database consisting of books, periodicals, reports and theses can be converted to electronic form that allows access for public use through digital networks. The online electronic library card catalog (OPAC) shows how information could be published and that enable user to search the document with various access points like author, title, subjects.

Electronic Publishing on CD-ROM: CD-ROM has provided new dimension for information storage and retrieval. Publishing information mainly abstracting sources are quiet common in CD-ROM. Although much of the work on e-journals has concentrated on distribution via the Internet, there has been some work on CD-ROM as well.

Print-on-Demand (POD): Print-on-Demand is a new method for printing books. It is a mix of electronic and print publishing. The book is held by the publisher in electronic form and is printed out in the hard copy form only on order. This method helps free publishers from the process of doing a traditional print run of several thousand books at a time.

Digital Content: Digital Content Generally refers to the electronic delivery of fiction that is shorter than book-length, nonfiction, and other written works of shorter length.

Email Publishing: Email publishing is designed specifically for delivering regular content-based email messages. Email publishing, or newsletter publishing, is a popular choice among readers who enjoy the ease of receiving news items, articles and short newsletters in their email box.

Web Publishing: Web publishing is not a novel practice any longer, but it continues to change and develop with the introduction of new programming languages. HTML is still the most widely used web programming language, but XML is also making headway. XML is valuable because it allows publishers to create content and data that is portable to other devices. Nearly every company in the world has some type of website, and most media companies provide a large amount of web- based content.

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